Jan Amor Tarnowski
|Coat of arms||Leliwa|
|Died|| 16 May 1561 (aged 72–73)|
|Noble family||House of Tarnowski|
|Spouse(s)|| Barbara Tęczyńska |
|Father||Jan Amor Junior Tarnowski|
|Mother||Barbara of Rożnów|
Jan Amor Tarnowski (Latin: Joannes Tarnovius; 1488 – 16 May 1561 ) was a Polish nobleman, knight, military commander, military theoretician, and statesman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. He was Grand Crown Hetman from 1527, and was the founder of the city of Tarnopol, where he built the Ternopil Castle and the Ternopil Pond.
The Poles, commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone.
The szlachta was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Grand Duchy and its neighbouring Kingdom became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church, especially in a military capacity.
Tarnowski was born in 1488, the son of Jan Amor Junior Tarnowski, castellan of Kraków, and his second wife Barbara of Rożnów, granddaughter of the knight Zawisza the Black. He was a scion of an important family clan started in the mid-14th century by Spycimir Leliwita, castellan of Kraków. Tarnowski had five half-siblings from his father's first marriage: Jan Amor the Elder, Jan Aleksander (d. 1497), Katarzyna, Zofia and Elżbieta.He had also five half-sisters from his mother's first marriage. He spent his earliest years in Rożnowo and Stare Sioło. He was originally intended to become a priest; but after his father's death in 1500, his mentor Maciej Drzewiecki convinced Barbara of Rożnowo to abandon this plan. In 1501, Tarnowski was sent to the king's court; but on 17 June 1501, king John I Albert died and he returned to Rożnowo, to his mother's domain.
Rożnów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Gródek nad Dunajcem, within Nowy Sącz County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It lies approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of Nowy Sącz and 64 km (40 mi) south-east of the regional capital Kraków.
Zawisza Czarny, Sulima coat of arms, was a Polish knight and nobleman who served as a commander and diplomat under Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło and Hungarian-Bohemian king Sigismund of Luxembourg. During his life, he was regarded as a model of knightly virtues and was renowned for winning multiple tournaments. His nickname is due to his black hair and his custom-made, black armor, which is kept at the Jasna Góra Monastery.
John I Albert was King of Poland (1492–1501) and Duke of Głogów (1491–1498).
In 1508, Tarnowski fought against Muscovy in the battle of Orsza; in 1509, against Moldavia in the battle of Chocim, and upon the Dniester as a commander of his own chorągiew (banner/company).In 1512, he was involved in the battle of Łopuszna, in which the Tatars were defeated by the Polish forces.
The Dniester River is a river in Eastern Europe. It runs first through Ukraine and then through Moldova, finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again.
Chorągiew was the basic administrative unit of the Polish cavalry from the 14th century. An alternative name until the 17th century was Rota.
The Tatars are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries. The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term Tatars was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as the Tartary, which was dominated by various mostly Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages.
He made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and in 1518 became a knight of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. He travelled extensively across Europe, and was knighted by king Manuel I of Portugal for his services against the Moors in Africa.
The Holy Land is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River. Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical Land of Israel and with the region of Palestine. The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory roughly corresponding to the modern State of Israel, the Palestinian territories, western Jordan, and parts of southern Lebanon and of southwestern Syria. Jews, Christians, and Muslims all regard it as holy.
The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, also called Order of the Holy Sepulchre or Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood under the protection of the Holy See. The Pope is sovereign of the Order. Founded as Milites Sancti Sepulcri attached to the Augustinian Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, recognised in 1113 by Papal bull of Pope Paschal II and of Pope Calistus II in 1122. It traces its roots to circa 1099 under the Frankish Duke Godfrey of Bouillon, Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri, "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre", one of the leaders of the First Crusade and first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It is an internationally recognised order of knighthood.
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.
Tarnowski was the owner of Tarnów, Wiewiórka, Rożnów, Przeworsk, and Stare Sioło. In 1522, he became castellan of Wojnicz; in 1527, voivode of the Ruthenian Voivodeship; in 1535, voivode of the Kraków Voivodeship. In 1536, he became castellan of Kraków and starost of Sandomierz, Stryj, Żydaczów, Dolina, Sandecz, Chmielnów, Lubaczów and Horodło.
