Japanese Korean Army

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Japanese Korean Army
Surrender of Japanese Forces in Southern Korea.jpg
Surrender of Japanese Forces in Southern Korea
ActiveMarch 11, 1904 - August 15, 1945 
CountryMerchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan
AllegianceFlag of the Japanese Emperor.svg Emperor of Japan
BranchWar flag of the Imperial Japanese Army (1868-1945).svg  Imperial Japanese Army
Type Infantry
Role Army
Garrison/HQ Keijo
Japanese Korean Army
Chōsen-gun
Kanji 朝鮮軍
Hiragana ちょうせんぐん
Joseon-gun
Hangul
조선군
Hanja
朝鮮軍

The Japanese Korean Army (朝鮮軍, Chōsen-gun, literally "Korean military") was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army that formed a garrison force in Korea under Japanese rule. The Korean Army consisted of roughly 350,000 troops in 1914.

Contents

History

Japanese forces occupied large portions of the Empire of Korea during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, and a substantial Korean Garrison Army (韓国駐剳軍, Kankoku Chusatsugun) was established in Seoul to protect the Japanese embassy and civilians on March 11, 1904. After the Annexation of Korea by the Empire of Japan in 1910, this force was renamed the Chosen Chusatsugun, and was further renamed the Japanese Korean Army on June 1, 1918. The primary task of the Korean Army was to guard the Korean peninsula against possible incursions from the Soviet Union; however, its units were also used for suppression of nationalist uprisings and political dissent within Korea itself. The Korean Army also came to the assistance of the Kwantung Army in its unauthorized invasion of Manchuria in 1931. In 1941, the Army was subordinated to the General Defense Command.

While Seishirō Itagaki (板垣 征四郎) was commander of the Chosen Army from 7 July 1939 to 7 April 1945, Japan began assembling its nuclear weapons program with the industrial site near the Chosen reservoir as its equivalent to the Oak Ridge laboratory for the United States' Manhattan Project. [1] Both Itagaki and Masanobu Tsuji (辻 政信) refused to support neither peace between Japan and the United States nor have Japan attack the Soviet Union during Nazi Germany's Operation Barbarosa. [2] It may have altered world history. Tsuji planned to assassinate Fumimaro Konoe if Konoe had Japan attack the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarosa and maintain peace with the United States. [3]

In 1945, as the situation in the Pacific War was turning increasingly against Japan, the Army was transformed into the Japanese Seventeenth Area Army, and subsequently placed under the overall administrative command of the Kwantung Army. Its two undermanned infantry divisions were unable to withstand the massive Soviet Red Army armored and amphibious assault on Korea during the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. After the surrender of Japan, the Army south of the 38 parallel remained armed under operational command of the United States Army to maintain public order until the arrival of substantial Allied forces to take control.

List of Commanders

Commanding officer

NameFromTo
1Lieutenant General Kensai Haraguchi 11 March 19048 September 1904
2 Marshal Yoshimichi Hasegawa 8 September 190421 December 1908
3General Haruno Okubo 21 December 190818 August 1911
4General Arisawa Ueda 18 August 191114 January 1912
5General Sadayoshi Ando 14 January 191225 January 1915
6General Seigo Inokuchi 25 January 191518 August 1916
7General Yoshifuru Akiyama 18 August 19166 August 1917
8General Satoshi Matsukawa 6 August 191724 July 1918
9General Heitaro Utsunomiya 24 July 191816 August 1920
10Lieutenant General Jiro Oba 16 August 192024 November 1922
11General Shinnosuke Kikuchi 24 November 192220 August 1924
12General Soroku Suzuki 20 August 19242 March 1926
13General Shusei Morioka 2 March 19265 March 1927
14General Hanzo Kanaya 5 March 19271 August 1929
15General Jirō Minami 1 August 192922 November 1930
16Lieutenant General Senjuro Hayashi 22 November 193026 May 1932
17General Yoshiyuki Kawashima 26 May 19321 August 1934
18General Kenkichi Ueda 1 August 19342 December 1935
19General Kuniaki Koiso 2 December 193515 July 1938
20General Kotaro Nakamura 15 July 19387 July 1941
21General Seishirō Itagaki 7 July 19417 April 1945
22Lieutenant General Yoshio Kozuki 7 April 1945September 1945

Chief of Staff

NameFromTo
1Lieutenant General Rikisaburo Saito 19 March 190412 September 1904
2Lieutenant General Toyosaburo Ochiai 12 September 19047 April 1905
3General Kikuzuo Otani 7 April 19051 June 1906
4Lieutenant General Takashi Muta 1 June 190621 December 1908
5General Jiro Akashi 21 December 190815 June 1910
6Lieutenant General Shozo Sakakibara 15 June 191030 November 1910
7General Katsusaburo Shiba 30 November 191028 September 1912
8General Koichiro Tachibana 28 September 191217 April 1914
9Lieutenant General Gencho Furumi 17 April 19141 April 1916
10Lieutenant General Tan Shirozu 1 April 19166 August 1917
11Lieutenant General Kentaro Ichikawa 6 August 19171 November 1918
12Major General Toyoshi Ono 1 November 191820 July 1921
13Major General Kinichi Yasumitsu 20 July 19216 August 1923
14Major General Harumi Akai 6 August 19232 March 1926
15Lieutenant General Senyuki Hayashi 2 March 192626 August 1927
16Marshal Count Hisaichi Terauchi 26 August 19271 August 1929
17Lieutenant General Kotaro Nakamura 1 August 192922 December 1930
18General Tomou Kodama 22 December 19301 August 1933
19Major General Keikichi Ogushi 1 August 19332 December 1935
20Major General Yoshishige Saeda 2 December 19351 December 1936
21Lieutenant General Seiichi Kuno 1 December 19361 March 1938
22Lieutenant General Kenzo Kitano 1 March 19387 September 1939
23Lieutenant General Yakutaira Kato 7 September 19391 March 1941
24Lieutenant General Hiroshi Takahashi1 March 19419 July 1942
25Lieutenant General Junjiro Ihara 9 July 1942September 1945

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Wilcox, Robert K. (10 December 2019). Japan's Secret War: How Japan's Race to Build its Own Atomic Bomb Provided the Groundwork for North Korea's Nuclear Program. Permuted Press (third edition). ISBN   978-1682618967.
  2. Goldman, Stuart D. (August 28, 2012). "The Forgotten Soviet-Japanese War of 1939: From May to September 1939, the USSR and Japan fought an undeclared war involving over 100,000 troops". The Diplomat . Retrieved December 11, 2020.
  3. Budge, Kent G. Tsuji Masanobu (1901-1961?). Pacific War Online Encyclopedia website. Retrieved 11 December 2020.

See also