James Stewart, Duke of Ross (March 1476 – January 1504) was the second son of King James III of Scotland and Margaret of Denmark.
He was made Marquess of Ormond at his baptism. He was created Earl of Ross in 1481 after that title was forfeited to the crown by John, Lord of the Isles.
Of his father's three sons, James of Ross was the favourite. James III even tried to marry him to Edward IV's daughter, Catherine of York. This increasing preference shown to James of Ross was a factor in the rebellion of his elder brother (the future James IV) against their father; and later, as king, James IV was suspicious of his brother's loyalty.
Nonetheless, when the elder James succeeded to the crown in 1488, he raised James of Ross's title to Duke of Ross, aged 12.
Around May 1497, his brother the King nominated James of Ross (then 21 years old) to be Archbishop of St Andrews. King James thought that would keep James of Ross from rebelling against him. Also, James of Ross was a minor, and so the revenues of the archbishopric would be controlled by King James.
James of Ross also became Lord Chancellor of Scotland in 1502.
He was one of three brothers, his two brothers being King James IV of Scotland and John Stewart, Earl of Mar. It may seem surprising that there were two brothers both called James. It has been suggested that at the time the younger was born the older was seriously ill and seemed unlikely to survive, but it is unclear whether there is any evidence for this hypothesis. In late mediaeval Scotland it was not uncommon to have two brothers, or occasionally even three, with the same Christian name.
The arms of James of Ross were: Quarterly 1st and 4th: Royal Arms of Scotland, 2nd: Gules, three lions rampant argent (Ross) 3rd: Or, three piles gules (Brechin)
|Ancestors of James Stewart, Duke of Ross|
| Archbishop of St. Andrews |
| Commendator of Dunfermline |
James Beaton *
*His immediate successor may
have been Gilbert Strachan.
Archbishop of St Andrews
| Chancellor of the University of St Andrews |
Archbishop of St Andrews
2nd Earl of Huntly
| Lord Chancellor of Scotland |
James IV was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death. He assumed the throne following the death of his father, King James III, at the Battle of Sauchieburn, a rebellion in which the younger James played an indirect role. He is generally regarded as the most successful of the Stewart monarchs of Scotland, but his reign ended in a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Flodden. He was the last monarch from the island of Great Britain to be killed in battle.
James I was King of Scotland from 1406 to 1437. The youngest of three sons, he was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond. His older brother David, Duke of Rothesay, died under suspicious circumstances while being detained by their uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany. His other brother, Robert, died young. Fears for James's safety grew through the winter of 1405/6 and plans were made to send him to France. In February 1406, James was forced to take refuge in the castle of the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth after his escort was attacked by supporters of Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas. He remained there until mid-March when he boarded a vessel bound for France. On 22 March English pirates captured the ship and delivered the prince to Henry IV of England. The ailing Robert III died on 4 April and the 11-year-old James, now the uncrowned King of Scotland, would not regain his freedom for another eighteen years.
Robert III, born John Stewart, was King of Scotland from 1390 to his death. He was known primarily as the Earl of Carrick before ascending the throne aged between 50 and 53 years. He was the eldest son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure and was legitimised with the marriage of his parents in 1347.
James III was King of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice fairly, a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, and a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family. It was through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark that the Orkney and Shetland islands became Scottish.
Duke of Rothesay is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. It was a title of the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707, of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1707 to 1801, and now of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is the title mandated for use by the heir apparent when in Scotland, in preference to the titles Duke of Cornwall and Prince of Wales, which are used in the rest of the United Kingdom and overseas. The Duke of Rothesay also holds other Scottish titles, including those of Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. The title is named after Rothesay on the Isle of Bute, Argyll and Bute, but is not associated with any legal entity or landed property, unlike the Duchy of Cornwall.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain, with historical connections to Brittany. The family name itself comes from the office of High Steward of Scotland, which had been held by the family scion Walter fitz Alan. The name "Stewart" and variations had become established as a family name by the time of his grandson, Walter Stewart. The first monarch of the Stewart line was Robert II whose descendants were kings and queens of Scotland from 1371 until the union with England in 1707. Mary, Queen of Scots was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name, Stuart.
