James A. Ryder
|2nd President of Saint Joseph's College|
|Preceded by||Felix-Joseph Barbelin|
|Succeeded by||James A. Ward|
|20th & 23rd President of Georgetown College|
|Preceded by||Thomas F. Mulledy|
|Succeeded by||Charles H. Stonestreet|
|Preceded by||Joseph A. Lopez|
|Succeeded by||Samuel Mulledy|
|2nd President of the College of the Holy Cross|
|Preceded by||Thomas F. Mulledy|
|Succeeded by||John Early|
|Born||October 8, 1800|
|Died||January 12, 1860 59) (aged|
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Resting place||Jesuit Community Cemetery|
|Alma mater||Georgetown College|
James A. Ryder(October 8, 1800 – January 12, 1860) was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit who became the president of several Jesuit universities in the United States. Born in Ireland, he immigrated with his widowed mother to the United States as a child, to settle in Georgetown, in the District of Columbia. He enrolled at Georgetown College and then entered the Society of Jesus. Studying in Maryland and Rome, Ryder proved to be a talented student of theology and was made a professor. He returned to Georgetown College in 1829, where he was appointed to senior positions and founded the Philodemic Society, becoming its first president.
In 1840, Ryder became the president of Georgetown College, and oversaw the construction of the university's Astronomical Observatory, as well as Georgetown's legal incorporation by the United States Congress. He earned a reputation as a skilled orator and preacher. His term ended in 1843 with his appointment as provincial superior of the Jesuit Maryland Province. As provincial, he laid the groundwork for the transfer of ownership of the newly established College of the Holy Cross from the Diocese of Boston to the Society of Jesus. Two years later, Ryder became the second president of the College of the Holy Cross, and oversaw the construction of a new wing. He returned to Georgetown in 1848 for a second term as president, and accepted a group of local physicians to form the Georgetown School of Medicine, constructed a new home for Holy Trinity Church, and quelled a student rebellion.
In his later years, Ryder went to Philadelphia, where he assisted with the founding of Saint Joseph's College and became its second president in 1856. He became the pastor of St. John the Evangelist Church in Philadelphia, and then transferred to St. John the Evangelist Church in Frederick, Maryland, as pastor. Finally, he returned to Philadelphia, where he died in 1860.
James Ryder was born on October 8, 1800, in Dublin, in the Kingdom of Ireland. He emigrated to the United States as a young boy with his mother, who was widowed by James' father, a Protestant who died when he was a child. She took up residence in Georgetown, then a city in the newly formed District of Columbia.Ryder enrolled at Georgetown College on August 29, 1813, and entered the Society of Jesus in 1815 as a novice, at the age of fifteen. He began his novitiate in White Marsh, Maryland, before being sent to Rome in the summer of 1820 by Peter Kenney, the apostolic visitor to the Jesuit's Maryland mission.
He was sent alongside five other American Jesuits, who would go on to become influential in the administration of the Society in the United States for several decades. Among these, Ryder and Charles Constantine Pise were identified as the most intellectually advanced.They left from Alexandria, Virginia, on June 6, 1820, and landed in Gibraltar to be quarantined, before traveling to Naples on July 13 and then on to Rome in late August, where Ryder studied theology and philosophy.
There, he was ordained a priest in 1824,and proceeded to teach theology at the Roman College. He then went to teach theology and sacred scripture at the University of Spoleto, where he remained for two years. He became a good friend of Archbishop Giovanni Mastai-Ferretti (later Pope Pius IX), who appointed him the chair of philosophy. Ryder also spent part of 1828 teaching in Orvieto.
Ryder returned to the United States in 1829, where he took up a professorship in philosophy and theology at Georgetown, to teach Jesuit scholastics.He was named the prefect of studies, where he implemented an overhaul of the curriculum under the direction of President Thomas F. Mulledy; he was simultaneously made vice president of the school. It was during this time that Ryder founded the Philodemic Society, of which he became the first president.
Founded on January 17, 1830, it was the first collegiate debating society in the United States, and it was Ryder who selected the name.He was also appointed by Peter Kenney as minister and admonitor to Mulledy. In this role, he received a severe lecture from Kenney in 1832 for not properly welcoming six Belgian Jesuits who arrived at the college. In 1834, Ryder became a professor of rhetoric at the university.
