|Nippon Kokuyū Tetsudō|
|Predecessor||Japanese Government Railways|
|Founded||June 1, 1949|
|Founder|| Government of Japan by order of the|
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
GEN Douglas MacArthur
|Defunct||March 31, 1987|
|Successor||Japan Railways Group|
|Products||railway services, bus services, etc|
|Owner||Government of Japan|
|Dates of operation||June 1, 1949–March 31, 1987|
|Predecessor||Japanese Government Railways|
|Successor||Japan Railways Group|
|Track gauge|| 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in), |
1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in)
|Length||21,421.1 km (13,310.5 mi)|
(at peak, 1981)
The Japanese National Railways (日本国有鉄道, Nippon Kokuyū Tetsudō), abbreviated JNR or Kokutetsu (国鉄), was the business entity that operated Japan's national railway network from 1949 to 1987.
As of June 1, 1949, the date of establishment of JNR, it operated 19,756.8 km (12,276.3 mi) of narrow gauge (1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)) railways in all 46 prefectures of Japan. This figure expanded to 21,421.1 km (13,310.5 mi) in 1981 (excluding Shinkansen), but later reduced to 19,633.6 km (12,199.8 mi) as of March 31, 1987, the last day of JNR.
JNR operated both passenger and freight services.
Shinkansen, the world's first high-speed railway was debuted by JNR in 1964. By the end of JNR in 1987, four lines were constructed:
JNR operated bus lines as feeders, supplements or substitutions of railways. Unlike railway operation, JNR Bus was not superior to other local bus operators. The JR Bus companies are the successors of the bus operation of JNR.
JNR operated ferries to connect railway networks separated by sea or to meet other local demands:
Out of three routes assigned to JR companies in 1987, only the Miyajima Ferry remains active as of 2010.
A number of unions represented workers at JNR, including the National Railway Workers' Union (Kokuro), the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union (Doro), and Doro-Chiba, a break-away group from Doro.
The term Kokuyū Tetsudō "state-owned railway" originally referred to a network of railway lines operated by 17 private companies that were nationalized following the Railway Nationalization Act of 1906 and placed under the control of the Railway Institute. Later, the Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Transportation and Communications took over control of the network. The ministries used the name Japanese Government Railways (JGR) to refer their network in English. During World War II, many JGR lines were dismantled to supply steel for the war effort.
On June 1, 1949, by a directive of the U.S. General HQ in Tokyo, JGR was reorganized into Japanese National Railways, a state-owned public corporation. JNR enjoyed many successes,[ citation needed ] including the October 1, 1964 inauguration of high-speed Shinkansen service along the Tōkaidō Shinkansen line. However, JNR was not a state-run corporation; its accounting was independent from the national budget. Rural sections without enough passengers began to press its management, pulling it further and further into debt.[ citation needed ] In 1983, JNR started to close its unprofitable 83 local lines (the closure continued three years after the privatization).
By 1987, JNR's debt was over ¥27 trillion ($442 billion at 2021 exchange rates) and the company was spending ¥147 ($2.40 in 2021 dollars) for every ¥100 ($1.63 in 2021 dollars) earned.By an act of the Diet of Japan, on April 1, 1987, JNR was privatized and divided into seven railway companies, six passenger and one freight, collectively called the Japan Railways Group or JR Group. Long-term liabilities of JNR were taken over by the JNR Settlement Corporation. That corporation was subsequently disbanded on October 22, 1998, and its remaining debts were transferred to the national budget's general accounting. By this time the debt has risen to ¥30 trillion ($491 billion in 2021 dollars).
Many lawsuits and labor commission cases were filed over the decades from the privatization in 1987. Kokuro and the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union (Zendoro), both prominent Japanese railway unions, represented a number of the JNR workers.
Lists of workers to be employed by the new organizations were drawn up by JNR and given to the JR companies. There was substantial pressure on union members to leave their unions, and within a year, the membership of the National Railway Workers' Union (Kokuro) fell from 200,000 to 44,000. Workers who had supported the privatization, or those who left Kokuro, were hired at substantially higher rates than Kokuro members.
