Sir James Martin
|6th Premier of New South Wales|
16 October 1863 –2 February 1865
|Preceded by||Charles Cowper|
|Succeeded by||Charles Cowper|
|Constituency|| Tumut (until 1864)|
22 January 1866 –26 October 1868
|Preceded by||Charles Cowper|
|Succeeded by||John Robertson|
16 December 1870 –13 May 1872
|Preceded by||Charles Cowper|
|Succeeded by||Henry Parkes|
|Chief Justice of New South Wales|
19 November 1873 –4 November 1886
|Preceded by||Sir Alfred Stephen|
|Succeeded by||Sir Julian Salomons|
|Born||14 May 1820|
Midleton, Co. Cork, Ireland, UK
|Died||4 November 1886 66) (aged|
Potts Point, New South Wales
|Resting place||Waverley Cemetery|
Sir James Martin, KCB, QC (14 May 1820 – 4 November 1886)was three times Premier of New South Wales, and Chief Justice of New South Wales from 1873 to 1886.
The Premier of New South Wales is the head of government in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Government of New South Wales follows the Westminster system, with a Parliament of New South Wales acting as the legislature. The Premier is appointed by the Governor of New South Wales, and by modern convention holds office by virtue of his or her ability to command the support of a majority of members of the lower house of Parliament, the Legislative Assembly.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
The Chief Justice of New South Wales is the senior judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and the highest-ranking judicial officer in the Australian state of New South Wales. The Chief Justice is both the judicial head of the Supreme Court as well as the administrative head. He or she is responsible for arranging the business of the court and establishing its rules and procedures.
Martin was born in Midleton, County Cork, Ireland but emigrated with his parents to Sydney, Australia at the age of one.He was educated at Dame's School, Parramatta and, despite his family's poverty, the Sydney Academy and Sydney College under the tutelage of William Timothy Cape, and left school at the age of 16 to become a reporter.
Midleton, is a town in south-eastern County Cork, Ireland. It lies some 16 km east of Cork City on the Owenacurra River and the N25 road, which connects Cork to the port of Rosslare. A satellite town of Cork City, Midleton is part of Metropolitan Cork. It is the central hub of business for the East Cork Area.
County Cork is a county in Ireland. It is the largest and southernmost county of Ireland, situated in the province of Munster and named after the city of Cork, Ireland's second-largest city. The Cork County Council is the local authority for the county. Its largest market towns are Mallow, Macroom, Midleton, and Skibbereen. In 2016, the county's population was 542,868, making it the third-most populous county in Ireland. Notable Corkonians include Michael Collins, Jack Lynch, and Sonia O'Sullivan.
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.
In 1838, Martin published the Australian Sketch Book, a series of character sketches he dedicated to Sydney barrister George Robert Nichols,for whom he was then working as an articled clerk in 1840.
Martin qualified as a solicitor in 1845, and combined his legal career with employment as a newspaper editor and publisher. He married Isabella Long on 20 January 1853 and together they produced 15 children.
In February 1848 Martin nominated as a candidate for a by-election for the electorate of Durham in the New South Wales Legislative Council, but withdrew before polling day. In the general election held later in the same year he was a candidate for the electorate of Counties of Cook and Westmoreland, which he won with a margin of 16%.His election however was declared void on the grounds that he did not meet the property qualifications to stand, however he was re-elected unopposed. Martin subsequently sued the Speaker of the Legislative Council, Charles Nicholson and the Sergeant at Arms, William Christie, for trespass for having him removed when there had been no decision of the Electoral Court in accordance with the Electoral Act 1843. The Full Court of the Supreme Court held that under the Electoral Act 1843 it was only the Electoral Court that could determine there was a vacancy and not the Governor.
Durham was an electoral district for the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales, named after Durham County, which lies on the north side of the Hunter River. From 1856 to 1859, it elected three members simultaneously by voters casting three votes with the three leading candidates being elected. It was recreated in 1880, replacing parts of Paterson and Williams, as a single-member electorate. It was abolished in 1920.
The New South Wales Legislative Council, often referred to as the upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of the Australian state of New South Wales. The other is the Legislative Assembly. Both sit at Parliament House in the state capital, Sydney. It is normal for legislation to be first deliberated on and passed by the Legislative Assembly before being considered by the Legislative Council, which acts in the main as a house of review.