In an 1835 speech to Catholics in Richmond, Virginia, he called upon Catholics to defend national unity, which included opposing the efforts of Northern abolitionists to abolish slavery in the South; he warned Catholics that they would themselves become victims of persecution if their "glorious system of national independence" were to be overthrown.
The appointment of Ryder as president of Georgetown College was announced on May 1, 1840.His selection came despite concerns that he was more interested in giving talks and leading retreats than ensuring the institution was financially stable. Although he had the support of the Jesuit leadership, the Superior General of the Jesuits, Jan Roothaan, was worried that Ryder's American attitude in support of republicanism would take priority over his obedience to the Jesuits.
Succeeding Joseph A. Lopez,he entered office while the Provincial Council of Baltimore was in progress, and the council fathers who were gathered in Baltimore took the opportunity to visit Georgetown. As president, Ryder's connections with Washington's politicians were strong. He had a particularly good relationship with the President of the United States, John Tyler, who enrolled his son at Georgetown, and whose sister converted to Catholicism. Their relationship went so far that Ryder played a significant role in the unsuccessful attempt to have Tyler run as a Democrat in the 1844 presidential election.
Upon assuming the presidency, Ryder inherited a significant debt of $20,000 (equivalent to $510,000in 2019 ), which he liquidated by 1842, at least part of it being paid by Ryder himself from monies he earned lecturing. Ryder had gained a reputation for talent in preaching, which he did without notes. This was particularly admired by Archbishop Samuel Eccleston, and Roothaan cited it as a source of many conversions to Catholicism.
Word of his preaching reached President James Buchanan, who would attend his sermons and who received private instruction in Catholicism from him.Eventually, Ryder was described as the most well-known Catholic preacher in antebellum America. Twice during his presidency stones were thrown at him in the streets of Washington, one of these incidents occurring on April 26, 1844, as he was returning from the Capitol Building, where he had presided over the funeral of Representative Pierre Bossier. Such anti-Catholic aggression was the outgrowth of the Know Nothing movement in the United States.
Ryder oversaw the establishment of the Georgetown College Observatory in 1842, a project spearheaded by James Curley.The opening of the observatory attracted several renowned Jesuit scientists from Europe who were fleeing the Revolutions of 1848. Moreover, the College of the Holy Cross was established in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1843, and Ryder sent Jesuits from Georgetown to teach there, while graduates of the new college received a degree from Georgetown until it was independently chartered by the Massachusetts General Court. Through having been recognized by the United States Congress in 1815, the university, as the President and Directors of Georgetown College, was officially incorporated by an act of Congress in 1844, and Ryder was named as one of the five members of the corporation. His term came to an end on January 10, 1845, when he was succeeded by Samuel A. Mulledy.
In 1848, Ryder was appointed president of Georgetown for a second time, replacing Thomas Mulledy.His first act was to build a new edifice for Holy Trinity Catholic Church in the Georgetown neighborhood, which was then located on college property. He also implemented his fervent support for temperance by prohibiting students from consuming alcohol on or off campus, and eventually applied this ban to the Jesuits as well. This unpopular policy was accompanied by a ban on smoking.
In the fall of 1849,Ryder was approached by four physicians who had been excluded from the Washington Infirmary and established a new medical faculty. They asked that their faculty be incorporated into Georgetown as its medical department, creating the first Catholic medical school in the United States. Ryder accepted the proposition within a week, giving rise to the Georgetown College School of Medicine. He appointed the four petitioners as the first professors of the school on November 5, 1849, and the first classes were held in May 1851.
A rebellion broke out among the students in 1850. It began when members of the Philodemic Society held a meeting one day, in defiance of the prefect's order to the contrary.Ryder, who frequently left the college to preach, had been away for several weeks on a preaching tour. In response, the prefect suspended the society's meetings for one month. Upset at this decision, several members refused to perform their nightly reading at the refectory, and later threw stones in the dormitory. When Ryder returned, he expelled three students. One of these entered the refectory that night and incited the students to insurrection, who stormed a Jesuit's room. 44 of the students abandoned the college for downtown Washington and wrote Ryder that they would not return until the three were re-admitted and the prefect replaced. With the students' hotel bills mounting and going unpaid, Ryder convinced them to return to the college and quit the rebellion. He later replaced the prefect with Bernard A. Maguire.
Later that year, Ryder presided over the marriage of William Tecumseh Sherman and Eleanor Boyle Ewing.His presidency came to an end in 1851, and Ryder was replaced by Charles H. Stonestreet.
In September 1843, while president of Georgetown, Ryder was appointed the provincial superior of the Maryland Province of the Society of Jesus, with the strong support of his predecessor, Francis Dzierozynski.Ryder voiced support that the Jesuits should sell their parochial property, leaving this to diocesan priests, to instead focus on education in cities.
At the same time, the Bishop of Boston, Benedict Joseph Fenwick, had become concerned with the cost of operating the newly established College of the Holy Cross. Therefore, he encouraged Ryder to accept ownership of the school on behalf of the Society of Jesus. The Superior General, Roothaan, delegated this decision to Ryder, who was initially hesitant to accept the college. By 1844, Ryder had privately decided to agree to the transfer,but this was not communicated to Fenwick and the deal formally struck until 1845 by Ryder's successor.
Ryder delegated much of his responsibility, though he remained in charge.He held the post until 1845; Jan Roothaan believed the province had to be put under the control of a European to rectify the compounding scandal and mismanagement that had begun under Thomas Mulledy. To that end, he was replaced by Peter Verhaegen of Belgium.
After his first presidency at Georgetown ended in 1845, Ryder went to Rome to clear his name in light of suspicions of his relationship with a woman who had exchanged letters with him.He traveled to Rome in January by way of New York City and France. In Italy, he recruited eight Jesuits to join him in the United States. One of these was a future president of the College of the Holy Cross, Anthony F. Ciampi. Upon Ryder's return, suspicions continued, despite his defense that the correspondence involved only spiritual counseling, but they finally ceased following Roothaan's order in 1847 that the correspondence end.
Upon returning to the United States, he was appointed by Bishop Fenwick as president of the College of the Holy Cross on October 9, 1845, succeeding the school's first president, Thomas F. Mulledy.As president, he oversaw the construction of an east wing at the college, in accordance with the original plan for the school, which contained a dining room, chapel, study hall, and dormitory. This wing was the only part of the school spared by a subsequent fire in 1852. In 1846, he saw to the burial of the founder of the institution, Fenwick, in the college cemetery, pursuant to his wishes. The number of students increased during his administration.
Ryder clashed with Thomas Mulledy during Mulledy's election as procurator of the Jesuits' Maryland province.As a result, he praised Ignatius Brocard's decision not to send Mulledy back to the College of the Holy Cross, where Mulledy was greatly disliked. The lack of discipline among the Jesuits at Holy Cross drew the commentary of both the Bishop of Boston, John Bernard Fitzpatrick, and Roothaan, who were particularly concerned with the propensity for drinking among the priests. Upon the end of his standard three-year term, Ryder was succeeded by John Early on August 29, 1848, and he returned to Georgetown.
In 1851, he moved to Philadelphia, where he assisted in the founding of Saint Joseph's College.He was made the pastor of St. John the Evangelist Church on September 30, 1855, when he replaced Richard Kinahan to become the first Jesuit in this position, and remained until he was succeeded by John McGuigan on October 4, 1858.
In the meantime, he was appointed the president of Saint Joseph's College in 1856, following its first president Felix-Joseph Barbelin. Ryder sought to relocate the college from Willings Alley to the existing school building at St. John's, which would involve the transfer in ownership of the pro-cathedral from the Diocese of Philadelphia to the Jesuits; the diocese was unwilling to entertain this offer.
In light of the ongoing Know Nothing movement, Ryder was referred to for some time as "Doctor Ryder" rather than "Father Ryder". He also wore layman's clothes, such as a bow tie rather than a Roman collar, in accordance with the orders of Charles Stonestreet, the Maryland provincial, that the Jesuits should not wear their clerical attire. Ryder's tenure lasted only until 1857 before he was succeeded by James A. Ward. He was forced to resign the presidency due to his deteriorating health, though his likeness endures in the form of a gargoyle of Barbelin Hall.
Because of his oratorical skills, Ryder was sent to raise money for St. Joseph's College in California in 1852, where he raised $5,000 (equivalent to $150,000in 2019 ). While there, he fell ill, and briefly went to Havana, Cuba, and then to the Southern United States, where he recuperated for several months. He was then stationed at St. Joseph's until 1856, when he was made the rector of St. John the Evangelist Church in Frederick, Maryland.
In 1857, he was transferred to Alexandria, Virginia to do pastoral work, and he returned to Philadelphia in 1859 as spiritual prefect at St. Joseph's College.Ryder died on January 12, 1860, in the rectory of Old St. Joseph's Church in Philadelphia, following a brief illness. His body was transported back to Georgetown to be buried in the Jesuit Community Cemetery.
John Early was an Irish-American Catholic priest and Jesuit educator who was the president of the College of the Holy Cross and Georgetown University, as well as the founder and first president of Loyola College in Maryland. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to the United States at the age of nineteen. Upon his arrival, he enrolled at Mount St. Mary's Seminary in Maryland, and entered the Society of Jesus, completing his education at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.
Samuel Cahill was an American Roman Catholic Jesuit priest and academic. He served as President of the College of the Holy Cross from 1887 to 1889.
In 1838, 272 men, women, and children were sold by the Maryland Jesuits; a portion of the proceeds was used to pay the debts of Georgetown College, also run by the Jesuits. The slaves had lived on plantations belonging to the Jesuits in Maryland, and they were sold to Henry Johnson and Jesse Batey. The sale price was $115,000, equivalent to $2,761,078 in 2019. Of the $25,000 down-payment, $17,000 was used to pay down building debt that Thomas F. Mulledy, the provincial superior who orchestrated the sale, had accrued as president of Georgetown College.
The Jesuit Community Cemetery on the campus of Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. is the final resting place for Jesuits who were affiliated with the university. It was first established in 1808 and was moved to its present location in 1854.
Bernard A. Maguire was an Irish-American Catholic priest and Jesuit who served twice as the president of Georgetown University. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to the United States at the age of six, and his family settled in Maryland. Maguire attended Saint John's College in Frederick, Maryland, and then entered the Society of Jesus in 1837. He continued his studies at Georgetown University, where he also taught and was prefect, until his ordination to the priesthood in 1851.
Thomas F. Mulledy was an American Catholic priest from Virginia who became the president of Georgetown College, a founder of the College of the Holy Cross, and a prominent 19th-century leader of the Jesuits in the United States. His brother, Samuel Mulledy, also became a Jesuit and president of Georgetown.
James Aloysius Doonan was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit, who was the president of Georgetown University from 1882 to 1888. During that time he oversaw the naming of Gaston Hall and the construction of a new building for the School of Medicine. Doonan also acquired two historic cannons that were placed in front of Healy Hall. He was a financially successful president, reducing the university's burdensome debt that had accrued during the construction of Healy Hall.
Anthony F. Ciampi was an Italian-American priest of the Catholic Church and member of the Society of Jesus.
Joseph Havens Richards was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit who became a prominent president of Georgetown University, where he instituted major reforms and significantly increased the quality and stature of the university. Born to a prominent Ohio family, his father was an Episcopal priest who controversially converted to Catholicism, and had the infant Richards secretly baptized as a Catholic. Richards eventually entered the Society of Jesus.
Charles Henry Stonestreet was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit who served in prominent religious and academic positions, including as provincial superior of the Jesuit Maryland Province and president of Georgetown University. He was born in Maryland and attended Georgetown University, where he co-founded the Philodemic Society. After entering the Society of Jesus and becoming a professor at Georgetown, he led St. John's Literary Institution and St. John the Evangelist Church in Frederick, Maryland. He was appointed president of Georgetown University in 1851, holding the office for two years, during which time he oversaw expansion of the university's library. The First Plenary Council of Baltimore was held at Georgetown during his tenure.
William McSherry was an American Catholic priest who became the president of Georgetown College and a prominent 19th-century leader of the Jesuits in the United States. The son of Irish immigrants, McSherry was educated at Georgetown College, where he entered the Society of Jesus. As one of the first Americans to complete the traditional Jesuit course of training, he was sent to Rome to be educated for the priesthood. There, he made several discoveries of significant, forgotten holdings in the Jesuit archives, which improved historians' knowledge of the early European settling of Maryland and of the language of Indian tribes there.
Joseph Anton Lopez was a Mexican Catholic priest and Jesuit. Born in Michoacán, he studied canon law at the Colegio de San Nicolás and the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. He became acquainted with the future Empress consort Ana María Huarte and was made chaplain to the future imperial family. He was later put in charge of the education of all the princes in Mexico. Lopez was a close ally of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide, residing in Madrid for four years as his attorney and political informant, and accompanying him during his exile to Italy and England.
John William Beschter was a Catholic priest and Jesuit from the Duchy of Luxembourg in the Austrian Netherlands. He emigrated to the United States as a missionary in 1807, where he ministered in rural Pennsylvania and Maryland. Beschter was the last Jesuit pastor of St. Mary's Church in Lancaster, as well as the pastor of St. John the Evangelist Church in Baltimore, Maryland. He was also a priest at several other German-speaking churches in Pennsylvania.
Samuel A. Mulledy was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit who served as president of Georgetown College in 1845. Born in Virginia, he was the brother of Thomas F. Mulledy, who was a prominent 19th-century Jesuit in the United States and a president of Georgetown. As a student at Georgetown, Samuel was one of the founding members of the Philodemic Society, and proved to be a distinguished student, which resulted in his being sent to Rome to complete his higher education and be ordained to the priesthood. Upon his return to the United States, he became the master of novices at the Jesuit novitiate in Maryland, before being named president of Georgetown. He sought to be relieved of the position after only a few months, and returned to teaching and ministry.
William Feiner was a German Catholic priest and Jesuit who became a missionary to the United States and eventually the president of Georgetown College, now known as Georgetown University.
Enoch Fenwick was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit, who ministered throughout Maryland and became the president of Georgetown College. Descending from one of the original Catholic settlers of the British Maryland Province, he studied at Georgetown College in Washington, D.C. Like his brother and future bishop, Benedict Joseph Fenwick, he entered the priesthood, studying at St. Mary's Seminary, before entering the Society of Jesus, which was suppressed at the time. He was made rector of St. Peter's Pro-Cathedral in Baltimore by Archbishop John Carroll, and remained in the position for ten years. Near the end of his pastorate, he was also made vicar general of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, which involved traveling to say Mass in remote parishes throughout rural Maryland.
Jerome Daugherty was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit who served in many different capacities at Jesuit institutions throughout the northeast United States, eventually becoming president of Georgetown University in 1901. Born in Baltimore, he was educated at Loyola College in Maryland, before entering the Society of Jesus and becoming a member of the first class at Woodstock College. He then taught various subjects, including mathematics, Latin, Ancient Greek, rhetoric, and the humanities in Massachusetts, New York City, and Washington, D.C., and served as minister at many of the institutions there.
John Dunning Whitney was an American Catholic priest and Jesuit who became president of Georgetown University in 1898. Born in Massachusetts, he joined the United States Navy at the age of sixteen, where he was introduced to Catholicism by way of a book that accidentally came into his possession, and prompted him to become a Catholic. He entered the Society of Jesus and spent the next twenty-five years studying and teaching mathematics at Jesuit institutions around the world, including in Canada, England, Ireland, and around the United States in New York, Maryland, Boston, and Louisiana. He became the vice president of Spring Hill College in Alabama, before being appointed President of Georgetown University.
Francis Dzierozynski was a Polish Catholic priest and Jesuit who became a prominent missionary to the United States. Born in the town of Orsha, in the Russian Empire, he entered the Society of Jesus and was ordained a priest in 1806. He taught and studied in Polotsk and Mogilev until leading students in an escape from the French invasion of Russia in 1812. He returned to Polotsk, where he taught until the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Russian Empire in 1820. Thereafter, he took up teaching in Bologna, Italy.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to James A. Ryder .|
Joseph A. Lopez
as Acting President
|20th President of Georgetown College |
Thomas F. Mulledy
|2nd President of the College of the Holy Cross |
Thomas F. Mulledy
|23rd President of Georgetown College |
Charles H. Stonestreet
|2nd President of Saint Joseph's College |
James A. Ward
|Catholic Church titles|
as Vice-Provincial Superior
|4th Provincial Superior of the Jesuit Maryland Province |
| Pastor of the Church of St. John the Evangelist |