Jamshid Amouzegar

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Jamshid Amouzegar
43rd Prime Minister of Iran
In office
7 August 1977 27 August 1978
Monarch Mohammad Reza Shah
Preceded by Amir-Abbas Hoveyda
Succeeded by Jafar Sharif-Emami
Minister of Interior
In office
1 March 1974 7 August 1977
Prime Minister Amir-Abbas Hoveida
Preceded by Kamal Hassani
Succeeded by Gholam Reza Azhari
Minister of Finance
In office
1 February 1965 1 March 1974
Prime Minister Amir-Abbas Hoveida
Preceded by Amir-Abbas Hoveida
Succeeded by Hushang Ansary
Personal details
Born(1923-06-25)25 June 1923
Estahban, Iran
Died27 September 2016(2016-09-27) (aged 93)
Rockville, Maryland, U.S.
Political party Rastakhiz Party
Spouse(s) Ulriche Amouzegar (1925–2005, her death)
Alma mater Cornell University
Signature Jamshid Amouzegar signature.gif

Jamshid Amouzegar (Persian : جمشید آموزگار; 25 June 1923 – 27 September 2016) was an Iranian economist and politician who was prime minister of Iran from 7 August 1977 to 27 August 1978 when he resigned. Prior to that, he served as the minister of interior and minister of finance in the cabinet of Amir-Abbas Hoveida. He was the leader of Rastakhiz Party during his tenure as prime minister of Iran.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Contents

Early life and education

Born on 25 June 1923 in Estahban, Iran, [1] He graduated from Tehran University with degrees in law and engineering. [1] Then he attended Cornell University and received a PhD. [1]

Estahban City in Fars, Iran

Estahban is a city and capital of Estahban County, Fars Province, Iran.

Iran Country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

Cornell University private university in Ithaca (New York, US)

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."

Career

Amouzegar began to serve as deputy minister in the Iran's ministry of health under Jahanshah Saleh in 1955. He was appointed minister of labor and then minister of health in the cabinet led by prime minister Hasan-ali Mansour. He subsequently became minister of finance in the cabinet of Amir Abbas Hoveida after the assassination of prime minister Mansour in 1964, remaining in that post for nine years. From 1965 to 1974 he headed several ordinary meetings of the OPEC. [2] In 1971, he and Sheikh Ahmed Zaki Yamani of Saudi Arabia were instrumental in implementing the series of price hikes that ultimately quadrupled the price of oil and provided the resources for Iran to modernize its infrastructure, agriculture, and defense. For this accomplishment, Amouzegar was awarded the Taj-e Iran, first class, an honor normally reserved for only the prime minister and former prime ministers. He was appointed minister of interior in 1974.

OPEC international organization of petroleum-exporting countries

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is an intergovernmental organisation of 14 nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members, and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria. As of September 2018, the then 14 member countries accounted for an estimated 44 percent of global oil production and 81.5 percent of the world's "proven" oil reserves, giving OPEC a major influence on global oil prices that were previously determined by the so called "Seven Sisters” grouping of multinational oil companies.

Ahmed Zaki Yamani former Saudi Arabian minister of oil

Ahmed Zaki Yamani is a Saudi Arabian politician who was Minister of Oil (Petroleum) and Mineral Resources from 1962 to 1986, and a minister in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for 25 years.

Saudi Arabia Country in Western Asia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia also enjoys one of the world's youngest populations; 50% of its 33.4 million people are under 25 years old.

On 21 December 1975 he was taken hostage by the Venezuelan terrorist Carlos the Jackal during an OPEC meeting. Carlos was ordered to execute him, but did not do so, and Amouzegar was released along with the other hostages after a few days. Carlos flew him and a Saudi to Algeria. From there, they were released. [ citation needed ]

In 1977 he became chairman of the Rastakhiz (Resurrection) party, having led the progressive faction against finance minister Hushang Ansary's liberal constructionist faction. Soon after Jimmy Carter became president of the United States, Amouzegar was appointed prime minister of Iran on 7 August 1977, succeeding Amir Abbas Hoveyda. [3] However, he rapidly became unpopular as he attempted to slow the overheated economy with measures that, although generally thought necessary, triggered a downturn in employment and private sector profits that would later compound the government's problems. He resigned and was replaced by Jafar Sharif-Emami on 27 August 1978. [3] [4]

Hushang Ansary politician and businessman

Hushang Ansary is an Iranian-American former diplomat, businessman, and philanthropist. He served for eighteen years in the Iranian government prior to the Iranian Revolution including as Minister of Economic Affairs and Finance and Iran's Ambassador to the United States from 1967-1969. He has been chairman or director of companies both in Iran and in the United States.

Jimmy Carter 39th president of the United States

James Earl Carter Jr. is an American politician and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A Democrat, he previously served as a Georgia State senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. Carter has remained active in public life during his post-presidency, and in 2002 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center.

Jafar Sharif-Emami Iranian engineer and politician

Jafar Sharif-Imami was an Iranian politician who was prime minister from 1960 to 1961 and again in 1978. He was a cabinet minister, president of the Iranian Senate, president of the Pahlavi Foundation and the president of the Iran chamber of industries and mines during the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Amouzegar did not return to Iran after leaving in 1978. He lived in Chevy Chase, Maryland and later in Rockville. [5] Amouzegar was also a consultant to the governments of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. [5]

Chevy Chase, Maryland Unincorporated community in Maryland, United States

Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated census-designated place that straddle the northwest border of Washington, D.C. and Montgomery County, Maryland. Several settlements in the same area of Montgomery County and one neighborhood of Washington, D.C. include "Chevy Chase" in their names. These villages, the town, and the CDP share a common history and together form a larger community colloquially referred to as "Chevy Chase".

Rockville, Maryland City in Maryland

Rockville is a city and the county seat of Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. The 2010 census tabulated Rockville's population at 61,209, making it one of the largest communities in Maryland and the third largest location in Montgomery County, after Silver Spring and Germantown.

He died in Rockville, Maryland in the United States on 27 September 2016 at age of 93. [5]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Kadivar, Darius (20 May 2012). "Shah Names New Cabinet with Jamshid Amouzegar as PM (1977)". The Iranian. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  2. "162th Ordinary Meeting" (PDF). OPEC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  3. 1 2 Nikazmerad, Nicholas M. (1980). "A Chronological Survey of the Iranian Revolution". Iranian Studies. 13 (1/4): 327–368. doi:10.1080/00210868008701575. JSTOR   4310346.
  4. Mansoor Moaddel (January 1994). Class, Politics, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution. Columbia University Press. p. 160. ISBN   978-0-231-51607-5 . Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  5. 1 2 3 "Jamshid Amouzegar, former Iranian prime minister, dies at 93". The Washington Post.

Sources

Political offices
Preceded by
Amir-Abbas Hoveyda
Minister of Finance
19651974
Succeeded by
Hushang Ansary
Preceded by
Kamal Hassani
Minister of Interior
19741977
Succeeded by
Gholam Reza Azhari
Preceded by
Amir-Abbas Hoveyda
Prime Minister of Iran
19771978
Succeeded by
Jafar Sharif-Emami
Party political offices
Preceded by
Amir-Abbas Hoveyda
Secretary-General of the Resurgence Party
1976–1977
1978
Succeeded by
Mohammad Baheri
Preceded by
Mohammad Baheri
Succeeded by
Javad Saeed