Tarnów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈtarnuf]; is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.
Przeworsk, is a town in south-eastern Poland with 15,675 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009. Since 1999 it has been in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship, and is the capital of Przeworsk County. The ancient Przeworsk culture was named after the town.
Wojnicz is an ancient historic town in Tarnów County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship. In the early medieval period of the Polish state, it became one of the most important centres in the province of Lesser Poland, as part of the system of Dunajec river castles. It became the seat of a Castellan and prospered from the 13th-century to the first half of the 17th-century, being on an international trade route bordering Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. It had town and market rights, its church was raised to collegiate status with links to the Jagiellonian University in Kraków 64km away.
In 1521, he participated in the Ottoman-Habsburg wars. He was among the first Hetmans of the Polish Army after its great reforms. He led the Polish Army to many victories, among them the battles of Obertyn against the Moldavians in 1531, and of Starodub against the Muscovites in 1535 during the Muscovite wars.
The Battle of Obertyn was fought between Moldavian Voivode Petru Rareş and Polish forces under hetman Jan Tarnowski, in the town of Obertyn, south of the Dniester River, now in Ukraine. The battle ended with a Polish victory and the reconquest of Pokutia.
Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia, all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time.
Starodub is a town in Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Babinets River, 169 kilometers (105 mi) southwest of Bryansk. Population: 19,010 (2010 Census); 18,643 (2002 Census); 18,906 (1989 Census); 16,000 (1975).
Tarnowski developed, among other things, horse artillery, field hospitals financed by the government, headquarters services, and field sappers. Throughout his entire service as a hetman, he preached a doctrine of flexibility.
Poet Jan Kochanowski wrote a poem O śmierci Jana Tarnowskiego (On the death of Jan Tarnowski). He is also one of the characters depicted in Jan Matejko's painting Prussian Homage .
In about 1511, Tarnowski married Barbara Tęczyńska, daughter of Mikołaj Tęczyński, voivode of the Ruthenian Voivodeship. She was the niece of his first mother's husband.After her death, Tarnowski married Zofia Szydłowiecka in 1530. He had four children, among them Zofia Tarnowska and Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski.
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz was a military commander of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army who was from 1601 Field Hetman of Lithuania, and from 1605 Grand Hetman of Lithuania, and was one of the most prominent noblemen and military commanders of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of his era. His coat of arms was Chodkiewicz, as was his family name.
The Battle of Klushino, or the Battle of Kłuszyn, was fought on 4 July 1610, between forces of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Tsardom of Russia during the Polish–Muscovite War, part of Russia's Time of Troubles. The battle occurred near the village of Klushino near Smolensk. In the battle the outnumbered Polish force secured a decisive victory over Russia, due to the tactical competence of hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski and the military prowess of Polish hussars, the elite of the army of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The battle is remembered as one of the greatest triumphs of the Polish cavalry and an example of excellence and supremacy of the Polish military at the time.
Jan Zamoyski or Zamojski was a Polish nobleman, magnate, and the 1st ordynat of Zamość. Royal Secretary from 1566, Deputy Kanclerz (Chancellor) of the Crown from 1576, Lord Grand-Chancellor of the Crown from 1578, and Grand Hetman of the Crown from 1581. General Starost of Kraków from 1580 to 1585, Starost of Bełz, Międzyrzecz, Krzeszów, Knyszyn and Tartu. Important advisor to Kings Sigismund II Augustus and Stephen Báthory, he was one of the major supporters of Bathory's successor, Sigismund III Vasa, and one of the most skilled diplomats, politicians and statesmen of his time, standing as a major figure in the politics of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth throughout his life.
