|Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia in exile|
21 July 1940 –5 April 1945
|Born||11 August 1870|
|Died||22 April 1956 85) (aged|
|Political party||Czechoslovak People's Party|
Jan Šrámek (11 August 1870,Grygov,Margraviate of Moravia –22 April 1956,Prague)was the prime minister of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile from 21 July 1940 to 5 April 1945. He was the first chairman of the Czechoslovak People's Party and was a Monsignor in the Catholic church.
From 1945 on Czechoslovakia was ruled by the Communist-dominated National Front which also included Šrámek's People's Party. Šrámek and the rest of his coalition worried about the increasing role of the communist party. In 1947,the popular support for communists started to diminish. To consolidate power,communists carried out a coup in February 1948. Šrámek had to resign as the chairman of the People's Party. His successor,Rostislav Petr,and Josef Plojhar,a "strong man" in the People's Party,supported unconditional collaboration with communists.
The Prague Spring was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. It began on 5 January 1968,when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ),and continued until 21 August 1968,when the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact members invaded the country to suppress the reforms.
During World War II,Czechoslovakia had largely disappeared from the map of Europe. The Third Czechoslovak Republic which emerged as a sovereign state after the end of the war was not only the result of the policies of the victorious Western allies,the French Fourth Republic,the United Kingdom and the United States,but also an indication of the strength of the Czechoslovak ideal embodied in the First Czechoslovak Republic. However,at the conclusion of World War II,Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence,and this circumstance dominated any plans or strategies for postwar reconstruction. Consequently,the political and economic organisation of Czechoslovakia became largely a matter of negotiations between Edvard Benešand Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) exiles living in Moscow.
With the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I,the independent country of Czechoslovakia was formed as a result of the critical intervention of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson,among others.
The Czech Social Democratic Party is a pro-European,social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic. Sitting on the centre-left of the political spectrum,it is a member of the Party of European Socialists,the Socialist International,and the Progressive Alliance.
KDU-ČSL,often shortened to lidovci is a Christian-democratic political party in the Czech Republic. The party has taken part in almost every Czech government since 1990. In the June 2006 legislative election,the party won 7.2% of the vote and 13 out of 200 seats;but in the 2010 election,its vote share dropped to 4.4% and they lost all of its seats. The party regained its parliamentary standing in the 2013 legislative election,winning 14 seats in the new parliament,thereby becoming the first party ever to return to the Chamber of Deputies after previously dropping out.
Gustáv Husák was a Slovak communist politician,who served as the long-time First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1969 to 1987 and the president of Czechoslovakia from 1975 to 1989. His rule is known as the period of the Normalization after the Prague Spring.
Czech National Social Party is a civic nationalist political party in the Czech Republic,that once played an important role in Czechoslovakia during the interwar period. It was established in 1897 by break-away groups from both the national liberal Young Czech Party and the Czech Social Democratic Party,with a stress on achieving independence of the Czech lands from Austria-Hungary. Its variant of socialism was moderate and reformist rather than a Marxist one. After the National Labour Party dissolved and merged with National Socialists in 1930,the party also became the refuge for Czech liberals. Its best-known member was Edvard Beneš,a co-founder of Czechoslovakia and the country's second President during the 1930s and 1940s.
Ludvík Svoboda was a Czech general and politician. He fought in both World Wars,for which he was regarded as a national hero,and he later served as the president of Czechoslovakia from 1968 to 1975.
Hlinka's Slovak People's Party,also known as the Slovak People's Party or the Hlinka Party,was a far-right clerico-fascist political party with a strong Catholic fundamentalist and authoritarian ideology. Its members were often called ľudáci.
The Polish Underground State was a single political and military entity formed by the union of resistance organizations in occupied Poland that were loyal to the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile in London. The first elements of the Underground State were established in the final days of the German and Soviet invasion of Poland,in late September 1939. The Underground State was perceived by supporters as a legal continuation of the pre-war Republic of Poland that waged an armed struggle against the country's occupying powers:Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The Underground State encompassed not only military resistance,one of the largest in the world,but also civilian structures,such as education,culture and social services.
