James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury

Last updated


The Marquess of Salisbury

Lord salsbury.jpg
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
27 April 1925 4 June 1929
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Succeeded by The Lord Parmoor
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
In office
6 November 1924 4 June 1929
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by John Robert Clynes
Succeeded by James Henry Thomas
In office
17 October 1903 4 December 1905
Monarch Edward VII
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury (his father)
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by Arthur Balfour
Succeeded by The Marquess of Ripon
Lord President of the Council
In office
24 October 1922 22 January 1924
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Arthur Balfour
Succeeded by The Lord Parmoor
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
24 October 1922 25 May 1923
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Sir William Sutherland
Succeeded by J. C. C. Davidson
President of the Board of Trade
In office
12 March 1905 4 December 1905
Monarch Edward VII
Prime Minister Arthur Balfour
Preceded by Gerald Balfour
Succeeded by David Lloyd George
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
12 November 1900 9 October 1903
Monarch Victoria
Edward VII
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by The Earl Midleton
Succeeded by The Earl Percy
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
22 August 1903 4 April 1947
Hereditary peerage
Preceded by The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by The 5th Marquess of Salisbury
Member of Parliament
for Rochester
In office
1893 22 August 1903
Preceded by Horatio Davies
Succeeded by Charles Tuff
Member of Parliament
for Darwen
In office
18 December 1885 26 July 1892
Preceded byConstituency created
Succeeded by Sir Charles Huntington
Personal details
Born(1861-10-23)23 October 1861
London, United Kingdom
Died4 April 1947(1947-04-04) (aged 85)
London, United Kingdom
NationalityBritish
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s)Lady Cicely Gore
(1867–1955)
Alma mater University College, Oxford
Garter-encircled shield of arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel Shield of Arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC.png
Garter-encircled shield of arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel

James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG , GCVO , CB , PC (23 October 1861 – 4 April 1947), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903, was a British statesman.

Contents

Background and education

Born in London, Salisbury was the eldest son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, [1] who served as British Prime Minister, by his wife Georgina ( née Alderson). The Right Reverend Lord William Cecil, Lord Cecil of Chelwood and Lord Quickswood were his younger brothers, and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour his first cousin. He was educated at Eton and University College, Oxford, graduating BA in 1885.

Political career

He started public life early, being of a very young age when he accompanied his father to the 1876–1877 Constantinople Conference and a year later to the Congress of Berlin. [2]

Lord Cranborne sat as Conservative Member of Parliament for Darwen, then called North-East Lancashire, from 1885 to 1892. [2] He lost his seat at the general election of the latter year. He was elected for Rochester at a by-election in 1893, continuing as MP there until 1903, [2] when he succeeded his father and was elevated to the House of Lords.

Lord Cranborne was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 4th (Militia) battalion Bedfordshire Regiment (formerly the Hertfordshire Militia) on 29 October 1892, and was in command when the battalion saw active service in South Africa from March to November 1900, during the Second Boer War. The battalion, numbering 24 officers and 483 men, left Queenstown on 27 February in the transport Goorkha, with Lord Cranborne as the senior officer in command, [3] arriving in Cape Town the following month. He received the Queen's South Africa Medal and was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) for his service during the war. In July 1902 he received the Honorary Freedom of the borough of Hertford in recognition of his service during the war. [4] Following the death of his father, he was promoted to colonel of the battalion. He was also a colonel of the Hertfordshire Volunteer Regiment and of the 4th battalion Essex Regiment. Lord Salisbury was ADC to Edward VII, and George V until 1929.

He served under his father and then his cousin Arthur Balfour as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1900 [2] to 1903, under Balfour as Lord Privy Seal from 1903 to 1905, and as Lord President of the Board of Trade in 1905. [5] [6] In 1903 he was sworn of the Privy Council. In December 1908, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Hertfordshire. [7] From 1906, following his uncle, he served as Chairman of the Canterbury House of Laymen.

Salisbury played a leading role in opposing David Lloyd George's People's Budget and the Parliament Bill of 1911. In 1917 he was made a Knight of the Garter. He returned to the government in the 1920s and served under Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1922 to 1923, as Lord President of the Council from 1922 to 1924, as Lord Privy Seal from 1924 to 1929 and as Leader of the House of Lords from 1925 to 1929 [2] in successive Conservative governments of Bonar Law and Baldwin. He resigned as leader of the Conservative peers in June 1931 [8] and became one of the most prominent opponents of Indian Home Rule in the Lords, supporting the campaign waged in the House of Commons by Winston Churchill against the Home Rule legislation.

