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JMA headquarters building in Tokyo
|Formed||July 1, 1956|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Japan|
|Headquarters||3-6-9 Toranomon, Minato City, Tokyo, Japan |
|Annual budget|| ¥62.0 billion (2010–11) |
¥59.0 billion (2011–12)
¥58.9 billion (est. 2012)
|Parent agency||Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism|
The Japan Meteorological Agency (気象庁, Kishō-chō), abbreviated JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Minato, Tokyo.
JMA is responsible for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts for the general public, as well as providing aviation and marine weather. JMA other responsibilities include issuing warnings for volcanic eruptions, and the nationwide issuance of earthquake warnings of the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system. JMA is also designated one of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It is responsible for forecasting, naming, and distributing warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northwestern Pacific region, including the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea, the South China Sea, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk.
The JMA is responsible not only for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts in Japan, but also for observation and warning of earthquakes, tsunamis, typhoons and volcanic eruptions.
The agency has six regional administrative offices (including five DMOs and Okinawa Meteorological Observatory), four Marine Observatories, five auxiliary facilities, four Aviation Weather Service Centers and 47 local offices composed of the LMOs. These are also used to gather data, supplemented by weather satellites such as Himawari , and other research institutes.
In 1968, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) designated the JMA as a Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) for Asia. 1988, the WMO also assigned the JMA as a RSMC for the Northwestern Pacific under its Tropical Cyclone programme. In July 1989, the RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center was established within the headquarters office, which dealt with the forecasting and dissemination of active tropical cyclones, as well as preparing a summary of each year's cyclone activity.In June
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Each DMO and LMO issues weather forecasts and warnings or advisories to the general public live in its own area. Weather data used to these forecasts are acquired from the Surface Observation (represented by the AMeDAS), the Radar Observation, the Upper-air Observation and the Satellite Observation mainly using the Himawari series.
The Marine Observatories are seated in Hakodate, Maizuru, Kobe and Nagasaki. These stations observe ocean waves, tide levels, sea surface temperature and ocean current etc. in the Northwestern Pacific basin, as well as the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk basin, and provide marine meteorological forecasts resulted from them, in cooperation with the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Japan Coast Guard.
In 2005, in accordance with the ICAO's new CNS/ATM system, the Civil Aviation Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism set up the Air Traffic Management Center (ATMC) in Fukuoka, where the FIR is fixed. Along with this establishment, JMA placed the Air Traffic Meteorology Center (ATMetC) inside the ATMC.
The agency forecasts SIGMET for aircraft in flight within the Fukuoka FIR airspace, while VOLMET is broadcast by each Aviation Weather Service Centers at the airports of Haneda, Narita, Centrair and Kansai. Additionally, Aviation Weather Stations (beside the airports of New Chitose, Sendai, Osaka, Fukuoka, Kagoshima and Naha) deal with the similar tasks as these.
In the Northwestern Pacific area, the typhoon season ordinarily comes almost from May to November. The JMA forecasts and warns or advises on tropical cyclones to the public in Japan and its surrounding countries as well because it also works as the RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center.
The JMA has its own 624 observation stations across the country km approximately in order to measure seismic intensity of earthquakes precisely. The agency also utilize about 2,900 more seismographs owned by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) and local governments. A 24-hour office has been housed within the JMA headquarters in Tokyo, for monitoring and tracking seismic events in the vicinity of Japan to collect and process their data, which issues observed earthquake's information on its hypocenter, magnitude, seismic intensity and possibility of tsunami occurrence after quakes quickly to the public through the Earthquake Phenomena Observation System (EPOS). The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system began to work fully for the general public on October 1, 2007.that set up at intervals of 20
The agency is one of the representatives of the national Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction.
It is essential to provide coastal regions for tsunami information so that its catastrophic damages can be reduced and mitigated there. In case of there is a possibility of tsunami after an earthquake, JMA issues Tsunami Warning or Advisory for each region in Japan with information of estimated tsunami heights and arrival times within 2 to 3 minutes of the quake.
The agency set up four Volcanic Observations and Information Centers within DMOs in Sapporo, Sendai, Tokyo and Fukuoka. They are monitoring volcanic events on 110 active volcanos in Japan and 47 of these volcanos selected by the Coordinating Committee for Prediction of Volcanic Eruption are under the 24-hour observation with seismographs, accelerometers, GPS, air-shock recorders, fixed point observation cameras and other equipment. If it is predicted that a volcanic eruption will affect inhabited areas or are around a crater, Volcanic Warnings are issued and supplemented by Volcanic Alert Levels.
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Seismic Intensity Scale is a seismic intensity scale used in Japan to categorize the intensity of local ground shaking caused by earthquakes.
Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are alerts issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.
The Central Weather Bureau is the government meteorological research and forecasting institution of the Republic of China (Taiwan). In addition to meteorology, the Central Weather Bureau also makes astronomical observations, reports on sea conditions, and conducts research into seismology and provides earthquake reports. The Central Weather Bureau is headquartered in Taipei City and is administered under the Ministry of Transportation and Communications.
Sakuhei Fujiwhara was a Japanese meteorologist who became the namesake for the Fujiwhara effect. Novelist Jirō Nitta is his nephew and mathematician Masahiko Fujiwara is his grandnephew.
Tokyo District Meteorological Observatory, abbreviated as TDMO, is one of the five District Meteorological Observatories of the Japan Meteorological Agency. It has jurisdiction over the Kantō and Chūbu regions: Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba, Saitama, Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Yamanashi, Nagano, Niigata, Shizuoka, Aichi, Gifu, Mie, Ishikawa, Toyama and Fukui, and is responsible for acquiring meteorological, hydrological, seismological and volcanological data and forecasting local weather conditions in those areas through its local meteorological observatories. It also fills the role of Region Central Forecast Office for the Kantō region. The TDMO is based inside the JMA Meteorological Satellite Center located in Kiyose, Tokyo.
The 2009 Shizuoka earthquake occurred with a magnitude of 6.4 that hit Shizuoka Prefecture in the south of Honshū, Japan, on August 11 at 05:07 local time.
Typhoon Kompasu, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Glenda, was a strong tropical cyclone that moved along Okinawa, Japan and west coast of the Korean Peninsula before striking the Seoul Metropolitan Area in early-September 2010. It was the first significant system to directly strike the Seoul Metropolitan since Typhoon Prapiroon in 2000 and the strongest typhoon to directly impact the area since Tropical Storm Janis in 1995.
Typhoon Ida, also known as the Kanogawa Typhoon, was the sixth-deadliest typhoon to hit Japan, as well as one of the strongest tropical cyclones on record. On September 20, Ida formed in the Western Pacific near Guam. It moved to the west and rapidly intensified into a 115 mph (185 km/h) typhoon by the next day. On September 22, Ida turned to the north and continued its quick rate of intensification. Two days later, the Hurricane Hunters observed a minimum barometric pressure of 877 mb (25.9 inHg), as well as estimated peak winds of 325 km/h (200 mph). This made Ida the strongest tropical cyclone on record at the time, although it was surpassed by Typhoon June 17 years later. Ida weakened as it continued to the north-northeast, and made landfall in Japan on southeastern Honshū with winds of 80 mph on September 26. It became extratropical the next day, and dissipated on the 28th to the east of the country. Ida caused torrential flooding to southeastern Japan, resulting in over 1,900 mudslides. Damage was estimated at $50 million, and there were 1,269 fatalities.
Typhoon Marie, as known as the Tōya Maru Typhoon (洞爺丸台風) in Japan, was a typhoon that hit Japan in September 1954. Marie did a great deal of damage to Hokkaido, Tōya Maru (洞爺丸) sank due to high waves and windstorm by Marie. Because of it, JMA in Japan named the storm Tōya Maru Typhoon.
The District Meteorological Observatory, abbreviated to DMO, is a type of JMA weather stations and a part of its local offices. There are five District Meteorological Observatories in Japan. They're responsible for regional observation of the atmosphere, earthquakes, volcanos and gathering up data on them in order to announcing information to the public that provides against various natural disasters. They also supervise Local Meteorological Observatories and other weather stations within each district area.
The Local Meteorological Observatory, abbreviated to the LMO, is a type of JMA weather station and a part of its local offices. JMA set up five LMOs in Hokkaido, three in Okinawa and one in another each prefecture which has neither District Meteorological Observatory nor Marine Observatory; thus Local Meteorological Observatories count 50 in Japan. They are responsible for local weather services and some of them manage local weather stations.
The Okinawa Meteorological Observatory is a JMA located in Naha, Okinawa. It is responsible for weather services in Okinawa region and operates three Local Meteorological Observatories as well as an Aviation Weather Station.
This article describes the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) severe weather terminology. The JMA defines precise meanings for nearly all its weather terms as the Information for Severe Weather Preparation. This article describes JMA terminology and related JMA weather scales. Some terms may be specific to certain regions.