Stanisław Żółkiewski was a Polish nobleman of the Lubicz coat of arms, magnate and military commander of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, who took part in many campaigns of the Commonwealth and on its southern and eastern borders. He occupied a number of high-ranking posts in the administration of the Commonwealth, including castellan of Lwów, voivod of the Kiev Voivodeship and Great Chancellor of the Crown. From 1588 he was also a Field Crown Hetman, and in 1613 was promoted to Grand Hetman of the Crown. During his military career he won major battles against Sweden, Muscovy, the Ottoman Empire and the Tatars.
Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the highest-ranking military officers, second only to the King, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The first Polish title of Grand Crown Hetman was created in 1505. The title of hetman was given to the leader of the Polish Army and until 1581 it was awarded only for a specific campaign or war. Later it became a permanent title, as did all the titles in the Kingdom of Poland and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It could not be revoked unless treachery had been proven. Hetmans were not paid for their services by the Royal Treasury.
Countess Zofia Tarnowska (1534–1570) was a Polish–Lithuanian noblewoman heiress.
Marek Sobieski was a Polish noble (szlachcic), starosta of Krasnystaw and Jaworów, older brother of King John III Sobieski of Poland. He graduated from Nowodworski College in Kraków and Kraków Academy, then traveled and studied in Western Europe. After returning to Poland in 1648 he fought against the Cossacks and Tatars at Zbaraż and Beresteczko. He was taken captive by Tatars in 1652 and then killed by Cossacks.
Count Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), Leliwa coat of arms. Son of Hetman Jan Tarnowski and Zofia née Szydłowiecka. He was married to Zofia Odrowąż since 1555, but had no issue. He was educated in the worldly affairs at the court of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, at his father's great expense claimed Orzechowski. He was owner of Tarnów, Wiewiórka, Przeworsk, Rożnów and Stare Sioło. Secretary of King Sigismund II Augustus since 1554, held offices of castellan of Wojnicz, starost of Sandomierz, Stryj and Dolina. Poor health disallowed Jan Krzysztof to have a substantial career in the military, Niesiecki said: King was shoving a lesser military command to him during the Muscovy war, but his health weak due to consumption prevented him from achieving knightly deeds.' Died prematurely, most likely to the ravages of tuberculosis, and was buried next to his father, Piotr Skarga presided over his funeral at Tarnów. On his person ended the Tarnów line of the Tarnowski family clan. Poet Jan Kochanowski dedicated his poem Chess to him.
Zofia Odrowąż (1537–1580) was a Polish noblewoman. She was the daughter of castellan and voivode Stanisław Odrowąż and only daughter of Anna of Masovia, last Masovian duchess of the Piast dynasty, and became the widow of the castellan of Wojnicz and castellan of Sandomierz.. She married firstly, Hetman Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski and secondly, castellan and voivode Jan Kostka in 1569.
Tarnowski is the surname of a Polish noble and aristocratic family. Because Polish adjectives have different forms for the genders, Tarnowska is the form for a female family member.
Jerzy Zawieyski, born Henryk Nowicki, was a Polish playwright, prose writer, Catholic political activist and amateur stage actor. He wrote psychological, social, moral and historical novels, dramas, stories, essays and journals.
Leszek Podhorodecki, was a Polish historian and writer. A secondary school teacher, he published over 40 different books about the history of Poland, as well as dozens of academic articles and other publications.
Polish-Cossack-Tatar War was the war between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire over Ukraine. It was one of the aftermaths of the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) and a prelude to the Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76).
The Battle of Kcynia took place on June 1, 1656, and was one of battles of the Swedish invasion of Poland. It resulted in a victory of Swedish forces, commanded by King Charles X Gustav and Adolph John I, Count Palatine of Kleeburg.
Krzysztof Czarniecki of the Łodzia coat of arms was a Polish nobleman and starosta of Żywiec.
Czarniecki was a Polish noble family.
Sebastian Sobieski was a Polish szlachcic (nobleman), Court Standard-Bearer of the Crown since 1596, courtier and starost of Rosice and Bohuslav. Member of the Sejm.
Dobiesław Oleśnicki was a soldier, aristocrat and politician in 15th century Poland.
Teodor Lacki – Hussar rotmistrz, Lithuanian field writer, and alchemist.