James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury

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The Marquess of Salisbury

Lord salsbury.jpg
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
27 April 1925 4 June 1929
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Succeeded by The Lord Parmoor
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
In office
6 November 1924 4 June 1929
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by John Robert Clynes
Succeeded by James Henry Thomas
In office
17 October 1903 4 December 1905
Monarch Edward VII
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by Arthur Balfour
Succeeded by The Marquess of Ripon
Lord President of the Council
In office
24 October 1922 22 January 1924
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Arthur Balfour
Succeeded by The Lord Parmoor
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
24 October 1922 25 May 1923
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Sir William Sutherland
Succeeded by J. C. C. Davidson
President of the Board of Trade
In office
12 March 1905 4 December 1905
Monarch Edward VII
Prime Minister Arthur Balfour
Preceded by Gerald Balfour
Succeeded by David Lloyd George
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
12 November 1900 9 October 1903
Monarch Victoria
Edward VII
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by The Earl Midleton
Succeeded by The Earl Percy
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
22 August 1903 4 April 1947
Hereditary Peerage
Preceded by The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by The 5th Marquess of Salisbury
Member of Parliament
for Rochester
In office
1893 22 August 1903
Preceded by Horatio Davies
Succeeded by Charles Tuff
Member of Parliament
for Darwen
In office
18 December 1885 26 July 1892
Preceded byconstituency created
Succeeded by Sir Charles Huntington
Personal details
Born(1861-10-23)23 October 1861
London, United Kingdom
Died4 April 1947(1947-04-04) (aged 85)
London, United Kingdom
NationalityBritish
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s)Lady Cicely Gore
(1867–1955)
Alma mater University College, Oxford
Garter-encircled shield of arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel. Shield of Arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC.png
Garter-encircled shield of arms of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel.

James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG , GCVO , CB , PC (23 October 1861 – 4 April 1947), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903, was a British statesman.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Contents

Background and education

Born in London, Salisbury was the eldest son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, [1] who served as British Prime Minister, by his wife Georgina (née Alderson). The Right Reverend Lord William Cecil, Lord Cecil of Chelwood and Lord Quickswood were his younger brothers and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour his first cousin. He was educated at Eton and University College, Oxford, graduating BA in 1885.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury British politician

Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury,, styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865, Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, and Lord Salisbury until his death, was a British statesman, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years. A member of the Conservative Party, he was the last Prime Minister to head his full administration from the House of Lords.

Lord William Cecil (bishop) British bishop

Lord Rupert Ernest William Gascoyne-Cecil was Bishop of Exeter from 1916 to 1936. He was the second son of Prime Minister Lord Salisbury. Educated at Eton and Oxford, he was rector of Hatfield for 28 years before being appointed bishop. Married in 1887, he had three daughters and four sons, three of whom were killed in the First World War. As bishop he was generally liked, but had a reputation for eccentricity.

Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood lawyer, politician and diplomat in the United Kingdom

Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood,, known as Lord Robert Cecil from 1868 to 1923, was a British lawyer, politician and diplomat. He was one of the architects of the League of Nations and a defender of it, whose service to the organisation saw him awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937.

Political career

He started public life early, being a very young age when he accompanied his father to the 1876-1877 Constantinople Conference and a year later to the Congress of Berlin. [2]

Constantinople Conference

The 1876–77 Constantinople Conference of the Great Powers was held in Constantinople from 23 December 1876 until 20 January 1877. Following the beginning of the Herzegovinian Uprising in 1875 and the April Uprising in April 1876, the Great Powers agreed on a project for political reforms both in Bosnia and in the Ottoman territories with a majority Bulgarian population.

Congress of Berlin meeting of representatives of the major European powers in 1878

The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time, the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states. It aimed at determining the territories of the states in the Balkan peninsula following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Berlin, which replaced the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, signed three months earlier between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

Lord Cranborne sat as Conservative Member of Parliament for Darwen then called North-East Lancashire from 1885 to 1892. [2] He lost his seat at the General Election. In a by-election in 1893, he was elected for Rochester where he was the MP until 1903, [2] when he succeeded his father and was elevated to the House of Lords.

Conservative Party (UK) Political party in the United Kingdom

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, and also has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors.

Darwen (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Darwen was a county constituency in Lancashire, centred on the town of Darwen. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1885 until it was abolished for the 1983 general election.

Rochester was a parliamentary constituency in Kent. It returned two members of parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of England from 1295 to 1707, then to the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1708 to 1800, and finally to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 until the 1885 general election, when its representation was reduced to one seat.

Lord Cranborne was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 4th (Militia) battalion Bedfordshire Regiment (formerly the Hertfordshire Militia) on 29 October 1892, and was in command when the battalion saw active service in South Africa from March to November 1900, during the Second Boer War. The battalion, numbering 24 officers and 483 men, left Queenstown on 27 February in the transport Goorkha, with Lord Cranborne as the senior officer in command, [3] arriving in Cape Town the following month. He received the Queen's South Africa Medal and was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) for his service during the war. In July 1902 he received the Honorary Freedom of the borough of Hertford in recognition of his service during the war. [4] Following the death of his father, he was promoted to colonel of the battalion. He was also a colonel of the Hertfordshire Volunteer Regiment and of the 4th battalion Essex Regiment. Lord Salisbury was ADC to Edward VII, and George V until 1929.