There was a government pledge that no one would be "thrown out onto the street",and so unhired workers were classified as "needing to be employed" and were transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation, where they could be assigned for up to three years. Around 7,600 workers were transferred in this way, and around 2,000 of them were hired by JR firms, and 3,000 found work elsewhere. Mitomu Yamaguchi, a former JNR employee from Tosu in Saga prefecture who had been transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation, later stated that their help in finding work consisted of giving him photocopies of recruitment ads from newspapers. This period ended in April 1990, and 1,047 were dismissed. This included 64 Zendoro members and 966 Kokuro members.
Twenty-three years after the original privatization, on June 28, 2010, the Supreme Court settled the dispute between the workers and the Japan Railway Construction, Transport and Technology Agency, the successor body to the JNR Settlement Corporation. The agency said it would pay 20 billion yen, approximately 22 million yen per worker, to 904 plaintiffs. However, as the workers were not reinstated, it was not a full settlement.
Between 1950 and 1965, JNR indirectly owned a professional baseball team named Kokutetsu Swallows (国鉄スワローズ, Kokutetsu Suwarōzu). Swallow was a symbol of JNR as it is the English equivalent of the Japanese Tsubame , the name of a deluxe train operated by JNR in the 1950s. JNR sold the team to the Sankei Shinbun in 1965, and called the Atoms from 1966 to 1973; the team is now the Tokyo Yakult Swallows and has been owned by the Yakult company since 1970.
JNR as a public corporation (from 1949 to 1987) experienced five major accidents (including two shipwrecks of railway ferries) with casualties more than 100:
In its very early days as a public corporation, JNR experienced a series of mysterious incidents as follows. Although the police at that time treated them as terrorism by the communists, doubts have been raised as to the validity of this conclusion.[ citation needed ]
In later years, JNR was a target of radical leftists. On October 21, 1968, groups of extremist students celebrating "International Antiwar Day" occupied and vandalized Shinjuku Station in Tokyo.They criticized JNR's collaboration in the Vietnam War by operating freight trains carrying jet fuel for U.S. military use. On November 29, 1985, militants supporting a radical sect of JNR's labor union objecting to the privatization of JNR damaged signal cables at 33 points around Tokyo and Osaka to halt thousands of commuter trains and then set fire to Asakusabashi Station in Tokyo.
As such, relationships with labor unions were always a difficult problem for JNR. Since public workers were prohibited to strike, they carried out "work-to-rule protests" that caused trains to be delayed. On March 13, 1973, train delays caused by such protests resulted in a riot of angered passengers at Ageo Station in Saitama Prefecture.From November 26, 1975, to December 3, 1975, major labor unions of JNR conducted an eight-day-long illegal "strike for the right to strike", which resulted in a total defeat of the unions.
The West Japan Railway Company, also referred to as JR West, is one of the Japan Railways Group companies and operates in western Honshu. It has its headquarters in Kita-ku, Osaka. It is listed in the Tokyo, Nagoya and Fukuoka stock exchanges, is a constituent of the TOPIX Large70 index, and is also one of the only three Japan Railways Group constituents of the Nikkei 225 index: the others are JR East and JR Central.
The Japan Railways Group, more commonly known as JR Group, consists of seven for-profit companies that took over most of the assets and operations of the government-owned Japanese National Railways (JNR) on April 1, 1987. Most of the liability of the JNR was assumed by the JNR Settlement Corporation.
Nanae Station is a railway station on the JR Hokkaido Hakodate Main Line. It is located in Nanae, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by JR Hokkaido and has the station number "H71".
Ōnuma Station is a railway station on the Hakodate Main Line located in Nanae, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by JR Hokkaido and has the station number "H68".
Niseko Station is a railway station on the Hakodate Main Line in Niseko, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by JR Hokkaido and has the station number "S25".
Kutchan Station is a railway station on the Hakodate Main Line in Kutchan, Hokkaido, Japan. It is operated by JR Hokkaido and has the station number "S23". The station is also planned to become a station of the Hokkaido Shinkansen between Oshamambe and Shin-Otaru that is scheduled to open in 2031.
Higashiyama Station was a railway station on the Hakodate Main Line in Mori, Hokkaido, Japan, operated by Hokkaido Railway Company. Opened in 1949, it closed in March 2017.
The Nishikigawa Seiryū Line is a Japanese railway line connecting Kawanishi and Nishikichō stations, all within Iwakuni, Yamaguchi. As the name suggests, the line parallels the Nishiki River (Nishiki-gawa). This is the only railway line Nishikigawa Railway operates. The third-sector company took former West Japan Railway Company line in 1987. The line was proposed to be extended to Nichihara, on the Yamaguchi Line, but was not completed. The company also operates bus lines and a travel agency.