The Electoral district of Counties of Cook and Westmoreland, also known as the United Midland Counties of Cook and Westmoreland, was an electorate of the New South Wales Legislative Council at a time when some of its members were elected and the balance were appointed by the Governor.
Martin was an effective legislator but his sharp tongue and intemperate speeches to the House made him few friends among his parliamentary colleagues. His most notable political achievement in his first eight years in office was to initiate the Parliamentary debate that led to the establishment of a branch of the royal mint in Sydney.
In 1856 the partly elected unicameral Legislative Council was abolished and replaced with a new parliament with elected members of the Legislative Assembly and appointed members of the Legislative Council. Martin was elected as one of two members for Cook and Westmoreland. When that electorate was largely replaced by the single member electorate of Hartley, Martin successfully stood for the new four member electorate of East Sydney. He was subsequently the member for Orange, Tumut, Monaro, Lachlan and East Macquarie.In August 1856 he was made Attorney-General of New South Wales in the first ministry of Charles Cowper. The appointment was controversial, as Martin was the first holder of the office who had not been admitted as a barrister. He had to resign his seat as a result of accepting the office, however he was re-elected unopposed. The appointment was brief, as the government was defeated in a no-confidence motion in October 1856 and Martin returned to the backbench.
In government, unicameralism is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house.
The New South Wales Legislative Assembly is the lower of the two houses of the Parliament of New South Wales, an Australian state. The upper house is the New South Wales Legislative Council. Both the Assembly and Council sit at Parliament House in the state capital, Sydney. The Assembly is presided over by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.
Cook and Westmoreland was an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales in the first and second Parliaments (1856–1859), named after Cook and Westmoreland counties in the Blue Mountains, Lithgow and Oberon areas. It elected two members simultaneously, with voters casting two votes and the first two candidates being elected. It was largely replaced by Hartley, however both members moved to other electorates, James Martin became the member for East Sydney, while Robert Jamison became the member for Nepean.
Martin was admitted to the bar in 1856 and was made a Queen's Counsel in 1857.He returned as Attorney General in the second Cowper Ministry in September 1857, and was again re-elected unopposed. As Attorney General however, his reputation for intemperate language continued and after a series of conflicts with fellow Ministers he resigned the office in November 1858.
In October 1863, Martin was asked by the Governor of New South Wales to form a government with a mandate to address rising State deficits and rural unemployment. As Premier and Colonial Secretary Martin promptly introduced measures to reduce immigration and increase tariffs, but was unable to secure Parliamentary support for many of his reforms. With limited achievements to its credit, the government suffered a substantial swing at the 1865 election and Martin stepped down to make way for the return of Charles Cowper.
Cowper was once again defeated in a no-confidence motion in December 1865, and in January 1866 Martin became Premier for the second time as leader of a coalition government with former rival Henry Parkes. His government resigned in October 1868, but he returned to the Premiership for a third and final time between December 1870 and May 1872.
Martin retired from Parliament in November 1873 and was immediately named to the vacant position of Chief Justice of New South Wales. He held the post for 13 years, despite considerable ill health in later life.
James Martin died at home in Potts Point, Sydney on 4 November 1886 and buried in St Judes churchyard in Randwick, NSW. in 1909 his remains were moved to a new underground vault in the impressive Waverley Cemetery.
Martin was made a Queen's Counsel in 1857 and a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1869.Martin Place, a pedestrian mall in the central business district of Sydney was named after him in 1892. 'Lady Martin Beach' a small beach accessible to the public from Wolseley Road, Point Piper, New South Wales is named after his wife, Isabella who resided at nearby Woollahra House.
Sir Charles Cowper, was an Australian politician and the Premier of New South Wales on five occasions from 1856 to 1870.
Sir John Robertson, was an Australian politician and Premier of New South Wales on five occasions. Robertson is best remembered for land reform and in particular the Robertson Land Acts of 1861, which sought to open up the selection of Crown land and break the monopoly of the squatters.