The Militia of the United Kingdom were the military reserve forces of the United Kingdom after the Union in 1801 of the former Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland. The militia was transformed into the Special Reserve by the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907. For the period before the creation of the United Kingdom, in the home nations and their colonies, see Militia.

South Africa Republic in the southernmost part of Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of Whites, Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.

Second Boer War war between two Boer Republics (South African Republic and Orange Free State) and the United Kingdom

The Second Boer War was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. It is also known variously as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War. Initial Boer attacks were successful, and although British reinforcements later reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures brought the Boers to terms.

He served under his father and then his cousin Arthur Balfour as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1900 [2] to 1903, under Balfour as Lord Privy Seal from 1903 to 1905, and as Lord President of the Board of Trade in 1905. [5] [6] In 1903 he was sworn of the Privy Council. In December 1908, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Hertfordshire. [7] And from 1906, followed his uncle, as Chairman of the Canterbury House of Laymen.

Arthur Balfour British Conservative politician and statesman

Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, was a British statesman and Conservative Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905. As Foreign Secretary under David Lloyd George, he issued the Balfour Declaration in November 1917 on behalf of the cabinet.

Lord Privy Seal sinecure office of state in the UK

The Lord Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal until the use of such a seal became obsolete. The office is currently one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.

President of the Board of Trade head of the Board of Trade, a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom

The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade. This is a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, first established as a temporary committee of inquiry in the 17th century, that evolved gradually into a government department with a diverse range of functions. The current holder is Liam Fox, the Secretary of State for International Trade.

Salisbury played a leading role in opposing David Lloyd George's People's Budget and the Parliament Bill of 1911. In 1917 he was made a Knight of the Garter. He returned to the government in the 1920s and served under Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1922 to 1923, as Lord President of the Council from 1922 to 1924, as Lord Privy Seal from 1924 to 1929 and as Leader of the House of Lords from 1925 to 1929 [2] in successive Conservative governments of Bonar Law and Baldwin. He resigned as leader of the Conservative peers in June 1931 [8] and became one of the most prominent opponents of Indian Home Rule in the Lords, supporting the campaign against the legislation waged in the House of Commons by Winston Churchill.

Lord Salisbury was a committed and eager member of the Territorial Army. Honorary Colonel of 86th East Anglians, and the Hertfordshire Yeomanry Brigade. He was also Honorary Colonel of Royal Field Artillery in the Territorial Detachment and the 48th South Midland Division Royal Engineers (TA).

Salisbury was part of two parliamentary deputations which called on the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Neville Chamberlain, in the autumn of 1936 to remonstrate with them about the slow pace of British rearmament in the face of the growing threat from Nazi Germany. The delegation was led by Sir Austen Chamberlain, a former Foreign Secretary and its most prominent speakers included Winston Churchill, Leo Amery and Roger Keyes. The Marquess of Salisbury was Lord High Steward at the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937. [9]

Marriage and children

Lord Salisbury married Lady Cicely Alice Gore (born 15 July 1867, died 5 February 1955), second daughter of Arthur Gore, 5th Earl of Arran, on 17 May 1887 at St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. [1] She was appointed a JP for Hertfordshire. In 1907, she was made a Lady Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra, an Officer of the Order of St John of Jerusalem.

They had four children: [10]

Lord Salisbury died in April 1947, at 85, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Robert. The Marchioness of Salisbury died in February 1955. [11]

He was the grandfather of actor Jonathan Cecil by his youngest son, David.

Ancestry

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References

  1. 1 2 "Marriage of Viscount Cranborne" . Exeter and Plymouth Gazette. British Newspaper Archive. 18 May 1887. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "MARQUESS OF SALISBURY DEATH OF GREAT FIGURE" . Western Morning News . British Newspaper Archive. 5 April 1947. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  3. "The War - The Militia". The Times (36077). London. 28 February 1900. p. 6.
  4. "Court Circular". The Times (36812). London. 5 July 1902. p. 8.
  5. "THE PEER PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE" . Western Times. British Newspaper Archive. 15 March 1905. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  6. "THE NEW MINISTRY AND THE OLD" . Stamford Mercury . British Newspaper Archive. 29 December 1905. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  7. "No. 28211". The London Gazette . 1 January 1909. p. 33.
  8. "LORD SALISBURY RETIRES FROM LEADERSHIP" . Western Daily Press . British Newspaper Archive. 17 June 1931. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  9. "No. 34453". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1937. p. 7051.
  10. The Peerage, entry for 4th Marquess of Salisbury
  11. Burke's Peerage & Baronetage (106th ed.) (Salisbury)
Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament for Darwen
18851892
Succeeded by
Charles Philip Huntington
Preceded by
Horatio Davies
Member of Parliament for Rochester
18931903
Succeeded by
Charles Tuff
Political offices
Preceded by
Hon. St John Brodrick
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
1900–1903
Succeeded by
Earl Percy
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Lord Privy Seal
1903–1905
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Ripon
Preceded by
Gerald Balfour
President of the Board of Trade
1905
Succeeded by
David Lloyd George
Preceded by
Sir William Sutherland
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1922–1923
Succeeded by
John Davidson
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Lord President of the Council
1922–1924
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Preceded by
John Robert Clynes
Lord Privy Seal
1924–1929
Succeeded by
James Henry Thomas
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader of the House of Lords
1925–1929
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords
1925–1931
Succeeded by
The Viscount Hailsham
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Marquess of Salisbury
1903–1947
Succeeded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Baron Cecil
(descended by acceleration)

1903–1941
Succeeded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil