Jan Nepomucen Głowacki

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Jan Nepomucen Głowacki
Jan Nepomucen Glowacki - Portrait of an artist (1842).jpg
Oil on canvas, 1842 (unnamed)
Kraków, Poland
Died(1847-07-28)July 28, 1847 (aged 44–45)
Kraków, Poland
Known forPainting, art history
Movement Realism

Jan Nepomucen Głowacki (1802 – July 28, 1847) was a Polish realist painter of the Romantic era, regarded as the most outstanding landscape painter of the early 19th century in Poland under the foreign partitions. [1] [2] Głowacki studied painting at the Kraków School of Fine Arts and later at the academies of Prague and Vienna, as well as Rome and Munich. He returned to Kraków in 1828, and became a teacher of painting and drawing. From 1842 he served as a professor in the Faculty of Landscape Painting at the School of Fine Arts. His work can be found at the National Museum of Poland and its branches. [3] Some of his work was looted by Nazi Germany in World War II and has never been recovered. [4]

Poles West Slavic nation native to Poland

The Poles, commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone.

Realism (arts) Artistic style of representing subjects realistically

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and can be in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.

Romanticism in Poland

Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822. It ended with the suppression of the Polish-Lithuanian January 1863 Uprising against the Russian Empire in 1864. The latter event ushered in a new era in Polish culture known as Positivism.


Głowacki was born in Kraków, where he lived for most of his life. He took his first art lessons with the painter Antoni Giziński, and between 1819 and 1825 attended the workshops of Józef Brodowski and Józef Peszka at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. He continued his studies in Prague and then at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna under Franz Steinfeld until 1828. He went to Rome in 1834/35 and finished his studies in Munich. While abroad, he went by the name Jean Nepomuk Glowacki. [5] Upon his return from Vienna, Głowacki became a teacher of art in his hometown and also a prolific artist. He painted mostly landscapes and city scapes, as well as portraits, and religious or mythological scenes. [1] He was influenced by the Viennese school of realism, which was especially apparent in his portrait studies. Polish art critics and historians consider him the father of Polish school of landscape painting. [6]

Kraków City in Lesser Poland, Poland

Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow in English, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Głowacki was the first Polish artist to devote an entire series of works to the Tatra Mountains. [6] He was also the first, to produce studies for his oil paintings on strenuous outdoor trips. Landscapes such as "Widok z Poronina" (View from Poronin, 1836) and " Morskie Oko " (1837) are said to mark the beginning of realist Polish mountain painting. [7] His Romantic city scapes of Kraków and its environs became very popular during his lifetime thanks to an album of 24 prints that he published in 1836. [5] He was married and had a son, Justyn Jan Głowacki, born in 1838, and a daughter Emilia (ca 1840). Very little else is known about his personal life. [8]

Tatra Mountains mountain range in Europe

The Tatra Mountains, Tatras, or Tatra, is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. They are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. The Tatras should not be confused with the Low Tatras, which are located south of the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia.

Poronin Place in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

Poronin, is a village in southern Poland situated in Tatra County of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. It lies approximately 7 kilometres (4 mi) north-east of Zakopane and 80 km (50 mi) south of the regional capital Kraków.

Morskie Oko lake

Morskie Oko, or Eye of the Sea in English, is the largest and fourth-deepest lake in the Tatra Mountains, in southern Poland. It is located deep within the Tatra National Park in the Rybi Potok Valley, of the High Tatras mountain range at the base of the Mięguszowiecki Summits, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship.

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 "Jan Nepomucen Głowacki, Kraków 1802 - Kraków 1847". Spis malarzy (in Polish). Pinakoteka Zascianek.pl. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  2. Antoni Nowak, transl. by Matthew Dundon. "Closing statements" (PDF direct download, 100 KB). The Oldest Images of the Tatras. Euroregion Tatry EU. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  3. "Jan Nepomucen Głowacki". Malarstwo polskie XIX wieku. Katalog zbiorów Muzeum Narodowego w Krakowie (in Polish). Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie. 2001. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  4. Monika Kuhnke. "Lost art: Jan Nepomucen Glowacki (sample)". Wartime Losses - Polish Painting - Catalogue. Retrieved August 23, 2012. Index of known artwork looted in World War II. [ permanent dead link ]
  5. 1 2 Grove Art, Oxford Art Online (2003). "Jan Nepomucen Glowacki short biography". Artfact Auctions. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  6. 1 2 "Jan Nepomucen Głowacki". Lista obiektów autora (in Polish and English). Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie. 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  7. Stanisław Eljasz-Radzikowski. "Głowacki Jan Nepomucen". Pierwszy artysta-malarz polski w Tatrach, Wielka Encyklopedia Tatrzańska. Zakopianski Portal Internetowy. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  8. "Justyn Jan Nepomcen Głowacki". Wielka Genealogia Minakowskiego (in Polish). Wielcy.pl. May 3, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2012.

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