|Etymology: Jal (bright) and Rez (land)|
|• Governor||Naqibullah Haidari|
|• Total||1,139 km2 (440 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,375 m (7,792 ft)|
|• Density||65/km2 (170/sq mi)|
|Time zone||+ 4.30|
Jalrez (Pashto/Dari : جلرېز) is a district in the west of Maidan Shar, Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan. The main town lies at Jalrez, which is 62.9 kilometres (39.1 mi) southwest of the centre of Kabul via the main Kabul-Behsud Highway. The district is a major producer of potatoes.
Jalrez lay along the Silk Road between Kabul and Bamyan. The name is believed to derive from the Dari words "jal", meaning 'light reflection' and "rez" meaning 'to pour', possibly related to the confluence of two rivers in the area. Prior to 1964, Jalrez District belonged to the Maidan alaqadari (subdistrict) of Kabul province.
Due to its strategical importance geographical, Jalrez has a long history of conflict, which has capitulated since the Saur Revolution of 1978. Jalrez was one of the first districts to be captured by the mujahedin in 1979 during the war against the Soviet-backed Afghan communist regime. The mujahedin crossed the Onai Pass in the spring, taking Sarchashma and burning the school there, before moving on to take Takana and Jalrez in the district. Their control ended at the end of the year when a Soviet strike killed 60 to 70 of the mujahedin. An allegiance of jihadi tanzim groups such as Mawlawi Muhammad Nabi Muhammadi's Harakat-e Enqelab-e Islami and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-e Islami united in the spring to recapture the district. During the Afghan Civil War of 1992–96, the jihadi tanzims concentrated most of their efforts in the Kabul area, and there were only a few skirmishes against Wahdat and Ettehad forces in Jalrez district. The Taliban has reemerged since 2003 and the area is subject to ongoing conflict. The Taliban attacked the town of Kot-e Ashro in 2006, which was the former seat of the district.
According to the National Statistics and Information Authority (NSIA)’s annual survey book, the district had approximately 57,870 people in 2018-19.In July 2019, a 203rd "Thunder" Corps airstrike killed 15 Taliban militants in Nirk District, including Qari Syed Agha, a commander of the Haqqani terrorist network who was based in Zaiwalat in Jalrez District. On 21 Mat 2021 Jalrez district was captured by Taliban after five-days long siege.
Jalrez District is situated in the central-east part of the country in Maidan Wardak Province, with the district town of Jalrez lying 62.9 kilometres (39.1 mi) by road southwest of the centre of Kabul. The district is bordered by Hisa-I-Awali Bihsud District to the west, Daimirdad District to the southwest, Nirkh District to the southeast, Maidan Shar District to the east-southeast, Parwan Province to the north and Kabul Province to the east-northeast. The district is dominated by the Jalrez Valley, with a length of 37 kilometres (23 mi), and numerous secondary valleys.
The principal rivers are the Sarchashma River, the upstream part of the Kabul River which passes through the Onai Pass, and the Sanglakh River, which flows through the valley of the same name.
The district is divided into five administrative sub-units (hawzaha-ye edari):
Jalriz district is a multi-ethnical area within Wardak province. There is not any demographic census based on ethnicity but majority of people living in this district are Tajiks (absolute majority in the center) with a significant number of Hazara and Shia Uzbek population. In addition, a small number of Pashtuns live in this district as well.
The district is a major producer and exporter of potatoes, but also produces apples, onions, rice, wheat, barley, mung beans, spinach, carrots, almonds, apricots and spinach. In 2008 there were 134,700 livestock in the district, of which 50,000 were sheep.
As of 2018 Jalrez has nine high schools, 11 middle schools and nine primary schools, run by the Ministry of Education (MoE) in conjunction with local councils and the education commission of the Taliban. There were a reported 358 teachers, of which 41 were women.The five health clinics in the district, consisting of one comprehensive health centre, three basic health centres and one sub-health centre as of 2018 were owned by the state and operated by the Swedish Committee for Afghanistan (SCA).
