James Cornwallis, 4th Earl Cornwallis

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The Earl Cornwallis

Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry
Bp James 4th Earl Cornwallis.jpg
Diocese Diocese of Lichfield and Coventry
In office1781–1824
Predecessor Richard Hurd
Successor Henry Ryder
Personal details
Born(1743-02-25)25 February 1743
Died20 January 1824(1824-01-20) (aged 80)
Nationality British
Denomination Anglican
SpouseCatherine Mann
Children James Mann, 5th Earl Cornwallis
Education Eton College
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford

James Cornwallis, 4th Earl Cornwallis (25 February 1743 – 20 January 1824) was a British clergyman, and peer.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Clergy formal leaders within established religions

Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the terms used for individual clergy are clergyman, clergywoman, and churchman. Less common terms are churchwoman and clergyperson, while cleric and clerk in holy orders both have a long history but are rarely used.

A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks.

Contents

Life

He was the third son of Charles Cornwallis, 1st Earl Cornwallis and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of the 2nd Viscount Townshend, and niece of Sir Robert Walpole. His uncle, Frederick, was Archbishop of Canterbury. Frederick's twin brother, Edward, was a military officer, colonial governor, and founder of Halifax, Nova Scotia. James's brother William was an Admiral in the Royal Navy. His other brother, Charles Cornwallis, was the general of the American Revolutionary War.

Charles Cornwallis, 1st Earl Cornwallis, styled The Honourable Charles Cornwallis until 1722 and known as The Lord Cornwallis between 1722 and 1753, was a British peer.

Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend British Whig statesman

Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, was an English Whig statesman. He served for a decade as Secretary of State for the Northern Department, 1714–1717, 1721–1730. He directed British foreign policy in close collaboration with his brother-in-law, prime minister Robert Walpole. He was often known as Turnip Townshend because of his strong interest in farming turnips and his role in the British Agricultural Revolution.

Robert Walpole British statesman and art collector, 1st Earl of Orford

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford,, known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British politician who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

Cornwallis was educated at Eton College, proceeding in 1760 to Christ Church, Oxford. He was subsequently a Fellow of Merton College, Oxford.

Eton College school in Windsor and Maidenhead, UK

Eton College is a Public School for boys aged 13-18 in Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire, England. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as Kynge's College of Our Ladye of Eton besyde Windesore, as a sister institution to King's College, Cambridge, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton's history and influence have made it one of the most prestigious schools in the world.

Christ Church, Oxford Constituent college of the University of Oxford in England

Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head.

Merton College, Oxford college of the University of Oxford

Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its foundation can be traced back to the 1260s when Walter de Merton, chancellor to Henry III and later to Edward I, first drew up statutes for an independent academic community and established endowments to support it. An important feature of Walter's foundation was that this "college" was to be self-governing and the endowments were directly vested in the Warden and Fellows.

He was Rector of Ickham from 1769–73, of Addisham-with-Staple from 1770–81, of Newington in 1770, Prebendary of Westminster Abbey from 1770–85, Vicar of Wrotham from 1771–85, Rector of Boughton Malherbe from 1773–85 and Dean of Canterbury from 1775-81. In 1774-75 he served as Master's Mate aboard HMS Pallas, which was under the command of his brother William and stationed off the west African coast. [1]

A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations. In contrast, a vicar is also a cleric but functions as an assistant and representative of an administrative leader.

Newington, Oxfordshire village and civil parish in South Oxfordshire, England

Newington is a village and civil parish in South Oxfordshire, about 4 12 miles (7 km) north of Wallingford. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 102.

A prebendary is a member of the Anglican or Roman Catholic clergy, a form of canon with a role in the administration of a cathedral or collegiate church. When attending services, prebendaries sit in particular seats, usually at the back of the choir stalls, known as prebendal stalls.

In 1781 Cornwallis was appointed Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry and was Dean of Windsor from 1791–94 and Dean of Durham from 1794 before dying in office in 1824.

Dean of Windsor head of the Canons of St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle

The Dean of Windsor is the spiritual head of the Canons of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, England. The Dean chairs meetings of the Chapter of Canons as primus inter pares. The post of dean of Wolverhampton was assimilated to the deanery of Windsor, around 1480.

Dean of Durham

The Dean of Durham is the "head" and chair of the Chapter, the ruling body of Durham Cathedral. The dean and chapter are based at the Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham in Durham. The cathedral is the mother church of the Diocese of Durham and seat of the Bishop of Durham.

Family

On 30 April 1771 Cornwallis married Catherine Mann, a sister of Sir Horatio Mann, 2nd Baronet, and they had one child, James. In 1814, he inherited Sir Horatio's estate at Linton Park. In 1823 he inherited the earldom of Cornwallis from his nephew, Charles Cornwallis, 2nd Marquess Cornwallis but held the title for less than a year, when it passed to his son.

Linton Park Grade I listed English country house in the United Kingdom

Linton Park, formerly Linton Place or Linton Hall, is a large 18th-century country house in Linton, Kent, England. Built by Robert Mann in 1730 to replace an earlier building, the house and estate passed through the ownership of several members of Mann's family before coming into the Cornwallis family. The house was enlarged to its current size in 1825.

Charles Cornwallis, 2nd Marquess Cornwallis, styled Viscount Brome until 1805, was a British Tory politician. He served as Master of the Buckhounds between 1807 and 1823.

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Boughton Place Grade I listed English country house in the United Kingdom

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References

  1. Quarm, Roger (1995). "An Album of Drawings by Gabriel Bray RN, HMS Pallas 1774-75". The Mariner's Mirror. 81 (1): 41. doi:10.1080/00253359.1995.10656531.
Religious titles
Preceded by
John Moore
Dean of Canterbury
17751781
Succeeded by
George Horne
Preceded by
Richard Hurd
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry
17811824
Succeeded by
Henry Ryder
Preceded by
John Douglas
Dean of Windsor
17911794
Succeeded by
Charles Manners-Sutton
Preceded by
John Hinchcliffe
Dean of Durham
17941824
Succeeded by
Charles Hall
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Charles Cornwallis
Earl Cornwallis
18231824
Succeeded by
James Cornwallis