The Poles, commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and can be in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.
Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822. It ended with the suppression of the Polish-Lithuanian January 1863 Uprising against the Russian Empire in 1864. The latter event ushered in a new era in Polish culture known as Positivism.
Głowacki was born in Kraków, where he lived for most of his life. He took his first art lessons with the painter Antoni Giziński, and between 1819 and 1825 attended the workshops of Józef Brodowski and Józef Peszka at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. He continued his studies in Prague and then at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna under Franz Steinfeld until 1828. He went to Rome in 1834/35 and finished his studies in Munich. While abroad, he went by the name Jean Nepomuk Glowacki. Upon his return from Vienna, Głowacki became a teacher of art in his hometown and also a prolific artist. He painted mostly landscapes and city scapes, as well as portraits, and religious or mythological scenes. He was influenced by the Viennese school of realism, which was especially apparent in his portrait studies. Polish art critics and historians consider him the father of Polish school of landscape painting.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow in English, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Głowacki was the first Polish artist to devote an entire series of works to the Tatra Mountains. He was also the first, to produce studies for his oil paintings on strenuous outdoor trips. Landscapes such as "Widok z Poronina" (View from Poronin, 1836) and "Morskie Oko" (1837) are said to mark the beginning of realist Polish mountain painting. His Romantic city scapes of Kraków and its environs became very popular during his lifetime thanks to an album of 24 prints that he published in 1836. He was married and had a son, Justyn Jan Głowacki, born in 1838, and a daughter Emilia (ca 1840). Very little else is known about his personal life.
The Tatra Mountains, Tatras, or Tatra, is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. They are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. The Tatras should not be confused with the Low Tatras, which are located south of the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia.
Poronin, is a village in southern Poland situated in Tatra County of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. It lies approximately 7 kilometres (4 mi) north-east of Zakopane and 80 km (50 mi) south of the regional capital Kraków.
Morskie Oko, or Eye of the Sea in English, is the largest and fourth-deepest lake in the Tatra Mountains, in southern Poland. It is located deep within the Tatra National Park in the Rybi Potok Valley, of the High Tatras mountain range at the base of the Mięguszowiecki Summits, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
↑ Antoni Nowak, transl. by Matthew Dundon. "Closing statements"(PDF direct download, 100 KB). The Oldest Images of the Tatras. Euroregion Tatry EU. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
↑ "Jan Nepomucen Głowacki". Malarstwo polskie XIX wieku. Katalog zbiorów Muzeum Narodowego w Krakowie (in Polish). Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie. 2001. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
Jan Alojzy Matejko was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events. His works include large oil on canvas paintings like Rejtan (1866), Union of Lublin (1869) or Battle of Grunwald (1878), numerous portraits, a gallery of Polish kings, and murals in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków. He is referred to as the most famous Polish painter or even the "national painter" of Poland.
Piotr Michałowski was a Polish painter of the Romantic period, especially known for his many portraits, and oil studies of horses. Broadly educated, he was also a social activist, legal advocate, city administrator and President of the Kraków Agricultural Society. The Sukiennice Museum, a division of the National Museum in Kraków, contains a room that is named after him and devoted to Michałowski's work.
Aleksander Kotsis was a Polish painter. He created landscapes, portraits and genre scenes in a combination Romantic and Realistic style. Most of his paintings are small.
Walery Eljasz-Radzikowski was a Polish painter, illustrator, teacher of fine arts and photographer active during the foreign Partitions of Poland.
Tadeusz Ajdukiewicz was a Polish realist painter from around the turn-of-the-century, best known for his battle-scenes, portraits, landscapes and paintings of horses. He was educated in Kraków in the Austrian sector of the Partitioned Poland. He died in the armed struggle for Poland's independence around Kraków during World War I.
The Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow, is a public institution of higher learning located in downtown Kraków, Poland. It is the oldest Polish fine arts academy, established in 1818 and granted full autonomy in 1873.
The National Museum in Kraków, popularly abbreviated as MNK, established in 1879, is the main branch of Poland's National Museum, which has several independent branches with permanent collections around the country. The Museum consists of 21 departments which are divided by art period; 11 galleries, 2 libraries, and 12 conservation workshops. It holds some 780,000 art objects, spanning from classical archeology to modern art, with special focus on Polish painting.
Wojciech Korneli Stattler or Albert Kornel Stattler was a Polish Romantic painter of Swiss aristocratic ancestry, who started training in Vienna and at age 17 went to St. Luke's Academy in Rome. From 1831 he taught as professor at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. 1850 he returned to Rome. His most famous pupil in Poland was nominal painter Jan Matejko.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art at Sukiennice, is a division of the National Museum, Kraków, Poland. The Gallery is housed on the upper floor of the Renaissance Sukiennice Cloth Hall in the center of the Main Market Square in Old Town Kraków.
Artur Grottger was a Polish Romantic painter and graphic artist, one of the most prominent artists of the mid 19th century under the foreign partitions of Poland, despite a life cut short by incurable illness.
Jan Krzysztof Damel, also known as Jonas Damelis and Johann Damehl in other languages was a Polish neoclassicist artist in the age of Partitions, associated with the School of Art at Vilnius University.
Dagobert Frey was an Austrian art historian, a criminal responsible for the theft of the most valuable European and Polish collections from the Warsaw and Kraków museums and national art galleries during the Nazi German occupation of Poland.
Władysław Łuszczkiewicz was a Polish historical painter of the late Romantic era from Kraków, active in the period of the foreign partitions of Poland. He was a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts and served as its principal in 1893/95. One of his best students was Jan Matejko, the eminent Polish historical painter and later, his close associate. Łuszczkiewicz taught painting, drawing, anatomy and architectural styles. Highly educated, he also worked as conservator of architectural monuments in the city later on in his career, and wrote historical dissertations.
Leopold Loeffler, also spelled Löffler,, was a Polish realist painter of the late Romantic period popular in the second half of the 19th century under the foreign partitions of Poland. Lithographic reproductions of his paintings were widely distributed among the members of the Kraków and Warsaw art societies, and frequently reprinted in popular periodicals owing to their historical references to Polish national uprisings and battlefronts, as well as their great attention to period detail.
The National Museum in Wrocław, established 28 March 1947 and officially inaugurated on 11 July 1948, is one of Poland's main branches of the National Museum system. It holds one of the largest collections of contemporary art in the country.
Zefiryn (Zefir) Alojzy Ćwikliński Ceferino - Polish painter, known primarily for painting in the Tatra mountains.
Władysław Wankie was a Polish painter and art critic. He painted realist landscape paintings, genre scenes, religious art and symbolic art. He was the co-author of the Panorama of the Tatra Mountains.
Alfred Schouppé was a Polish painter, and one of the founders of the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts in Warsaw.
Antoni Gramatyka was a Polish painter, bound Kraków and its surroundings.
Maximilian (also spelled Maksymilian) Cercha (1818–1907) was a Polish painter and drawer. He was the nephew of Ezechiel Cercha (1790–1820) and the father of Stanisław Cercha (1867–1919).
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