The Lord de Saumarez
Portrait of Vice-Admiral James Saumarez, NMM
|Born||11 March 1757|
St Peter Port, Guernsey
|Died||9 October 1836 79) (aged|
|Years of service||1770–1821|
|Commands held|| Baltic Fleet |
|Battles/wars|| Battle of the Dogger Bank, 1781|
Battle of the Saintes, 1782
Battle of Groix, 1795
Battle of Cape St Vincent, 1797
Battle of the Nile, 1798
First Battle of Algeciras, 1801
Second Battle of Algeciras, 1801
|Awards|| Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword |
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
Freedom of the City of London
Admiral James Saumarez, 1st Baron de Saumarez (or Sausmarez), GCB (11 March 1757 – 9 October 1836) was an admiral of the British Royal Navy, notable for his victory at the Second Battle of Algeciras.
Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank of admiral of the fleet. Royal Navy officers holding the ranks of rear admiral, vice admiral and admiral of the fleet are sometimes considered generically to be admirals. The rank of admiral is currently the highest rank to which a serving officer in the Royal Navy can be promoted, admiral of the fleet being in abeyance except for honorary promotions of retired officers and members of the Royal Family.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.
He was born at St Peter Port, Guernseyto an old island family, the eldest son of Matthew de Sausmarez (1718-1778) and his second wife Carteret, daughter of James Le Marchant. He was a nephew of John de Sausmarez (1706-1774) of Sausmarez Manor and the elder brother of General Sir Thomas Saumarez (1760-1845), Equerry and Groom of the Chamber to the Duke of Kent, and afterwards Commander-in-Chief of New Brunswick and of Richard Saumarez (1764-1835), a surgeon and medical author. Their sister married Henry Brock, the uncle of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock and Daniel de Lisle Brock. Many of de Sausmarez's ancestors had distinguished themselves in the naval service, and he entered it as midshipman at the age of thirteen. Upon joining the navy, he dropped the second 's' to become de Saumarez.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. It lies roughly north of Saint-Malo and to the west of Jersey and the Cotentin Peninsula. With several smaller nearby islands, it forms a jurisdiction within the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a British Crown dependency. The jurisdiction is made up of ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, three other inhabited islands, and many small islets and rocks.
Sausmarez Manor is a historic house in Saint Martin, Guernsey.
General is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army. The rank can also be held by Royal Marines officers in tri-service posts, for example, General Sir Gordon Messenger the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff. It ranks above lieutenant-general and, in the Army, is subordinate to the rank of field marshal, which is now only awarded as an honorary rank. The rank of general has a NATO-code of OF-9, and is a four-star rank. It is equivalent to a full admiral in the Royal Navy or an air chief marshal in the Royal Air Force.
In 1767 Saumarez was entered as a volunteer on the books of HMS Solebay (1763) although he never set foot on the ship, studying at a school near London until in 1770, Saumarez joined the Montreal in the Mediterranean. Placed on board HMS Winchelsea (1764), he was rated midshipman in November 1770. :20 A transfer to HMS Levant (1758) in February 1772 until she returned to Spithead in 1775 gave an opportunity to take his examination for lieutenant. :24
HMS Solebay was a Mermaid-class sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy which saw active service between 1766 and 1782, during the latter part of the Seven Years' War and throughout the American Revolutionary War. After a successful career in which she captured seven enemy vessels, she was wrecked ashore on the Caribbean Island of Nevis.
HMS Montreal was a 32-gun Niger-class fifth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1761 and served in the Seven Years' War and the American War of Independence. The French captured her in 1779 and she then served with them under the name Montréal. An Anglo-Spanish force destroyed her during the occupation of Toulon early in the French Revolutionary Wars.
HMS Winchelsea was a 32-gun fifth-rate Niger-class frigate of the Royal Navy, and was the sixth Royal Navy ship to bear this name. She was ordered during the Seven Years' War, but completed too late for that conflict. She cost £11,515-18-0d to build.
In 1775, at the age of 18, he was ordered to Sir Peter Parker's flagship HMS Bristol in North America. Saumarez distinguished himself under Parker, showing courage and being promoted to acting lieutenant at the July 1776 Battle of Sullivan's Island which required the Bristol to fire broadsides at Fort Sullivan. The engagement lasted 13 hours and 111 men were killed on the Bristol. :27–30
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Peter Parker, 1st Baronet was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer, he was deployed with a squadron under Admiral Edward Vernon to the West Indies at the start of the War of Jenkins' Ear. He saw action again at the Battle of Toulon during the War of the Austrian Succession. As captain of the fourth-rate HMS Bristol he took part in the Invasion of Guadeloupe during the Seven Years' War.
A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag. Used more loosely, it is the lead ship in a fleet of vessels, typically the first, largest, fastest, most heavily armed, or best known.
HMS Bristol was a 50-gun Portland-class fourth-rate ship of the line, built for the Royal Navy in the 1770s. She served as a flagship during the Battle of Sullivan's Island, Charleston, South Carolina in 1776 during the American Revolutionary War and later participated in the 1783 Battle of Cuddalore during the Anglo-French War of 1778–83. By 1787 the ship had been converted into a church ship. Converted into a prison ship in 1794, Bristol instead served as a hospital ship until she was broken up in 1810.
Moved to HMS Chatham (1758) as temporary 5th lieutenant, he was given his first command, the tender Lady Parker. On promotion to lieutenant in 1778 he was given his second command, the 8-gun galley Spitfire and after 47 engagements, unfortunately, he had to run Spitfire ashore and burn her on 30 July 1778 when a French fleet under Admiral d'Estaing arrived at Narrangansett Bay. :32–40 Serving on land at the Battle of Rhode Island before returning to Portsmouth.
HMS Chatham was a 50-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Portsmouth Dockyard to the draught specified by the 1745 Establishment as amended in 1752, and launched on 25 April 1758.
Two vessels of the Royal Navy have borne the name, HM galley Pigot. Both were acquired in 1778 during the American Revolutionary War, and both were lost that year; her crew destroyed the first to avoid her capture, and the Americans captured the second. Both were named for General Sir Robert Pigot, the general commanding the British Army at Newport, Rhode Island, during their service there.
The Battle of Rhode Island took place on August 29, 1778. Continental Army and militia forces under the command of General John Sullivan had been besieging the British forces in Newport, Rhode Island, which is situated on Aquidneck Island, but they had finally abandoned their siege and were withdrawing to the northern part of the island. The British forces then sortied, supported by recently arrived Royal Navy ships, and they attacked the retreating Americans. The battle ended inconclusively, but the Continental forces withdrew to the mainland and left Aquidneck Island in British hands.
Saumarez next served as third lieutenant on the Victory, under various admirals until it became Vice Admiral Hyde Parker's flagship, Fortitude, on which he was present at the Battle of Dogger Bank on 5 August 1781, when he was wounded. He was promoted commander and appointed to the fireship Tisiphone. In 1782, Saumarez sailed his ship to the West Indies with despatches for Samuel Hood and arrived in time to witness the closing stages of Hood's operations at St Kitts on 25 January 1782.by which time he had moved up to 1st lieutenant. He moved with the Admiral to HMS
HMS Victory is a 104-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, ordered in 1758, laid down in 1759 and launched in 1765. She is best known for her role as Lord Nelson's flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805.
Vice-Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, 5th Baronet was a British naval commander.
HMS Fortitude was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built by John Randall & Co. and launched on 23 March 1780 at Rotherhithe.
While commanding HMS Russell (74 guns), he contributed to Rodney's victory over de Grasse at the Battle of the Saintes on (12 April 1782). During the battle and on his own initiative, Saumarez took his ship out of line to assist in the capture of De Grasse's flagship, Ville de Paris. This action prompted Admiral Rodney to remark that, "The Russell's captain is a fine fellow, whoever he is."
When the war in America was finished, Saumarez went ashore and did not go to sea again until 1793 when he was given command of the frigate HMS Crescent, a 36-gun fifth rate frigate.
It was in Crescent that Saumarez was involved in one of the first major single-ship actions of the war when he captured the French frigate Reunion, in the Action of 20 October 1793.British casualties were exceptionally light, with only one man wounded during the engagement. In reward, Saumarez was knighted by King George III and given a presentation plate by the City of London, although he later received a bill for £103 6s 8d (the equivalent of £9,700 as of 2011), from a Mr. Cooke for "the honour of a knighthood". Saumarez refused to pay, telling Cooke to charge whomever had paid for Edward Pellew's knighthood after his successful action. Saumarez later wrote to his brother that "I think it hard to pay so much for an honour which my services have been thought to deserve".