Duke of Hamilton is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, created in 1643. It is the senior dukedom in that Peerage, and as such its holder is the Premier Peer of Scotland, as well as being head of both the House of Hamilton and the House of Douglas. The title, the town of Hamilton in Lanarkshire, and many places around the world are named after members of the Hamilton family. The Ducal family's surname, originally "Hamilton", is now "Douglas-Hamilton". Since 1711, the Dukedom has been held together with the Dukedom of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain, and the Dukes since that time have been styled Duke of Hamilton and Brandon, along with several other subsidiary titles.
Earl of Carrick or Mormaer of Carrick is the title applied to the ruler of Carrick, subsequently part of the Peerage of Scotland. The position came to be strongly associated with the Scottish crown when Robert the Bruce, who had inherited it from his maternal kin, became King of the Scots in the early 14th century. Since the 15th century the title of Earl of Carrick has automatically been held by the heir apparent to the throne, meaning Prince Charles is the current Earl.
The Lord of the Isles is a title of Scottish nobility with historical roots that go back beyond the Kingdom of Scotland. It emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys (birlinns). Although they were, at times, nominal vassals of the Kings of Norway, Ireland, or Scotland, the island chiefs remained functionally independent for many centuries. Their territory included the Hebrides, Knoydart, Ardnamurchan, and the Kintyre peninsula. At their height they were the greatest landowners and most powerful lords in Britain after the Kings of England and Scotland.
Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany was a member of the Scottish royal family who served as regent to three different Scottish monarchs. A ruthless politician, Albany was widely regarded as having caused the murder of his nephew, the Duke of Rothesay, and brother to the future King James I of Scotland. James was held in captivity in England for eighteen years, during which time Albany served as regent in Scotland, king in all but name. He died in 1420 and was succeeded by his son, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, who was executed for treason when James returned to Scotland in 1425, almost causing the complete ruin of the Albany Stewarts.
Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll, was a medieval Scottish nobleman, peer, and politician. He was the son of Archibald Campbell, Master of Campbell and Elizabeth Somerville. He had the sobriquet Colin Mulle, Bold Earl Colin.
The Earl of Fife or Mormaer of Fife was the ruler of the province of Fife in medieval Scotland, which encompassed the modern counties of Fife and Kinross. Due to their royal ancestry, the earls of Fife were the highest ranking nobles in the realm, and had the right to crown the king of Scots.
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389, he became Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402, he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England.
Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany, was the second surviving son of King James II of Scotland. He fell out with his older brother, King James III, and fled to France, where he unsuccessfully sought help. In 1482 he invaded Scotland with the army of King Edward IV of England and assumed control of the country. Scottish lords turned against him in 1483 and he fled after Edward died. The second invasion, in 1484, was not supported by the new English king, Richard III, and failed. He died in a duel with the duke of Orléans, by a splinter from his lance.
The Earl or Mormaer of Ross was the ruler of the province of Ross in northern Scotland.
Alexander Stewart was an illegitimate son of King James IV of Scotland by his mistress Marion Boyd. He was the King's eldest illegitimate child. He was an elder brother of Catherine Stewart, his only full sibling, a half brother to James Stewart, Margaret Stewart and Janet Stewart, the other illegitimate children of James IV and his mistresses. He was an older half-brother of the future James V.
Donald, Lord of the Isles, was the son and successor of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and chief of Clan Donald. The Lordship of the Isles was based in and around the Scottish west-coast island of Islay, but under Donald's father had come to include many of the other islands off the west coast of Scotland, as well as Morvern, Garmoran, Lochaber, Kintyre and Knapdale on the mainland.
Alexander Leslie, Earl of Ross was a Scottish nobleman. Born between 1367 and 1382, he was the son of Walter Leslie, Lord of Ross and Euphemia I, Countess of Ross. In around 1394 he became Earl of Ross and sometime before 1398 he married Isabel Stewart, daughter of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany. They had one child, Euphemia. He died at Dingwall, Scotland on 8 May 1402.
Margaret Stewart was the younger daughter of James II of Scotland and Mary of Guelders. Once engaged to the Lancastrian Prince of Wales, Margaret instead became the mistress of William Crichton, 3rd Lord Crichton, and the mother of his illegitimate daughter, Margaret Crichton, later Countess of Rothes, and possibly his son, Sir James Crichton, progenitor of the Viscounts of Frendraught. Margaret and Lord Crichton may have been married later, after the death of Crichton's wife.