Jan Pinborg (1937–1982) was a renowned historian of medieval linguistics and philosophy of language, and the most famous member of the Copenhagen School of Medieval Philosophy pioneered by Heinrich Roos in the 1940s.Pinborg was a pupil of Roos.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.
Philosophy of language, in the analytical tradition, explored logic, the nature of meaning, and accounts of the mind.
Helmut Kohlenberger is a German philosopher, translator, editor and university lecturer at both the Universities of Vienna and Salzburg. He is the author of several works, including The European idea and Culture, Theoretical issues of the Middle Ages and Modernism.
He was a co-editor, along with Norman Kretzmann and Anthony Kenny, of The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy (1982).
Norman J. Kretzmann was a Professor of Philosophy at Cornell University who specialised in the history of medieval philosophy and the philosophy of religion.
Sir Anthony John Patrick Kenny is an English philosopher whose interests lie in the philosophy of mind, ancient and scholastic philosophy, the philosophy of Wittgenstein and the philosophy of religion. With Peter Geach, he has made a significant contribution to Analytical Thomism, a movement whose aim is to present the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas in the style of analytic philosophy. He is one of the executors of Wittgenstein's literary estate. He is a former President of the British Academy and the Royal Institute of Philosophy.
Aristotle was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy". His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.
The Modistae, also known as the speculative grammarians, were the members of a school of grammarian philosophy known as Modism or speculative grammar, active in northern France, Germany, England, and Denmark in the 13th and 14th centuries. Their influence was felt much less in the southern part of Europe, where the somewhat opposing tradition of the so-called "pedagogical grammar" never lost its preponderance.
William of Sherwood or William Sherwood, with numerous variant spellings, was a medieval English scholastic philosopher, logician, and teacher. Little is known of his life, but he is thought to have studied in Paris, was a master at Oxford in 1252, treasurer of Lincoln from 1254/1258 onwards, and a rector of Aylesbury.
Boetius de Dacia, OP was a 13th-century Danish philosopher.
William of Heytesbury, or William Heytesbury, called in Latin Guglielmus Hentisberus or Tisberus, was an English philosopher and logician, best known as one of the Oxford Calculators of Merton College, Oxford, where he was a fellow.
John of Dumbleton was a member of the Dumbleton village community in Gloucestershire, a southwestern county in England. Although obscure, he is considered a significant English fourteenth-century philosopher for his contributions to logic, natural philosophy, and physics. Dumbleton’s masterwork is his Summa Logicae et Philosophiae Naturalis, likely to have been composed just before the time of his death.
Supposition theory was a branch of medieval logic that was probably aimed at giving accounts of issues similar to modern accounts of reference, plurality, tense, and modality, within an Aristotelian context. Philosophers such as John Buridan, William of Ockham, William of Sherwood, Walter Burley, Albert of Saxony, and Peter of Spain were its principal developers. By the 14th century it seems to have drifted into at least two fairly distinct theories, the theory of "supposition proper" which included an "ampliation" and is much like a theory of reference, and the theory of "modes of supposition" whose intended function is not clear.
Radulphus Brito was an influential grammarian and philosopher, based in Paris. He is usually identified as Raoul le Breton, though this is disputed by some. Besides works of grammatical speculation — he was one of the Modistae — he wrote on Aristotle, Boethius and Priscian.
Richard Kilvington was an English scholastic philosopher at the University of Oxford. His surviving works are lecture notes from the 1320s and 1330s. He was a Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. He was involved in a controversy over the nature of the infinite, with Richard FitzRalph, of Balliol College.
Peter Ceffons was a French Cistercian theologian and scholastic philosopher, who became Abbot of Clairvaux. He is considered an early humanist for his style.
Richard of Campsall (c.1280-c.1350) was an English theologian and scholastic philosopher, at the University of Oxford. He was a Fellow of Balliol College and then of Merton College. He is now considered a possible precursor to the views usually associated with William of Ockham.
In scholastic metaphysics, a formal distinction is a distinction intermediate between what is merely conceptual, and what is fully real or mind-independent. It was made by some realist philosophers of the Scholastic period in the thirteenth century, and particularly by Duns Scotus.
Topical logic is the logic of topical argument, a branch of rhetoric developed in the Late Antique period from earlier works, such as Aristotle's Topics and Cicero's Topica. It consists of heuristics for developing arguments, which are in the first place plausible rather than rigorous, from commonplaces. In other words, therefore, it consists of standardized ways of thinking up debating techniques from existing, thought-through positions. The actual practice of topical argument was much developed by Roman lawyers. Cicero took the theory of Aristotle to be an aspect of rhetoric. As such it belongs to inventio in the classic fivefold division of rhetoric.
Andrew of Cornwall was a philosopher at Oxford during the 1290s. He is thought to have introduced Parisian Modism into England, and possibly to have influenced the young Duns Scotus. These conclusions are tentative, since we are almost totally ignorant of the details of Andrew's life, and the dates and location of his activities are not certain.
Hermannus Alemannus translated Arabic philosophical works into Latin. He worked at the Toledo School of Translators around the middle of the thirteenth century and is almost certainly to be identified with the Hermannus who was bishop of Astorga in León from 1266 until his death in 1272.
Lambert of Auxerre was a medieval 13th century logician best known for writing the book "Summa Lamberti" or simply "Logica" in the mid 1250s which became an authoritative textbook on logic in the Western tradition. He was a Dominican in the Dominican house at Auxerre. His contemporaries were Peter of Spain, William of Sherwood, and Roger Bacon.
Patrick Osmund Lewry (1929–1987) was a Dominican who made significant contributions to the history of logic and the philosophy of language in the thirteenth century. Lewry studied mathematical logic under Lejewski and A.N. Prior at Manchester (1961–2). From 1962–7 he taught the philosophy of language and logic at Hawkesyard. He was assigned to the Oxford Blackfriars in 1967. Dissatisfaction with teaching led him to work for an Oxford D.Phil. on the logic teaching of Robert Kilwardby. In 1979 he began the study of the history of grammar, logic and rhetoric at Oxford in the period 1220–1320. In 1979 he went to the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies in Toronto first as a research associate, then as a senior fellow. He died on 23 April 1987 at the age of 57 at the Oxford Dominican House.
The mean speed theorem, also known as the Merton rule of uniform acceleration, was first discovered in the 14th century by the Oxford Calculators of Merton College, and was proved by Nicole Oresme. It states that a uniformly accelerated body travels the same distance as a body with uniform speed whose speed is half the final velocity of the accelerated body.
Henricus Antonius Giovanni "Henk" Braakhuis is a Dutch historian of philosophy. He was a professor of history of medieval philosophy at the Radboud University Nijmegen.