Lord Salisbury was a committed and eager member of the Territorial Army. Honorary Colonel of 86th East Anglians, and the Hertfordshire Yeomanry Brigade. He was also Honorary Colonel of Royal Field Artillery in the Territorial Detachment and the 48th South Midland Division Royal Engineers (TA).

Salisbury was part of two parliamentary deputations which called on the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Neville Chamberlain, in the autumn of 1936 to remonstrate with them about the slow pace of British rearmament in the face of the growing threat from Nazi Germany. The delegation was led by Sir Austen Chamberlain, a former Foreign Secretary and its most prominent speakers included Winston Churchill, Leo Amery and Roger Keyes. The Marquess of Salisbury was Lord High Steward at the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937. [9]

Marriage and children

Lord Salisbury married Lady Cicely Alice Gore (born 15 July 1867, died 5 February 1955), second daughter of Arthur Gore, 5th Earl of Arran, on 17 May 1887 at St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. [1] Between 1907 and 1910 she served as a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra; additionally she was appointed an Officer of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, and as a Justice of the Peace for Hertfordshire. [10]

The couple had four children: [11]

Lord Salisbury died in April 1947, at 85, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Robert. The Marchioness of Salisbury died in February 1955. [12]

He was the grandfather of actor Jonathan Cecil by his youngest son, David.

Ancestry

Related Research Articles

Marquess of Salisbury British peerage

Marquess of Salisbury is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1789 for the 7th Earl of Salisbury. Most of the holders of the title have been prominent in British political life over the last two centuries, particularly the 3rd Marquess, who served three times as Prime Minister in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury British politician

Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury,, styled Lord Robert Cecil before the death of his elder brother in 1865, Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until his father died in April 1868, and then the Marquess of Salisbury, was a British statesman, serving as prime minister three times for a total of over thirteen years. A member of the Conservative Party, he was the last prime minister to serve his term while a member of the House of Lords.

James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury British Conservative politician

James Brownlow William Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury,, styled Viscount Cranborne until 1823, was a British Conservative politician. He held office under The Earl of Derby as Lord Privy Seal in 1852 and Lord President of the Council between 1858 and 1859. He was the father of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and grandfather of Arthur Balfour, who also served as Prime Minister.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury British politician

Robert Michael James Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury, Baron Gascoyne-Cecil, is a British Conservative politician. During the 1990s, he was Leader of the House of Lords under his courtesy title of Viscount Cranborne. Lord Salisbury lives in one of England's largest historic houses, Hatfield House, which was built by an ancestor in the early 17th century, and he currently serves as Chancellor of the University of Hertfordshire.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury British Conservative politician

Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury,, known as Viscount Cranborne from 1903 to 1947, was a British Conservative politician.

Carlton Club Gentlemens club in London

The Carlton Club is a London private members' club which was the original home of the Conservative Party before the creation of Conservative Central Office. Membership of the club is by nomination and election only.

Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby British politician

Edward George Villiers Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby,, styled Mr Edward Stanley until 1886, then The Hon Edward Stanley and then Lord Stanley from 1893 to 1908, was a British soldier, Conservative politician, diplomat, and racehorse owner. He was twice Secretary of State for War and also served as British Ambassador to France.

William Ormsby-Gore, 4th Baron Harlech British politician and banker

William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore, 4th Baron Harlech, was a British Conservative politician and banker.

Lord David Cecil British biographer, historian and academic

Lord Edward Christian David Gascoyne-Cecil, CH was a British biographer, historian, and scholar. He held the style of "Lord" by courtesy, as a younger son of a marquess.

Schomberg Kerr, 9th Marquess of Lothian British diplomat and Conservative politician

Schomberg Henry Kerr, 9th Marquess of Lothian,, styled Lord Schomberg Kerr until 1870, was a British diplomat and Conservative politician. He served as Secretary for Scotland under Lord Salisbury between 1887 and 1892. He was usually styled simply as Lothian.

Leader of the Conservative Party (UK) Head of the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom

The Leader of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is the most senior politician of the Conservative Party. To date, two of the 28 leaders have been women: Margaret Thatcher and Theresa May. The post is currently held by Boris Johnson, elected in 2019 as May's successor.

Mary Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire Duchess of Devonshire

Mary Alice Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, was a British courtier who served as Mistress of the Robes to Queen Elizabeth II from 1953 to 1967. She was the granddaughter of Prime Minister Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury.