Seiryū-Shin-Iwakuni Station is a railway station in Iwakuni, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. It is operated by the Nishikigawa Railway, a third-sector railway company.
Konbu Station is a railway station in Rankoshi, Isoya District, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by JR Hokkaido and has the station number "S26". The station name is sometimes transliterated on railway maps and timetables as "Kombu Station".
Hirafu Station is a railway station on the Hakodate Main Line in Kutchan, Hokkaido, Hokkaido, Japan. It is operated by JR Hokkaido and has the station number "S24".
Kozawa Station is a railway station in Kyōwa, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by JR Hokkaido and has the station number "S22".
Ginzan Station is a railway station in Niki, Hokkaidō, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is operated by JR Hokkaido and has the station number "S21".
Shikaribetsu Station is a train station in Niki, Yoichi District, Hokkaidō, Japan. The station is numbered S20.
Niki Station is a railway station on the Hakodate Main Line in Niki, Yoichi District, Hokkaido, Japan, operated by Hokkaido Railway Company. The station is numbered "S19".
Ranshima Station is a railway station on the Hakodate Main Line in Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan, operated by Hokkaido Railway Company. The station is numbered S17.
The Japanese National Railway Settlement Corporation, or JNRSC, was a temporary holding company created to distribute the assets of the former Japanese National Railways (JNR) after its privatization in the mid-1980s. On October 22, 1998, the JNRSC was disbanded and placed under the Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation, JRCC, and its assets were transferred. Currently, the Japan Railway Construction, Transport and Technology Agency holds the liabilities and assets of the JNRSC.
The National Railway Workers' Union (NRU) is a Japanese trade union, which is usually referred to as Kokurō (国労) in Japanese. As of 2011, it had 13,000 members.
The National Railway Motive Power Union was a Japanese trade union, which was usually referred to as Doro (動労) in Japanese. It merged with Tetsuro and other right wing unions to form JR-Soren now affiliated to RENGO.
National Railway Chiba Motive Power Union is a Japanese trade union, which is usually referred to as Doro-Chiba. It has also been referred to as the Chiba Motormen's Union in English. It split from the National Railway Motive Power Union (Doro) in 1979.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Japanese National Railways .|
|Predecessors: Ministry of Industry | Cabinet | Home Ministry | Ministry of Communications | Cabinet | Ministry of Railways | Ministry of Transport and Communications | Ministry of Transport | Japanese National Railways | Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation | JNR Settlement Corporation|
|Passenger Railway Companies||JR Hokkaido||JR East||JR Central||JR-West||JR Shikoku||JR Kyushu|
|JR Bus Companies||JR Hokkaido Bus|| JR Bus Tohoku |
JR Bus Kanto
|JR Tokai Bus|| West JR Bus |
West Japan JR Bus Service
Chugoku JR Bus
Hikari Guru Rin Bus
|JR Shikoku Bus||JR Kyushu Bus|
|Smart cards||Kitaca|| Suica |
| TOICA |
|ICOCA||ICOCA (SHIKOKU ICOCA)||SUGOCA|
|Shinkansen lines||Hokkaido Shinkansen|| Tōhoku Shinkansen |
| Tokaido Shinkansen |
| San'yō Shinkansen |
|Shikoku Shinkansen (proposed)||Kyushu Shinkansen|
|Railway museums||Hokkaido Railway Technology Museum|| Railway Museum |
Ome Railway Park
|SCMaglev and Railway Park|| Kyoto Railway Museum |
Tsuyama Railroad Educational Museum
|Shikoku Railway Cultural Center||Kyushu Railway History Museum|
|Rolling stock manufacturers||-|| Japan Transport Engineering Company |
|Nippon Sharyo||Kinki Sharyo (partner)||-||-|
|International operations||-||West Midlands Trains (14.95%)||-||-||-||-|
|Other organizations||JR Freight||Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI)||Railway Information Systems (JR Systems)|| Railway Telecommunication |
|Japan Railway Construction, Transport and Technology Agency (JRTT)|
|Related topics: MARS (ticket reservation system) | National Railway Workers' Union | Japan Confederation of Railway Workers' Unions | Japan Railway Trade Unions Confederation | All Japan Construction, Transport and General Workers' Union | Sankei Children's Book Award|