The Czechoslovak Republic existed between 1948 and 1960. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was the name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 to 23 April 1990,when the country was under Communist rule. It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Following the coup d'état of February 1948,when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union,the country was declared a socialist republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective. The traditional name Československárepublika was changed on 11 July 1960 following the implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country,and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989. Several other state symbols were changed in 1960. Shortly after the Velvet Revolution,the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
The First Czechoslovak Republic,often colloquially referred to as the First Republic,was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938,dominated by ethnic Czechs and Slovaks,the country was commonly called Czechoslovakia,a compound of Czech and Slovak;which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states. It was composed of former territories of Austria-Hungary,inheriting different systems of administration from the formerly Austrian and Hungarian territories.
Rudolf Margolius was a Czech politician. Deputy Minister for Foreign Trade,Czechoslovakia (1949–1952),and a co-defendant in the Slánskýtrial in November 1952.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia,officially known as Operation Danube,was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by four Warsaw Pact countries on the night of 20–21 August 1968. Approximately 500,000 Warsaw Pact troops attacked Czechoslovakia that night,with Romania and Albania refusing to participate. East German forces,except for a small number of specialists,did not participate in the invasion because they were ordered from Moscow not to cross the Czechoslovak border just hours before the invasion. 137 Czechoslovakian civilians were killed and 500 seriously wounded during the occupation.
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile,sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia,was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee,initially by British diplomatic recognition. The name came to be used by other World War II Allies as they subsequently recognised it. The committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President,Edvard Benešin Paris,France,in October 1939. Unsuccessful negotiations with France for diplomatic status,as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France,forced the committee to withdraw to London in 1940. The Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile offices were at various locations in London but mainly at a building called Fursecroft.
Resistance to the German occupation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia during World War II began after the occupation of the rest of Czechoslovakia and the formation of the protectorate on 15 March 1939. German policy deterred acts of resistance and annihilated organizations of resistance. In the early days of the war,the Czech population participated in boycotts of public transport and large-scale demonstrations. Later on,armed communist partisan groups participated in sabotage and skirmishes with German police forces. The most well-known act of resistance was the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich. Resistance culminated in the so-called Prague uprising of May 1945;with Allied armies approaching,about 30,000 Czechs seized weapons. Four days of bloody street fighting ensued before the Soviet Red Army entered the nearly liberated city.
Parliamentary elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 27 October 1929. The Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants,emerged as the largest party,winning 46 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 24 seats in the Senate. Voter turnout was 90.2% in the Chamber election and 78.8% for the Senate. The rightward shift of the 1925 elections was reversed,with moderate centre-left groups increasing their vote shares whilst the Communist Party suffered a set-back.
Edvard Beneš was a Czech politician and statesman who served as the president of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948. He also led the Czechoslovak government-in-exile 1939 to 1945,during World War II.
The Czechoslovak–Hungarian population exchange was the exchange of inhabitants between Czechoslovakia and Hungary after World War II. Between 45,000 and 120,000 Hungarians were forcibly transferred from Czechoslovakia to Hungary,and their properties confiscated,while around 72,000 Slovaks voluntarily transferred from Hungary to Czechoslovakia,half of whom eventually moved back to Hungary.
Karl Kreibich (1883–1966),also known as Karel Kreibich,was a Sudeten German communist politician and author in Czechoslovakia. Kreibich emerged as the main leader of the revolutionary socialist movement amongst German workers in Bohemia after the First World War. He was a leader of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and a functionary of the Communist International. During the First Czechoslovak Republic,he was elected to parliament thrice. During the Second World War he was part of the exiled Czechoslovak State Council,based in London. After the war he served as Czechoslovak ambassador to the Soviet Union.