Typhoon Della, as known as the 3rd Miyakojima Typhoon (第3宮古島台風) in Japan, was a typhoon that struck Miyakojima of Ryukyu Islands and Kyūshū Island in September 1968.
Typhoon Faxai, known in Japan as Reiwa 1 Bōsō Peninsula Typhoon, was the first typhoon to strike the Kantō region since Mindulle in 2016, and the strongest typhoon to hit the region since Ma-on in 2004. It was also the worst to hit the region since Talas in 2011, until the region was hit by more destructive Typhoon Hagibis less than a month later. Forming as the fifteenth named storm of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, the precursor to Faxai was first noted as a weak tropical depression to the east of the International Dateline on August 29. The depression then entered the West Pacific basin on August 30. After moving in a general westward direction, the system strengthened into a named tropical storm by September 5. Faxai then strengthened into the sixth typhoon of the season the next day. Two days later, Faxai reached its peak strength as a Category 4 typhoon just before making landfall in mainland Japan. Turning northeastward, Faxai rapidly weakened and became extratropical on September 10.
Typhoon Hagibis, known in Japan as Reiwa 1 East Japan Typhoon, was an extremely violent and large tropical cyclone that caused widespread destruction across its path. The thirty-eighth depression, ninth typhoon, and third super typhoon of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, it was the strongest typhoon in decades to strike mainland Japan, and one of the largest typhoons ever recorded, with a peak gale-force diameter of 825 nautical miles. Hagibis was also the deadliest typhoon to strike Japan since Typhoon Tip in 1979. Its death toll is marginally higher than that of Typhoon Bess in 1982 and Typhoon Tokage in 2004.
Typhoon Maysak, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Julian, was a deadly, damaging and powerful tropical cyclone that struck the Ryukyu Islands and the Korean Peninsula in September 2020. The third typhoon of the 2020 Pacific typhoon season, Maysak formed from a tropical disturbance. The disturbance gradually organized, receiving the name Julian from PAGASA as it became a tropical depression. As the depression strengthened, the JMA subsequently named the system Maysak. Maysak rapidly intensified into a strong typhoon before weakening and making landfall in South Korea.
Typhoon Songda, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Chedeng, was an exceptionally strong and catastrophic typhoon that lashed the eastern coast of the Philippines as a Category 5–equivalent super typhoon and affected the nearby Taiwan and Japan as a weakening tropical cyclone. The fourth tropical depression, second named storm and the first super typhoon of the 2011 Pacific typhoon season, Songda formed from a non-tropical low that was embedded from the Intertropical Convergence Zone on May 17. An area of low-pressure subsequently formed and became organized for the JTWC to issue a TCFA on the system and the JMA to issue advisories, before both agencies declared it a tropical storm, earning the name Songda. Under favorable conditions, Songda slowly intensified as it entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility, with the PAGASA naming it Chedeng on May 23. On the next day, the three agencies declared the system a typhoon before rapidly intensifying to a super typhoon over the Philippine Sea. As it entered an unfavorable environment for further strengthening, Songda slowly weakened as it passed near Taiwan, before becoming extratropical near Japan. The remnants of the system slowly moved to the northeast, before absorbing to another extratropical cyclone to the south of Alaska.
Typhoon Talim, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Lannie, was an intense and destructive tropical cyclone that affected parts of East Asia, especially Japan, during September 2017. The eighteenth named storm and the sixth typhoon of the 2017 Pacific typhoon season, Talim's origins can be traced back to an area of low-pressure that the Joint Typhoon Warning Center first monitored on September 6. The disturbance was upgraded to a tropical depression by the Japan Meteorological Agency only two days later, and it became a tropical storm on September 9, earning the name Talim. Talim grew stronger over the next few days, eventually becoming a typhoon the next day. Within a favorable environment, the typhoon rapidly intensified after passing through the Ryukyu Islands. However, as it moved eastward, Talim started to weaken due to wind shear, and on September 16, it was downgraded to a tropical storm. The storm passed over Japan, near Kyushu the next day, before becoming extratropical on September 18. The extratropical remnants were last noted by the JMA four days later, before dissipating fully on September 22.
The March 2021 Miyagi earthquake was an earthquake that struck offshore east of Tōhoku, Japan on March 20, 2021 at 18:09 JST. The magnitude 6.9 or 7.0 earthquake struck at a depth of 54.0 kilometers (33.6 mi) to 60 kilometers (37 mi). It had a maximum JMA intensity of Shindo 5+ while on the Mercalli intensity scale, it earned a rating of VII. Power outages and some slight damage in Miyagi was reported.
JMA Headquarters moved on 24 November 2020.
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