John Hubert Plunkett was Attorney-General of New South Wales, an appointed member of the Legislative Council 1836–41, 1843–56, 1857–58 and 1861–69. He was also elected as a member of the Legislative Assembly 1856–60. He is best known for the prosecution of the colonists who brutally murdered 28 Aborigines in the Myall Creek Massacre of 1838, seven of whom were convicted and hanged.
Western Division of Camden was an electoral district for the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales from 1856 to 1857. Its name was changed to West Camden between 1858 and 1859, when it was replaced by the electoral district of Camden. It elected two members simultaneously, with voters casting two votes and the first two candidates being elected. The electorate was based on western Camden County, which adjoins the Cumberland County to the south, including the Southern Highlands and, to the east, the Illawarra.
East Sydney was an electoral district for the Legislative Assembly in the Australian colony of New South Wales created in 1859 from part of the electoral district of Sydney, covering the eastern part of the current Sydney central business district, Woolloomooloo, Potts Point, Elizabeth Bay and Darlinghurst, bordered by George Street to the east, Boundary Street to the west, and, from the creation of South Sydney in 1880, Liverpool Street and Oxford Street, to the south. It elected four members simultaneously, with voters casting four votes and the first four candidates being elected. For the 1894 election, it was replaced by the single-member electorates of Sydney-King, Sydney-Fitzroy and Sydney-Bligh.
James Byrnes was an Australian politician. He was an elected member of the New South Wales Legislative Council in 1851 and a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for two periods totalling 10 years between 1857 and 1872. He held the position of Secretary for Public Works on two occasions between 1866 and 1872.
Sir John Bayley Darvall was an Australian barrister, politician and beneficiary of slavery. He was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council between 1844 and 1856 and again between 1861 and 1863. He was also a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for three periods between 1856 and 1865. He held the positions of Solicitor General and Attorney General in a number of short-lived colonial governments.
Peter Faucett was an Australian barrister, judge and politician. He was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly between 1856 and 1865. He held the position of Solicitor General in the first government of James Martin. He was a judge of the Supreme Court between 1865 and 1888 and a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council between 1888 and 1894 and
James Robert Wilshire was an Australian politician. He was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council between 1855 and 1856 and again from 1858 until his death. He was also a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for one term between 1856 and 1857.
John Marks was an Australian farmer and politician. He was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council between 1878 and 1885. He was also a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for two terms from 1856 until 1859.
The first Martin ministry was the eighth ministry of the Colony of New South Wales, and first occasion of being led by the Honourable James Martin, QC.
The fourth Cowper ministry was the ninth ministry of the Colony of New South Wales, and fourth occasion of being led by the Honourable Charles Cowper.
The second Martin ministry was the tenth ministry of the Colony of New South Wales, and second of three occasions of being led by the Honourable James Martin, QC.
The fifth Cowper ministry was the twelfth ministry of the Colony of New South Wales, and the fifth and final occasion of being led by the Honourable Sir Charles Cowper, CMG, MLA.
The third Martin ministry was the thirteenth ministry of the Colony of New South Wales, and the third and final occasion of being led by the Honourable Sir James Martin, KCB, QC.
Sir Henry Edward Manning, KBE QC was an Australian lawyer and politician. He was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council for 25 years from 1932 to 1958 and also served as the Attorney General and Vice-President of the Executive Council from 1932 to 1941.
The Electoral district of County of Cumberland was an electorate of the New South Wales Legislative Council at a time when some of its members were elected and the balance were appointed by the Governor.
| Premier of New South Wales |
| Premier of New South Wales |
| Premier of New South Wales |
|New South Wales Legislative Council|
| Member for Counties of|
Cook & Westmoreland
|Council replaced by|
|New South Wales Legislative Assembly|
|New assembly|| Member for Cook and Westmoreland |
Served alongside: Jamison
|District largely replaced|
|New district|| Member for East Sydney |
Served alongside: Black, Cowper/Faucett, Parkes
| Member for Orange |
Charles Cowper, Jr.
Charles Cowper, Jr.
| Member for Tumut |
Charles Cowper, Jr.
| Member for Monaro |
| Member for Lachlan |
| Member for East Sydney |
Served alongside: Buchanan, King, Parkes/Wilson
| Member for East Macquarie |
Sir Alfred Stephen
| Chief Justice of New South Wales |
Sir Julian Salomons