James Hay (politician)

Last updated
James Hay
James Hay.jpg
James Hay in 1910
Senior Judge of the Court of Claims
In office
November 30, 1927 June 12, 1931
Judge of the Court of Claims
In office
July 17, 1916 November 30, 1927
Appointed by Woodrow Wilson
Preceded by George W. Atkinson
Succeeded by William R. Green
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Virginia's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1897 October 1, 1916
Preceded by Smith S. Turner
Succeeded by Thomas W. Harrison
Chairman of the United States House Committee on Military Affairs
In office
March 4, 1911 October 1, 1916
Preceded by John A. T. Hull
Succeeded by S. Hubert Dent Jr.
Member of the Senate of Virginia from Culpeper County, Rappahannock County, Madison County and Orange County
In office
December 6, 1893 March 4, 1897
Preceded byBasil B. Gordon
Succeeded byJ. L. Jeffries
Member of the Virginia House of Delegates from Greene County and Madison County
In office
December 2, 1885 December 1, 1891
Preceded byThomas A. Chapman
Succeeded byJohn Utz
Personal details
Born
James Hay

(1856-01-09)January 9, 1856
Millwood, Virginia
DiedJune 12, 1931(1931-06-12) (aged 75)
Madison, Virginia
Resting placeCedar Hill Cemetery
Madison, Virginia
Political party Democratic
Education University of Pennsylvania
Washington and Lee University (LL.B.)

James Hay (January 9, 1856 – June 12, 1931) served in both houses of the Virginia General Assembly, was a United States Representative from Virginia and a Judge of the Court of Claims.

Virginia General Assembly legislative body of Virginia, United States

The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World, established on July 30, 1619. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of a lower house, the Virginia House of Delegates, with 100 members, and an upper house, the Senate of Virginia, with 40 members. Combined together, the General Assembly consists of 140 elected representatives from an equal number of constituent districts across the commonwealth. The House of Delegates is presided over by the Speaker of the House, while the Senate is presided over by the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. The House and Senate each elect a clerk and sergeant-at-arms. The Senate of Virginia's clerk is known as the "Clerk of the Senate".

United States federal judge position in the USA

In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution.

The Court of Claims was a federal court that heard claims against the United States government. It was established in 1855, renamed in 1948 to the United States Court of Claims, and abolished in 1982. Then, its jurisdiction was assumed by the newly created United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and United States Claims Court, which was later renamed the Court of Federal Claims.

Contents

Education and career

Born on January 9, 1856, in Millwood, Clarke County, Virginia, [1] Hay attended private schools, then the University of Pennsylvania and received a Bachelor of Laws in 1877 from the Washington and Lee University School of Law. [1] He was a teacher in Harrisonburg, Virginia from 1877 to 1879. [1] He was admitted to the bar and entered private practice in Harrisonburg from 1877 to 1879. [1] He continued private practice in Madison, Virginia from 1879 to 1897. [1] He was a commonwealth attorney for Madison County, Virginia from 1883 to 1896. [1] He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1885 to 1891, representing Greene County and Madison County. [2] He was a member of the Senate of Virginia from 1893 to 1897, representing Culpeper County, Rappahannock County, Madison County and Orange County. [3] He was a member of the Democratic State committee in 1888. [4] He was delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1888. [4]

Millwood, Virginia Unincorporated community in Virginia

Millwood is an unincorporated community located in Clarke County, Virginia. Millwood is the home of many of Clarke County's most historic sites including the Burwell-Morgan Mill (1785), Carter Hall (1792), the Greenway Historic District, Long Branch (1811), Old Chapel (1790), and the River House. Project HOPE is based at Carter Hall.

Clarke County, Virginia County in the United States

Clarke County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,034. Its county seat is Berryville. Clarke County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area.

University of Pennsylvania Private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce, government, and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum. The university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms.

Congressional service

Hay was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives of the 55th United States Congress and to the nine succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1897, until his resignation on October 1, 1916. [4] He was Chairman of the United States House Committee on Military Affairs for the 62nd through 64th United States Congresses. [4]

Democratic Party (United States) political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States.

55th United States Congress

The Fifty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1897, to March 4, 1899, during the first two years of William McKinley's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority. There was one African-American member, George Henry White, a Republican from the state of North Carolina.

Military preparedness

Hay was involved in the "Preparedness Movement" of 1915 to 1916, and in response to which he drafted and pushed through the National Defense Act of 1916. [5]

The Preparedness Movement was a campaign led by Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt to strengthen the military of the United States after the outbreak of World War I. Wood advocated a summer training school for reserve officers to be held in Plattsburg, New York.

National Defense Act of 1916

The National Defense Act of 1916, Pub.L. 64–85, 39 Stat. 166, enacted June 3, 1916, was a federal law that updated the Militia Act of 1903, which related to the organization of the military, particularly the National Guard. The 1916 act included an expansion of the Army and the National Guard, the creation of an Officers' and an Enlisted Reserve Corps, and the creation of a Reserve Officers' Training Corps. The President was also given expanded authority to federalize the National Guard, with changes to the duration and the circumstances under which he could call it up. The Army began the creation of an Aviation arm, and the federal government took steps to ensure the immediate availability of wartime weapons and equipment by contracting in advance for production of gunpowder and other material.

Federal judicial service

Hay was nominated by President Woodrow Wilson on July 15, 1916, to a seat on the Court of Claims (later the United States Court of Claims) vacated by Judge George W. Atkinson. [6] [1] He was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 17, 1916, and received his commission the same day. [1] He assumed senior status on November 30, 1927. [1] His service terminated on June 12, 1931, due to his death in Madison. [1] He was interred in Cedar Hill Cemetery in Madison. [4]

Woodrow Wilson 28th president of the United States

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman, lawyer, and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election. As president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He also led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism."

George W. Atkinson American judge, governor, and Congressman

George Wesley Atkinson was the 10th Governor of West Virginia, a United States Representative from West Virginia and a Judge of the Court of Claims.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.

Electoral history

Related Research Articles

Virginia Plan Planned structure of the U.S. Constitution

The Virginia Plan was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The Virginia Plan was notable for its role in setting the overall agenda for debate in the convention and, in particular, for setting forth the idea of population-weighted representation in the proposed national legislature.

James W. Grant American politician

James William "Bill" Grant is an American banker and former politician from Madison, Florida.

John J. Parker American judge

John Johnston Parker was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Parker's nomination to the Supreme Court of the United States failed by one vote. He was also the United State's alternate judge at the Nuremberg trials of accused Nazi war criminals and later served on the United Nations' International Law Commission.

Andrew Jackson Montague American politician

Andrew Jackson Montague was a Virginia lawyer and American politician. He served as the 44th Governor of Virginia, from 1902 to 1906, and a Congressman from 1912 until his death in 1937. A Democrat, Montague is best remembered as the first Virginia governor since the American Civil War not to have served in the Confederate military. Initially a Progressive, Governor Montague expanded the state capitol building, supported public education and the Good Roads Movement and opposed the Martin Organization. However, later as U.S. Congressman, he became a Conservative Democrat and supporter of the Byrd Organization.

Gilbert Carlton Walker American politician

Gilbert Carlton Walker was a United States political figure. He served as the 36th Governor of Virginia, first as a Republican provisional governor between 1869 and 1870, and again as a Democratic elected governor from 1870 to 1874. He was the last Republican governor of Virginia until Linwood Holton took office in 1970.

Henry Smith (Wisconsin) Millwright, architect, builder and politician, U.S. Representatives from Wisconsin

Henry Smith was a millwright, architect, builder and politician who was elected a member of the United States House of Representatives from Wisconsin from 1887 - 1889 as a member of the Union Labor Party. He also served as a Socialist member of the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1878. At different times, Smith ran for office on the Socialist, Greenback, Democratic and Union Labor tickets.

Edward Watts Saunders was a Virginia lawyer, politician and judge, who served as Speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates, U.S. Representative and Justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia.

John T. Harris American politician

John Thomas Harris was a nineteenth-century politician, lawyer and judge from Virginia. He often referred to after the American Civil War as "Judge Harris", even after his election to Congress. He was the first cousin of John Hill.

William R. Green American politician

William Raymond Green was a United States Representative from Iowa, Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee and later was a Judge of the Court of Claims.

Oscar E. Bland American politician

Oscar Edward Bland was a United States Representative from Indiana and an Associate Judge of the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals.

John Paul Sr. (judge) American judge

John Paul was a U.S. Representative and federal judge from Virginia.

Burr Harrison American politician

Burr Powell Harrison was a U.S. Representative from Virginia, son of Thomas W. Harrison.

J. Kenneth Robinson American politician

James Kenneth Robinson was a State Senator and U.S. Representative from Virginia.

Jacob A. Garber American politician

Jacob Aaron Garber was a teacher and businessman who served in both houses of the Virginia General Assembly as well as in the United States House of Representatives as a Republican.

Thomas Richard Hudd was an American lawyer from Wisconsin who represented that state for two terms in the United States House of Representatives, as well as serving in both houses of that state's legislature and holding other public offices.

Thomas W. Harrison American politician

Thomas Walter Harrison was a Virginia lawyer and politician. He served in the Senate of Virginia and in the United States House of Representatives.

Francis Eugene Worley was a United States Representative from Texas and later an Associate Judge and Chief Judge of the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals.

John Paul Jr. (judge) American judge

John Paul Jr. was a United States Representative from Virginia, and later a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia.

John G. Jackson (politician) American judge

John George Jackson was a U.S. Representative and federal judge from Virginia, the son of George Jackson, brother of Edward Brake Jackson, and grandfather of William Thomas Bland, Jacob Beeson Jackson, James Monroe Jackson, and John Jay Jackson, Jr.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Hay, James - Federal Judicial Center". www.fjc.gov.
  2. Cynthia Miller Leonard (ed), The General Assembly of Virginia 1619-1978: A Bicentennial Register of Members (Richmond, 1978) pp 542, 546, 550
  3. Leonard pp. 560, 564
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 United States Congress. "James Hay (id: H000382)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress .
  5. Herring, George C., Jr. "James Hay and the Preparedness Controversy, 1915-1916." Journal of Southern History 30 (November 1964): 383-404.
  6. The United States Court of Claims : a history / pt. 1. The judges, 1855-1976 / by Marion T. Bennett / pt. 2. Origin, development, jurisdiction, 1855-1978 / W. Cowen, P. Nichols, M. T. Bennett. Washington, D.C.: Committee on the Bicentennial of Independence and the Constitution of the Judicial Conference of the United States. 1976.

Sources

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Smith S. Turner
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 7th congressional district

1897–1916
Succeeded by
Thomas W. Harrison
Legal offices
Preceded by
George W. Atkinson
Judge of the Court of Claims
1916–1927
Succeeded by
William R. Green