The main road in the district is the Kabul-Behsud Highway, which passes through the southern centre and passing through the town of Jalrez. There is a fork in the road near the village of Zarkjarid about 45 kilometres (28 mi) west of Jalrez town, with the highway continuing to Daimirdad district, and another leading to Hisa-I-Awali Bihsud district and Bamyan in the northwest. There is another main road through the valley to the north of Jalrez. In 2008-2010 The Ministry of Public Works was still in the process of rehabilitating 136 kilometres of the Kabul highway in the district, aided by 36 million euros funding from the Italian government. The first phase of the project, Lot No 1, began in 2008 with the rehabilitation of a 54 kilometre stretch of earth road starting in Maidan Shar and working towards the Onai Pass.
Hazārajāt or Hazāristān (هزارستان) is a mountainous region in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Koh-i-Baba mountains in the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. It is the homeland of the Hazara people who make up the majority of its population. "Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone." Hazarajat is primarily made up of the provinces of Bamyan, Daykundi, Ghor and large parts of Ghazni, Urozgan, Parwan, Maidan Wardak and more. The most populous towns in Hazarajat are Bamyan, Yakawlang (Bamyan), Nili (Daykundi), Lal wa Sarjangal (Ghor), Sang-e-Masha (Ghazni), Gizab (Urozgan) and Behsud. The Kabul, Farah, Hari, Murghab, Balkh and Kunduz rivers originate from Hazarajat.
Maidan Wardak Province, also called Maidan Wardag or Maidan, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central region of Afghanistan. It is divided into eight districts and has a population of approximately 671,817. The capital of the province is Maidan Shar, while the most populous district in the province is Saydabad District. The name of the province is called "Wardak" as stated by the Afghan constitution and IDLG approved documents.
The Kabul–Kandahar Highway (NH0101) is a 483-kilometer (300 mi) road linking Afghanistan's two largest cities, Kabul and Kandahar, passing through Maidan Shar, Saydabad, Ghazni, and Qalati Ghilji. This highway is a key portion of Afghanistan's national highway system or "National Highway 1". The entire highway from Kandahar to Kabul is on flat surface, with no mountain passes. Approximately 35 percent of Afghanistan's population lives within 50 km (31 mi) of the Kabul to Kandahar portion of the Ring Road.
Bamyan also spelled Bamiyan or Bamian is the capital of Bamyan Province in central Afghanistan. With an altitude of about 2,550 m and a population of about 100,000, Bamyan is the largest town in the central Afghanistan region of Hazarajat, and lies approximately 240 kilometres north-west of Kabul, the national capital. It also refers to the surrounding valley. Many statues of Buddha are carved into the sides of cliffs facing Bamyan city. In 2008, Bamyan was found to be the home of the world's oldest oil paintings. The city of Bamyan has four districts and a total land area of 3,539 hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 4,435.
The Kabul River, the classical Cophen, is a 700-kilometre-long (430 mi) river that emerges in Maidan Wardak Province in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan, and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand River by the Unai Pass. The Kabul River empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan. It is the main river in eastern Afghanistan and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
This is a list of districts of Afghanistan, known as wuleswali. These are secondary level administrative units, one level below the provinces. The Afghan government issued its first district map in 1973. It recognized 325 districts, counting wuleswalis (districts), alaqadaries (sub-districts), and markaz-e-wulaiyat. In the ensuing years additional districts have been added through splits, and a few eliminated through mergers. In June 2005, the Afghan government issued a map of 398 districts. It was widely adopted as by many information management systems, though usually with the addition of Sharak-e-Hayratan for a 399 district total. Here is a link to a clean rendering of the 399 district set as a spreadsheet from an official Afghan source. It remains the de facto standard, as of late 2018, despite a string of government announcements of the creation of new districts.
Maidan Shar, also Maidan Shahr or simply Maidan, is the capital of Wardak Province in central Afghanistan. Its population was estimated to be 35,008 in 2003, of which 85% are Pashtuns, and a smaller number of Hazaras and Tajiks forming the rest.
The Hajigak Pass is situated at a height of 3,700 metres (12,100 ft) above sea-level in the northern part of Maidan Wardak province, connecting it with Bamyan province to the northwest. It is one of the two main routes from Kabul to Bamyan in Hazarajat, leading across the Koh-i-Baba range.
Hajii Sher Alam Ibrahimi was the governor of Ghazni Province from around 2005–2006 until 2007 and is a major commander aligned with Ittihad-i Islami and Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, having fought with him in the Afghan Civil War.
The Behsud or Behsudi, are one of the major tribe of the Hazara people of Hazarajat, Afghanistan. They inhabit the Markaz Besud and Hisa-I-Awali Bihsud and Hisa-i-Duwum, Jalrez, Dai Mirdad and Chak districts of Maidan Wardak Province, Nawur and Jaghatu districts of Ghazni Province, Panjaw and Waras districts of Bamyan Province.
Hisa-e-Awali Behsud is a district of Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan. The district has a Hazara majority resident population, but the district is also used as grazing ground by nomadic Pashtun Kuchis. The Hajigak Mine is located in the district.
Markaz-i Bihsūd District is one of the districts of Maidan Wardak Province in Afghanistan. It is located less than an hour-drive west of Kabul and south Bamyan. The main town in the district is Behsud. The district has an estimated population of 134,852 people, majority of which are ethnic Hazaras.
National Highway 01 or NH01, formally called the Ring Road, is an 2,200 kilometres (1,400 mi) two-lane road network circulating inside Afghanistan, connecting the following major cities (clockwise): Kabul, Maidan Shar, Ghazni, Kandahar, Delaram, Herat, Maymana, Sheberghan, Mazari Sharif, Puli Khumri and back to Kabul. The route is 2400 kilometer from Chittagong near the Myanmar border to Kabul connecting Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. It has extensions that also connect Jalalabad, Bamyan, Khost, Lashkargah, Zaranj, Farah, Islam Qala, Torghundi, and Kunduz. It is part of AH1, the longest route of the Asian Highway Network. National Highway 01 is broken up into four major sections, NH0101-0104, linking the major economic centers of Afghanistan.
Behsud may refer to:
Behsūd is a town in Maidan Wardak Province, central Afghanistan. It is the administrative center of Markazi Bihsud District.
The Onai Pass or Unai Pass is a mountain pass on the western side of the Paghman Mountains in Jalrez District, Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan. It is of strategical importance due to its geographical location to the southwest of Kabul. The Sarchashma River flows through the pass, which is the upstream part of the Kabul River. The Maidan River, a tributary of the Kabul/Sarchashma rises at the pass at an altitude of about 3,300 metres (10,800 ft).
Kot-e Ashro is a small town in the western Paghman Mountains of Jalrez District, Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan. It was formerly the district capital until it was taken by the Taliban in 2006. The town lies along the Kabul-Behsud Highway, 14.6 kilometres (9.1 mi) by road northwest of Maidan Shar.
Zaiwalat, also Zaywalāyat or Zywlayt is a subdistrict and village of Jalrez District, Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan. It lies along the Kabul-Behsud Highway, to the west of Kot-e Ashro and to the east of the town of Jalrez. As of 2010 the village itself had a population of about 300 people. It is inhabited mainly by Pashtuns and is a producer of fruit, with extensive orchards in the vicinity.
Takana, also Takānah-ye Bālā, is a subdistrict and village of Jalrez District, Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan. It lies along the Kabul-Behsud Highway, to the west of the town of Jalrez.
The Kabul–Behsud Highway, formally National Highway 13, NH13, is a highway connecting Kabul in Afghanistan to Behsud in the west, passing through Maidan Wardak Province. It is cited as a highly dangerous route, prone to hijackings, beheadings, kidnappings and robberies, particularly in the districts of Jalrez and Markazi Bihsud, and has obtained the moniker "Death Road" due to the frequency of Taliban killings along the route.