While in command of a Guernsey-based squadron consisting of three frigates, HMS Crescent (1784), HMS Druid (1783) and HMS Eurydice (1781), a lugger, and cutter a planned invasion by 20,000 French soldiers of the Channel Islands scheduled for February 1794 was frustrated and cancelled due to Saumarez's vigilant eye. :9 On 8 June 1794 on the way from Plymouth to Guernsey, he encountered a superior French force of two razees, three frigates, and a cutter. The French squadron outgunned the British by 192 guns to 92, but Saumarez succeeded in getting his frigates to safety by sailing between rocks on the west coast of Guernsey and around the island to the St Peter Port anchorage. The British lugger and cutter had returned to Plymouth before the start of the action. :10–11 The British threat to any invasion force stayed intact.
After being promoted in 1795 he was appointed to the 74-gun HMS Orion in the Channel fleet, where he took part in the defeat of the French fleet at the Battle of Groix off Lorient on 22 June. Orion was one of the ships sent to reinforce Sir John Jervis in February 1797, when Saumarez distinguished himself in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent. During the early stages he helped repel a sustained attack on the British line and covered the retreat of HMS Colossus when she was forced to retire from the action. Colossus had sustained serious damage, her sails being virtually shot away and it looked as though she would be raked by Spanish warships, until Orion intervened. Later, when the engagement had turned to a general melee, Saumarez forced the Salvador del Mundo to surrender before attacking the Santissima Trinidad with the help of HMS Excellent. Saumarez was certain he had forced her surrender too when the arrival of the remainder of the Spanish fleet forced Jervis to break off the engagement.
Saumarez remained with Jervis's fleet and was present at the blockade of Cadiz from February 1797 to April 1798. In May 1798, the Orion joined the squadron under Nelson's command that was sent into the Mediterranean to seek and destroy the French. Saumarez was Nelson's second in command at the Battle of the Nile where he distinguished himself once more, forcing the surrender of the Peuple Souverain and the 80-gun Franklin.
On his return from Egypt he received the command of HMS Caesar, of 80 guns, with orders to watch the French fleet off Brest during the winters of 1799 and 1800. In 1801, he was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral of the Blue, was created a baronet, and received the command of a small squadron which was to watch the movements of the Spanish fleet at Cadiz. Between 6 and 12 July, he performed an excellent piece of service, in which after a first repulse at Algeciras he routed a much superior combined force of French and Spanish ships at the Battle of the Gut of Gibraltar. For his services, Saumarez received the Order of the Bath and the Freedom of the City of London. In 1803, the United Kingdom Parliament bestowed upon him an annuity of £1200 a year (Annuity to Admiral Saumarez Act 1803).
During the Peace of Amiens, 1802-3 Saumarez remained at home with his family in Guernsey, and when war broke out again he was given command of the naval forces defending the Channel Islands. He therefore was not present at the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar.
In 1808 he was given command of the Baltic fleet with his flag in HMS Victory. Saumarez's mission was to protect the British trade which was of vital importance for Royal Navy supplies and to blockade enemy ports such as those under French control in northern Germany. The Russian fleet was also kept under blockade until Alexander I reopened Russian ports. Sweden, under pressure from France, declared war on Britain in November 1810 but Saumarez showed conspicuous tact towards the government of Sweden and her shipping, correctly guessing that the Swedes, like their Russian neighbours, would eventually defy Napoleon. Charles XIII later bestowed on him the Grand Cross of the military Order of the Sword. Denmark, a French satellite, also needed to be kept under observation until it was invaded by the Swedish Army in 1814. In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia with half a million troops and Saumarez's fleet was instrumental in hampering French operations.
At the Peace of 1814, Saumarez attained the rank of admiral, and in 1819 he was made Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom, in 1821 Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom. From 1824 to 1827 he was Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth.He was raised to the peerage as Baron de Saumarez in 1831 and died in Guernsey in 1836. In memory of Saumarez's achievements, there is a statue of him in the National Maritime Museum in London. The public bar at the Duke of Normandie Hotel in Saint Peter Port was named after Saumarez and features a portrait of him.
Saumarez and Nelson served together in 1797 and 1798, but their relationship was not a close one. In fact on a number of occasions it became quite strained. They first clashed after the Battle of Cape St Vincent. Saumarez had forced the surrender of the Santissima Trinidad but was unable to capture her because Jervis was forced to break off the engagement. Nelson attempted to console Saumarez by telling him that the Spanish had confirmed that the Trinidad had indeed surrendered. Saumarez tersely replied "Whoever doubted it, sir? I hope there is no need for such evidence to establish the truth of a report of a British officer."
In May 1798, when Saumarez was appointed to Nelson's squadron in the Mediterranean, Nelson preferred to confer with Troubridge and even though, as the senior captain, Saumarez was technically second in command, he was often left out of their conversations.
After the Battle of the Nile, while in conversation with Nelson, on the quarterdeck of HMS Vanguard, Saumarez suggested that the tactic of doubling the French line had been a dangerous one as it exposed British ships to 'friendly fire'. Before he had a chance to explain, Nelson cut him short and angrily went below. Nelson decided that Saumarez should escort the prizes home, and they never served together again.
Later Nelson wrote a letter saying, "I could have formed no opinion of Orion that was not favourable to her gallant and excellent commander (Saumarez) and crew". However, the awkwardness between them remained.
In 1788 he married Martha le Marchant († 1849) of a wealthy Guernsey family, who brought the estate now known as Saumarez Park into the marriage. They had three sons and four daughters:The eldest, James (1789–1863), succeeded to the peerage, was a clergyman and died without children; he was succeeded in the peerage by his brother, John St. Vincent Saumarez (1806–1891).
Saumarez appears as a minor character in C. S. Forester's Hornblower novel 'The Happy Return' as a rear-admiral and is mentioned again in the later Hornblower novel 'The Commodore' as the admiral soon to be commanding in the Baltic.
Saumerez appears as admiral of the Gibraltar Squadron in "Master and Commander" and also as admiral of the Baltic Fleet in "The Surgeon's Mate", books from Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey–Maturin series.
In Treachery (2008) (US title "The Privateer's Revenge") by Julian Stockwin, Saumerez' purported orders (actually a forgery) result in the disgrace of Thomas Kydd. Saumarez returns as commander of the Baltic Fleet in The Baltic Prize (2017).
Baron de Saumarez, in the Island of Guernsey, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 15 September 1831 for the prominent naval commander Admiral Sir James Saumarez, 1st Baronet. He had already been created a Baronet, of Guernsey, on 13 June 1801. Lord de Saumarez was succeeded by his eldest son James, the second Baron, a clergyman. James was succeeded by his younger brother, John, the third Baron, whose son, the fourth Baron, was a career diplomat who bought the family estate at Castel, Guernsey, from his father, the third Baron, who wished to sell it. However, by marrying an heiress, the fourth Baron also brought estates in Suffolk into the family.
Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle, was a British naval officer in the Royal Navy whose accolades include three separate fleet actions, a close friendship with Lord Nelson, and a barony in Austria. He was the father of Sir Admiral Charles Fremantle, after whom the city Fremantle, in Western Australia, is named.
Rear-Admiral Sir George Johnstone Hope, KCB was a British naval officer, who served with distinction in the Royal Navy throughout the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the Battle of Trafalgar. A close personal friend of Admiral Nelson, he received many honours following the battle, and later served as a Lord of the Admiralty.
Sir Charles Thompson, 1st Baronet was a British naval officer. After long service in the Seven Years' War, American War of Independence and War of the First Coalition, he was Admiral John Jervis's second in command at the battle of Cape St Vincent. However, his disregard for Jervis's signal to tack to counter a Spanish attacking move nearly lost the battle, and began an enmity with Jervis that eventually led to Thompson's retirement. From 1796 to 1799 he was also MP for Monmouth.
Ralph Willett Miller was an officer of the Royal Navy. He served during the American Revolutionary and the French Revolutionary Wars, eventually rising to the rank of Captain. He was one of Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson's Band of Brothers at the Battle of the Nile in 1798.
Admiral Sir James Hillyar KCB KCH was a prominent British Royal Navy officer of the early nineteenth century, who is best known for his service in the frigate HMS Phoebe during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. While in command of Phoebe, Hillyar was present at the Invasion of Ile de France in 1810, was heavily engaged at the Battle of Tamatave in 1811 and captured the USS Essex off Valparaíso in Chile in 1814. In addition, Hillyar was engaged in numerous other operations, his first battle occurring in 1781 off Boston. He remained in the Navy until his death in 1843, and was active at sea during the 1830s, commanding fleets in the North Sea and off Portugal. He was knighted twice and two of his sons later became full admirals, Charles Farrell Hillyar and Henry Shank Hillyar.
Sir Charles Henry Knowles, 2nd Baronet, GCB was an officer of the Royal Navy, who saw service during the American War of Independence, and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, eventually rising to the rank of Admiral. Highly intellectual, he authored a number of signal books and had the chance to put his ideas into practice during his naval career. Knowles was at times beset by problems with discipline aboard his ships, often due to large proportions of raw recruits and untrained seamen. This may have been a factor in his rocky relationship with his superior, Sir John Jervis, which eventually led to Knowles's retirement from active service after the Battle of Cape St Vincent, and his concentration on scholarly studies of the issues affecting the naval service.
Lord Henry Paulet KCB was an officer in the Royal Navy who saw service in the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Born into the British nobility as a younger son of the Marquess of Winchester, he rose through the ranks and had gained his own command by the early stages of the French Revolutionary Wars. He was involved in a number of famous engagements during his career, such as the capture of the French frigate Gloire in 1795, though he narrowly missed out on seeing direct action at two of the most significant naval battles of the wars with the French. The first was the Battle of Cape St Vincent, where he had left Jervis's fleet a few days previously, the second was the Battle of Copenhagen, where he remained with Sir Hyde Parker's reserve squadron. He nevertheless rose through the ranks to reach vice-admiral, despite an incident that saw him court-martialled and dismissed, only to be reinstated by the intervention of the King; and a tendency to eccentricity. He married towards the end of the wars with France, and had several children. Paulet served as one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty from 1813, and was installed as a Knight Commander of the Bath in 1815, but ill-health forced his retirement from active service shortly afterwards, and he would die of cancer in 1832.
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Eric Douglas Saumarez, 7th Baron de Saumarez, is a British hereditary peer.
Hugh Downman was an officer of the Royal Navy who saw service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, eventually rising to the rank of Admiral.
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The Action of 13 October 1796 was a minor naval engagement of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought off the Mediterranean coast of Spain near Cartagena between the British Royal Navy 32-gun frigate HMS Terpsichore under Captain Richard Bowen and the Spanish Navy 34-gun frigate Mahonesa under Captain Tomás de Ayalde. The action was the first battle of the Anglo-Spanish War, coming just eight days after the Spanish declaration of war. In a battle lasting an hour and forty minutes, Mahonesa was captured.
The Algeciras campaign was an attempt by a French naval squadron from Toulon under Contre-Admiral Charles Linois to join a French and Spanish fleet at Cadiz during June and July 1801 during the French Revolutionary War prior to a planned operation against either Egypt or Portugal. To reach Cadiz, the French squadron had to pass the British naval base at Gibraltar, which housed the squadron tasked with blockading Cadiz. The British squadron was commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir James Saumarez. After a successful voyage between Toulon and Gibraltar, in which a number of British vessels were captured, the squadron anchored at Algeciras, a fortified port city within sight of Gibraltar across Gibraltar Bay. On 6 July 1801, Saumarez attacked the anchored squadron, in the First Battle of Algeciras. Although severe damage was inflicted on all three French ships of the line, none could be successfully captured and the British were forced to withdraw without HMS Hannibal, which had grounded and was subsequently seized by the French.
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The Croisière de Bruix was the principal naval campaign of the year 1799 during the French Revolutionary Wars. The expedition began in April 1799 when the bulk of the French Atlantic Fleet under Vice-Admiral Étienne Eustache Bruix departed the base at Brest, evading the British Channel Fleet which was blockading the port and tricking the commander Admiral Lord Bridport into believing their true destination was Ireland. Passing southwards, the French fleet narrowly missed joining with an allied Spanish Navy squadron at Ferrol and was prevented by an easterly gale from uniting with the main Spanish fleet at Cádiz before entering the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean was under British control following the destruction of the French Mediterranean Fleet at the Battle of the Nile in August 1798, and a British fleet nominally under Admiral Earl St Vincent was stationed there. Due however to St. Vincent's ill-health, operational control rested with Vice-Admiral Lord Keith. As Keith sought to chase down the French, the Spanish fleet followed Bruix into the Mediterranean before being badly damaged in a gale and sheltering in Cartagena.
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The Mediterranean campaign of 1793–1796 was a major theater of conflict in the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars. Fought during the War of the First Coalition, the campaign was primarily contested in the Western Mediterranean between the French Navy's Mediterranean Fleet, based at Toulon in Southern France, and the British Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet, supported by the Spanish Navy and the smaller navies of several Italian states. Major fighting was concentrated in the Ligurian Sea, and focused on British maintenance of and French resistance to a British close blockade of the French Mediterranean coast. Additional conflict spread along Mediterranean trade routes, contested by individual warships and small squadrons.
Sir Alexander Cochrane
| Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth |
Sir William Young
| Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom |
The Earl of Northesk
Sir William Young
| Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom |
The Viscount Exmouth
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baron de Saumarez |
1831 – 1836
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baronet |
1801 – 1836