James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury British politician

James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury,, styled Viscount Cranborne until 1780 and known as The Earl of Salisbury between 1780 and 1789, was a British nobleman and politician.

Robert Edward Peter Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury, DL, styled Viscount Cranborne from 1947 to 1972, was a British landowner and Conservative politician.

Gerald Balfour, 2nd Earl of Balfour British politician

Gerald William Balfour, 2nd Earl of Balfour, PC, known as Gerald Balfour or The Rt Hon. G. W. Balfour until 1930, was a senior British Conservative politician who became a peer on the death of his brother, former prime minister Arthur Balfour, in 1930.

Savile Crossley, 1st Baron Somerleyton British politician

Savile Brinton Crossley, 1st Baron Somerleyton, known as Sir Savile Crossley, Bt, from 1872 to 1916, was a British Liberal Unionist politician who served as Paymaster General from 1902 to 1905.

Lieutenant-Colonel Orlando Bridgeman, 5th Earl of Bradford, DL, JP, styled Viscount Newport from 1898 to 1915, was a British peer, Conservative politician and soldier. He was a major landowner, owning up to 20,000 acres (8,100 ha).

Georgina Gascoyne-Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury Wife of British Prime Minister

Georgina Charlotte Gascoyne-Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury, was a political hostess as the wife of the British statesman and Prime Minister Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. The eldest daughter of a judge and a Baron of the Exchequer, her lack of wealth and social connections earned the disapproval of the 2nd Marquess of Salisbury. Despite his disapproval, Georgina married Lord Robert in 1857.

Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry British politician

Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry,, styled Viscount Castlereagh between 1872 and 1884, was a British Conservative politician, landowner and benefactor, who served in various capacities in the Conservative administrations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After succeeding his father in the marquessate in 1884, he was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland between 1886 and 1889. He later held office as Postmaster General between 1900 and 1902 and as President of the Board of Education between 1902 and 1905. A supporter of the Protestant causes in Ulster, he was an opponent of Irish Home Rule and one of the instigators of the formal alliance between the Conservative Party and the Liberal Unionists in 1893.

Emily Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury English aristocrat, Tory political hostess and sportswoman

Mary Amelia 'Emily Mary' Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury, was an English aristocrat, Tory political hostess and sportswoman.

References

  1. 1 2 "Marriage of Viscount Cranborne" . Exeter and Plymouth Gazette. British Newspaper Archive. 18 May 1887. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "MARQUESS OF SALISBURY DEATH OF GREAT FIGURE" . Western Morning News . British Newspaper Archive. 5 April 1947. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  3. "The War - The Militia". The Times (36077). London. 28 February 1900. p. 6.
  4. "Court Circular". The Times (36812). London. 5 July 1902. p. 8.
  5. "THE PEER PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE" . Western Times. British Newspaper Archive. 15 March 1905. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  6. "THE NEW MINISTRY AND THE OLD" . Stamford Mercury . British Newspaper Archive. 29 December 1905. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  7. "No. 28211". The London Gazette . 1 January 1909. p. 33.
  8. "LORD SALISBURY RETIRES FROM LEADERSHIP" . Western Daily Press . British Newspaper Archive. 17 June 1931. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  9. "No. 34453". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1937. p. 7051.
  10. http://thepeerage.com/p1144.htm#i11438
  11. The Peerage, entry for 4th Marquess of Salisbury
  12. Burke's Peerage & Baronetage (106th ed.) (Salisbury)
Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament for Darwen
18851892
Succeeded by
Charles Philip Huntington
Preceded by
Horatio Davies
Member of Parliament for Rochester
18931903
Succeeded by
Charles Tuff
Political offices
Preceded by
Hon. St John Brodrick
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
1900–1903
Succeeded by
Earl Percy
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Lord Privy Seal
1903–1905
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Ripon
Preceded by
Gerald Balfour
President of the Board of Trade
1905
Succeeded by
David Lloyd George
Preceded by
Sir William Sutherland
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1922–1923
Succeeded by
John Davidson
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Lord President of the Council
1922–1924
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Preceded by
John Robert Clynes
Lord Privy Seal
1924–1929
Succeeded by
James Henry Thomas
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader of the House of Lords
1925–1929
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords
1925–1931
Succeeded by
The Viscount Hailsham
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Marquess of Salisbury
1903–1947
Succeeded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Baron Cecil
(descended by acceleration)

1903–1941
Succeeded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil