Japanese name

Last updated
Yamada Taro (Shan Tian Tai Lang 
), a Japanese placeholder name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. The equivalent of Jane Smith would be Yamada Hanako (Shan Tian Hua Zi 
). Yamada-vertical.svg
Yamada Tarō (山田太郎), a Japanese placeholder name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. The equivalent of Jane Smith would be Yamada Hanako (山田花子).

Japanese names (日本人の氏名、日本人の姓名、日本人の名前, Nihonjin no Shimei, Nihonjin no Seimei, Nihonjin no Namae) in modern times consist of a family name (surname) followed by a given name. Japanese names are usually written in kanji. The pronunciation of Japanese kanji in names follows a special set of rules. Because parents are able to choose which pronunciations they want for certain kanji, many foreigners find it difficult to read names written in kanji. However, most pronunciations chosen for names are common, making them easier to read. Some kanji are banned for use in names,[ citation needed ] such as the kanji for "weak" and "failure", amongst others.


Parents also have the option of using hiragana or katakana when giving a name to their newborn child. Names written in hiragana or katakana are phonetic renderings; therefore, they lack the visual meaning of names expressed in logographic kanji.


The majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name, except for the Japanese imperial family, whose members have no surname. The family name precedes the given name. People with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names. [2]

Very few names are in use both as surnames and as given names (for example Mayumi (真弓), Kaneko (金子), Masuko (益子), or Arata ()). Therefore, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and which is the given name is usually apparent, no matter in which order the names are presented. It is thus unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example, when writing in English while using the family name-given name naming order. However, due to the variety of pronunciations and differences in languages, some common surnames and given names may coincide when Romanized: e.g., Maki (真紀、麻紀、真樹) (given name) and Maki (槇、牧、薪) (surname).

Family names

The term surname or family name can translate three different Japanese words, myōji, uji, and sei, which historically had different meanings. Sei was originally the patrilineal surname which was granted by the emperor as a title of male rank. There were relatively few sei, and most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei. Uji was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but later merged with myōji around the same time. Myōji was simply what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku (uncles), one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's myōji. See also kabane .

According to estimates, there are over 300,000 different surnames in use today in Japan. [3] The three most common family names in Japan are Satō (佐藤), Suzuki (鈴木), and Takahashi (高橋). [4] People in Japan began using surnames during the Muromachi period. [5] Japanese peasants had surnames in the Edo period; however, they could not use them in public. [6]

Most surnames are written with two kanji characters, but some common surnames are written with one or three kanji. [7] Some surnames written with four or five kanji exist, such as Kadenokōji (勘解由小路), but these are rare. [8]

One large category of family names can be categorized as -tō names. The kanji , meaning wisteria , has the on'yomi (or, with rendaku , ). Many Japanese people have surnames that include this kanji as the second character. This is because the Fujiwara clan (藤原家) gave their samurai surnames (myōji) ending with the first character of their name (which can be pronounced either fuji or ), to denote their status in an era when commoners were not allowed surnames. Examples include Atō, Andō, Itō (although a different final kanji is also common), Udō, Etō, Endō, Gotō, Jitō, Katō, Kitō, Kudō, Kondō, Saitō, Satō, Shindō, Sudō, Naitō, Bitō, and Mutō. As already noted, some of the most common family names are in this list.

Japanese family names usually include characters referring to places and geographic features. [9]

Given names

Given names are called the "name" (, mei) or "lower name" (下の名前, shita no namae), because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. [10]

While family names follow relatively consistent rules, given names are much more diverse in pronunciation and characters. While many common names can easily be spelled or pronounced, parents may choose names with unusual characters or pronunciations; the pronunciation of such names generally cannot be inferred from the written form, or vice versa. Unusual pronunciations have become much more common, as the trend has significantly increased in popularity since the 1990s. [11] [12] For example, the popular masculine name 大翔 is traditionally pronounced "Hiroto", but in recent years alternative pronunciations "Haruto", "Yamato", "Taiga", "Sora", "Taito", "Daito", and "Masato" have all entered use. [11]

Male names often end in -rō (郎/朗, "son" or "clear, bright"⁠) (e.g. "Ichirō"), -ta (, "great, thick" or "first [son]") (e.g. "Kenta"), or -o (男/雄/夫, "man") (e.g. "Teruo" or "Akio"). [13] Male names often also contain ichi (, "first [son]") (e.g. "Ken'ichi"), kazu (, "first [son]") (also written with , along with several other possible characters; e.g. "Kazuhiro"), ji (二/次, "second [son]" or "next") (e.g. "Jirō"), or dai (, "great, large") (e.g. "Daichi").

Female names often end in -ko (, "child") (e.g. "Keiko") or -mi (, "beauty") (e.g. "Yumi"). [14] Other popular endings for female names include -ka (香/花, "scent, perfume" or "flower"⁠) (e.g. "Reika") and -na (奈/菜, "greens" or "apple tree") (e.g. "Haruna").

Most personal names use one, two, or three kanji. [15] Four-syllable given names are common, especially in eldest sons. [16]

The usage of -ko () has changed significantly over the years: prior to the Meiji Restoration (1868), it was reserved for members of the imperial family. Following the restoration, it became popular and was overwhelmingly common in the Taishō and early Shōwa era. [11] The suffix -ko increased in popularity after the mid-20th century.

Around the year 2006, due to the citizenry mimicking naming habits of popular entertainers, the suffix -ko was declining in popularity. At the same time, names of western origin, written in kana, were becoming increasingly popular for naming of girls. [15] By 2004 there was a trend of using hiragana instead of kanji in naming girls.

Molly Hakes said that this may have to do with using hiragana out of cultural pride, since hiragana is Japan's indigenous writing form, or out of not assigning a meaning to a girl's name so that others do not have a particular expectation of her. [14]

Names ending with -ko dropped significantly in popularity in the mid-1980s, but are still given, though much less than in the past. Male names occasionally end with the syllable -ko as in Mako, but very rarely using the kanji (most often, if a male name ends in -ko, it ends in -hiko, using the kanji meaning "boy"). Common male name endings are -shi and -o; names ending with -shi are often adjectives, e.g., Atsushi, which might mean, for example, "(to be) faithful."

Katakana and hiragana spellings are characteristic of feminine names rather than masculine names, with katakana often used for women's names in the early 20th century due to being easier to read and write. [17]

A single name-forming element, such as hiro ("expansiveness") can be written by more than one kanji (, , or ). Conversely, a particular kanji can have multiple meanings and pronunciations. In some names, Japanese characters phonetically "spell" a name and have no intended meaning behind them. Many Japanese personal names use puns. [15]

Although usually written in kanji, Japanese names have distinct differences from Chinese names through the selection of characters in a name and the pronunciation of them. A Japanese person can distinguish a Japanese name from a Chinese name. Akie Tomozawa said that this was equivalent to how "Europeans can easily tell that the name 'Smith' is English and 'Schmidt' is German or that 'Victor' is English or French and 'Vittorio' is Italian". [18]


Japanese names are usually written in kanji (Chinese characters), although some names use hiragana or even katakana, or a mixture of kanji and kana. While most "traditional" names use kun'yomi (native Japanese) kanji readings, a large number of given names and surnames use on'yomi (Chinese-based) kanji readings as well. Many others use readings which are only used in names ( nanori ), such as the female name Nozomi ().

The sound no, indicating possession (like the Saxon genitive in English), and corresponding to the character , is often included in names but not written as a separate character, as in the common name i-no-ue (井上, well-(possessive)-top/above, top of the well), or historical figures such as Sen no Rikyū. [19]

Difficulty of reading names

A name written in kanji may have more than one common pronunciation, only one of which is correct for a given individual. For example, the surname written in kanji as 東海林 may be read either Tōkairin or Shōji. Conversely, any one name may have several possible written forms, and again, only one will be correct for a given individual. The character when used as a male given name may be used as the written form for "Hajime", "Hitoshi", "Ichi-/-ichi" "Kazu-/-kazu", and many others. The name Hajime may be written with any of the following: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , or . This many-to-many correspondence between names and the ways they are written is much more common with male given names than with surnames or female given names but can be observed in all these categories. The permutations of potential characters and sounds can become enormous, as some very overloaded sounds may be produced by over 500 distinct kanji and some kanji characters can stand for several dozen sounds. This can and does make the collation, pronunciation, and romanization of a Japanese name a very difficult problem. For this reason, business cards often include the pronunciation of the name as furigana, and forms and documents often include spaces to write the reading of the name in kana (usually katakana).

A few Japanese names, particularly family names, include archaic versions of characters. For example, the very common character shima, "island", may be written as or instead of the usual . Some names also feature very uncommon kanji, or even kanji which no longer exist in modern Japanese. Japanese people who have such names are likely to compromise by substituting similar or simplified characters. This may be difficult for input of kanji in computers, as many kanji databases on computers only include common and regularly used kanji, and many archaic or mostly unused characters are not included.

An example of such a name is Saitō: there are two common kanji for sai here. The two sai characters have different meanings: means "together" or "parallel", but means "to purify". These names can also exist written in archaic forms, as 齊藤 and 齋藤 respectively.

A problem occurs when an elderly person forgets how to write their name in old kanji that is no longer used.

Family names are sometimes written with periphrastic readings, called jukujikun , in which the written characters relate indirectly to the name as spoken. For example, 四月一日 would normally be read as shigatsu tsuitachi ("April 1st"), but as a family name it is read watanuki ("unpadded clothes"), because the first day of the fourth lunar month (in the old lunar calendar, closer to 1 March) is the traditional date to switch from winter to summer clothes. In the same way 小鳥遊 would normally be read as kotori asobi ("little birds play") or shōchōyū, but is read Takanashi, because little birds (kotori) play (asobi) where there are no (nashi) hawks (taka).

Most Japanese people and agencies have adopted customs to deal with these issues. Address books, for instance, often contain furigana or ruby characters to clarify the pronunciation of the name. Japanese nationals are also required to give a romanized name for their passport.

Not all names are complicated. Some common names are summarized by the phrase tanakamura ("the village in the middle of the rice fields"): the three kanji (ta (, "rice field"), naka (, "middle") and mura (, "village")), together in any pair, form a simple, reasonably common surname: Tanaka, Nakamura, Murata, Nakata (Nakada), Muranaka, Tamura.

Despite these difficulties, there are enough patterns and recurring names that most native Japanese will be able to read virtually all family names they encounter and the majority of personal names.


Kanji names in Japan are governed by the Japanese Ministry of Justice's rules on kanji use in names. As of January 2015, only the 843 "name kanji" ( jinmeiyō kanji ) and 2,136 "commonly used characters" ( jōyō kanji ) are permitted for use in personal names. This is intended to ensure that names can be readily written and read by those literate in Japanese. Rules also govern names considered to be inappropriate; for example, in 1993 two parents who tried to name their child Akuma (悪魔), which means "devil", were prohibited from doing so after a massive public outcry. [20]

Though there are regulations on the naming of children, many archaic characters can still be found in adults' names, particularly those born prior to the Second World War. Because the legal restrictions on use of such kanji cause inconvenience for those with such names and promote a proliferation of identical names, many recent changes have been made to increase rather than to reduce the number of kanji allowed for use in names. The Sapporo High Court held that it was unlawful for the government to deny registration of a child's name because it contained a kanji character that was relatively common but not included in the official list of name characters compiled by the Ministry of Justice. Subsequently, the Japanese government promulgated plans to increase the number of kanji "permitted" in names. [21]

The use of a space in given names (to separate first and middle names) is not allowed in official documents, because technically, a space is not an allowed character. However, spaces are sometimes used on business cards and in correspondence.


During the period when typical parents had several children, it was a common practice to name sons by numbers suffixed with (, "son"). The first son would be known as "Ichirō", the second as "Jirō", and so on. [22] Girls were often named with ko (, "child") at the end of the given name; this should not be confused with the less common male suffix hiko (). Both practices have become less common, although many children still have names along these lines.

While some people may still believe this, Lafcadio Hearn (see below), in Shadowings, makes it clear that at least in his time (1880 to 1905, the date of publication), the ending -ko () was not any part of the name, but an honorific suffix like -san (さん). Particularly, even though the symbol was "child", it meant "Lady" and was used only by upper-class females. It would have been ridiculous to apply to middle-class or lower-class women. Pretty much the same names were used by all classes, but Hana-ko was upper class, while lesser women would be O-Hana-san, with honorific prefix as well as suffix.[ citation needed ]

Speaking to and of others

The way in which a name is used in conversation depends on the circumstances and the speaker's relationships with the listener and the bearer of the name. Typically the family name is used, with given names largely restricted to informal situations and cases where the speaker is older than, superior to, or very familiar with the named individual. When addressing someone, or referring to a member of one's out-group, a title such as -san (さん) is typically added.

Japanese people often avoid referring to their seniors or superiors by name at all, using just a title: within a family this might be a kinship relation such as okāsan (お母さん, "mother"), in a school it could be sensei (先生, "teacher"), while a company president would be addressed as shachō (社長, "company president").

On the other hand, pronominals meaning "you" (anata (あなた), kimi (きみ), omae (お前)) are used rather little in Japanese. Using such words sometimes sounds disrespectful, and people will commonly address each other by name, title and honorific even in face-to-face conversations.

Calling someone's name (family name) without any title or honorific is called yobisute (呼び捨て), and may be considered rude even in the most informal and friendly occasions. This faux pas, however, is readily excused for foreigners.


Corresponding to any given name there are one or more hypocoristics, affectionate nicknames. These are formed by adding the suffix -chan (ちゃん) to a stem. There are two types of stem. One consists of the full given name. Examples of this type are Tarō-chan from Tarō, Kimiko-chan from Kimiko, and Yasunari-chan from Yasunari. The other type of stem is a modified stem derived from the full given name. Examples of such names are: Ta-chan from Tarō, Kii-chan from Kimiko, and Yā-chan from Yasunari. Hypocoristics with modified stems are more intimate than those based on the full given name.

Hypocoristics with modified stems are derived by adding -chan to a stem consisting of an integral number, usually one but occasionally two, of feet, where a foot consists of two moras. A mora (音節) is the unit of which a light syllable contains one and a heavy syllable two. For example, the stems that may be derived from Tarō are /taro/, consisting of two light syllables, and /taa/, consisting of a single syllable with a long vowel, resulting in Taro-chan and Tā-chan. The stems that may be derived from Hanako are /hana/, with two light syllables, /han/, with one syllable closed by a consonant, and /haa/, with one syllable with a long vowel, resulting in Hanachan, Hanchan, and Hāchan. The segmental content is usually a left substring of that of the given name. However, in some cases it is obtained by other means, including the use of another reading of the kanji used to write the name. For example, a girl named Megumi may be called Keichan or just Kei, because the character used to write Megumi (), can also be read Kei.

The common Japanese practice of forming abbreviations by concatenating the first two morae of two words is sometimes applied to names (usually those of celebrities). For example, Takuya Kimura (木村 拓哉, Kimura Takuya), a famous Japanese actor and singer, becomes Kimutaku (キムタク). This is sometimes applied even to non-Japanese celebrities: Brad Pitt, whose full name in Japanese is Buraddo Pitto (ブラッド・ピット) is commonly known as Burapi (ブラピ), and Jimi Hendrix is abbreviated as Jimihen (ジミヘン). Some Japanese celebrities have also taken names combining kanji and katakana, such as Terry Ito (テリー伊藤). Another slightly less common method is doubling one or two syllables of the person's name, such as the use of "MamiMami" for Mamiko Noto.

Names from other ethnic groups in Japan

Many ethnic minorities living in Japan, mostly Korean and Chinese, adopt Japanese names. The roots of this custom go back to the colonial-era policy of sōshi-kaimei , which forced Koreans to change their names to Japanese names. Nowadays, ethnic minorities, mostly Korean, who immigrated to Japan after WWII, take on Japanese names, sometimes called 'pass names', to ease communication and, more importantly, to avoid discrimination. A few of them (e.g., Han Chang-Woo, founder and chairman of Maruhan Corp., pronounced 'Kan Shōyū' in Japanese) still keep their native names. Sometimes, however, these ethnic Chinese and Koreans in Japan who choose to renounce Permanent Resident status to apply for Japanese citizenship have to change the characters in their names, because not all characters are legally recognized in Japan for naming purposes.

Japanese citizenship used to require adoption of a Japanese name. In recent decades, the government has allowed individuals to simply adopt katakana versions of their native names when applying for citizenship, as is already done when referring to non-East Asian foreigners: National Diet member Tsurunen Marutei (ツルネン マルテイ), originally 'Martti Turunen', who is Finnish, is a famous example. Others transliterate their names into phonetically similar kanji compounds, such as activist Arudou Debito (有道 出人), an American-Japanese known as 'David Aldwinckle' before taking Japanese citizenship. (Tsurunen has similarly adopted 弦念 丸呈.) Still others have abandoned their native names entirely in favor of Yamato names, such as Lafcadio Hearn (who was half Anglo-Irish and half Greek), who used the name Koizumi Yakumo (小泉 八雲). At the time, to gain Japanese citizenship, it was necessary to be adopted by a Japanese family (in Hearn's case, it was his wife's family) and take their name.

Individuals born overseas with Western given names and Japanese surnames are usually given a katakana name in Western order ([given name] [surname]) when referred to in Japanese. Eric Shinseki, for instance, is referred to as Erikku Shinseki (エリック シンセキ). However, sometimes Japanese parents decide to use Japanese order when mentioning the child's name in Japanese. Also, Japanese parents tend to give their children a name in kanji, hiragana, or katakana, particularly if it is a Japanese name. Even individuals born in Japan, with a Japanese name, might be referred to using katakana if they have established residency or a career overseas. Yoko Ono, for example, was born in Japan, with the name 小野 洋子, and spent the first twenty years of her life there. However, having lived outside the country for more than fifty years, and basing her career in the United States, Ono is often referred to in the press as オノ・ヨーコ, preserving the Japanese order of her name (Ono Yōko), but rendering it in katakana. Another example is the inventor of Bitcoin, who has gone under the name Satoshi Nakamoto, and which is most likely a pseudonym, perhaps even of a non-Japanese person; Nakamoto is referred to in Japanese with katakana in Western order, サトシ・ナカモト, rather than 中本聡.

Christians in Japan traditionally have Christian names in addition to their native Japanese names. These Christian names are written using katakana, and are adapted to Japanese phonology from their Portuguese or Latin forms rather than being borrowed from English. Peter, for example, is Petoro (ペトロ)), John is Yohane (ヨハネ), Jacob is Yakobu (ヤコブ), Martin is Maruchino (マルチノ), Dominic is Dominiko (ドミニコ), and so on. [23] For most purposes in real life, Christian names are not used; for example, Taro Aso has a Christian name, Francisco (フランシスコ, Furanshisuko), which is not nearly as well-known. 16th century kirishitan daimyō Dom Justo Takayama, on the other hand, is far more well known by his Christian name Justo (ジュスト) than his birth name, Hikogorō Shigetomo.

Imperial names

Akishino-dera in Nara, from which Prince Akishino took his name Akishinodera1.jpg
Akishino-dera in Nara, from which Prince Akishino took his name

The Japanese emperor and his families have no surname for historical reasons, only a given name such as Hirohito (裕仁), which is almost universally avoided in Japan: Japanese prefer to say "the Emperor" or "the Crown Prince", out of respect and as a measure of politeness.

When children are born into the Imperial family, they receive a standard given name, as well as a special title. For instance, the Emperor emeritus Akihito was born Tsugu-no-miya Akihito (継宮明仁), his title being Tsugu-no-miya (継宮, "Prince Tsugu"), and was referred to as "Prince Tsugu" during his childhood. This title is generally used until the individual becomes heir to the throne or inherits one of the historical princely family names (Hitachi-no-miya (常陸宮), Mikasa-no-miya (三笠宮), Akishino-no-miya (秋篠宮), etc.).

When a member of the Imperial family becomes a noble or a commoner, the emperor gives them a family name. In medieval era, a family name "Minamoto" was often used. In modern era, princely family names are used. For example, many members of the extended Imperial family became commoners after World War II, and adopted their princely family names, minus the honorific -no-miya (, "Prince"), as regular surnames. Conversely, at the time that a noble or a commoner become a member of the Imperial family, such as through marriage, their family name is lost. An example is Empress Michiko, whose name was Michiko Shōda before she married prince Akihito.

Historical names

The current structure (family name + given name) did not materialize until the 1870s, when the Japanese government created the new family registration system.

In feudal Japan, names reflected a person's social status, as well as their affiliation with Buddhist, Shintō, feudatory-military, Confucian-scholarly, mercantile, peasant, slave and imperial orders.

Before feudal times, Japanese clan names figured prominently in history: names with no fall into this category. The Japanese particle no can be translated as 'of', and is similar in usage to the German aristocratic von, although the association is in the opposite order in Japanese, and is not generally explicitly written in this style of name. Thus, Minamoto no Yoritomo (源 頼朝) was Yoritomo (頼朝) of the Minamoto () clan. Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原 鎌足), Ki no Tsurayuki (紀 貫之), and Taira no Kiyomori (平 清盛) are additional examples. These family names were recorded in the Shinsen Shōjiroku . The Ryukyuan ruling class used names composed of Chinese characters, usually of one or two syllables and read in their own languages, like Korean and Chinese names.

Before the government formalized the naming system in 1868, Japanese personal names were fluid. [24] Men changed their names for a variety of reasons: to signify that they had attained a higher social status, to demonstrate their allegiance to a house or clan, to show that they had succeeded to the headship of a family or company, to shed bad luck that was attached to an inauspicious name, or simply to avoid being mistaken for a neighbor with a similar name. [25] [26] Upper-class men often changed their names upon coming of age ( genpuku ), leaving behind their childhood name (which often ended with -maru) and taking on an adult name. [27] When nobles and samurai received promotions in rank, they received new names, which might contain a syllable or character from their lord's name as a mark of favor. [25]

Changes in women's personal names were recorded less often, so they may not have changed their names as frequently as men did, but women who went into service as maids or entertainers frequently changed their names for the duration of their service. During their employment, their temporary names were treated as their legal names. For example, a maid who was involved in legal dealings in Kyoto in 1819–1831 signed legal documents as Sayo during one period of employment and as Mitsu during a later period of employment, but she signed as Iwa, presumably her birth name, when she was between jobs. [28]

A Japanese person could go by one of several names, depending on the occasion. For example, the 18th-century author, poet, and artist Iwase Samuru wrote under the name Santō Kyōden and worked as an illustrator under the name Kitao Masanobu. Artists and authors adopted a new name for each medium or form they worked in, whether or not they worked professionally. Some types of artistic names ( ()) were referred to by special terminology—for example, haigō or haimei for a haiku poet, and kagō for a waka poet. Scholars also gave themselves scholarly names, often using the Chinese reading of the characters of their Japanese name. People who entered religious orders adopted religious names.

Death added to the number of a person's names. When a person died, their personal name was referred to as an imina () and was no longer used. Instead, the person was referred to by their posthumous name (, okurina).

The personal names of Japanese emperors were also referred to as imina, even if the emperor was alive. Prior to Emperor Jomei, the imina of the emperors were very long and not used. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign. [29]

Azana (), which is given at genpuku (元服), is used by others and one himself uses his real name to refer to him. are commonly named after places or houses; e.g., Bashō, as in the haiku poet Matsuo Bashō (松尾 芭蕉), is named after his house, Bashō-an (芭蕉庵).

In the late shogunate period, many anti-government activists used several false names to hide their activities from the shogunate. Examples are Saidani Umetarō (才谷 梅太郎) for Sakamoto Ryōma (坂本 龍馬), Niibori Matsusuke (新堀 松輔) for Kido Takayoshi (木戸 孝允) and Tani Umenosuke (谷 梅之助) for Takasugi Shinsaku (高杉 晋作). The famous writer Kyokutei Bakin (曲亭 馬琴) is known to have had as many as 33 names.

Professional names

Actors and actresses in Western and Japanese dramatic forms, comedians, sumo wrestlers, Western-style professional wrestlers, and practitioners of traditional crafts often use professional names. Many stage names of television and film actors and actresses are unremarkable, being just like ordinary Japanese personal names, but a few are tongue-in-cheek. For example, Kamatari Fujiwara (藤原 釜足) chose the name of the aforementioned founder of the Fujiwara family, while the name of Hino Yōjin (日野 陽仁) sounds like "be careful with fire" (although written differently). Many stand-up comics like the duo Beat Takeshi and Beat Kiyoshi choose a Western name for the act and use their own (or stage) given names. Writers also tend to be clever about their names, for example Edogawa Ranpo which is designed to sound like "Edgar Allan Poe".

Sumo wrestlers take wrestling names called shikona (醜名) or 四股名. While a shikona can be the wrestler's own surname, most upper-division rikishi have a shikona different from their surname. A typical shikona consists of two or three kanji, rarely just one or more than three. Often, part of the name comes from the wrestler's master, a place name (such as the name of a province, a river, or a sea), the name of a weapon, an item identified with Japanese tradition (like a koto or nishiki-ori ), or a term indicating superiority. Often, waka indicates a wrestler whose father was also in sumo; in this case, the meaning is "junior".

Wrestlers can change their shikona, as Takahanada did when he became Takanohana (貴ノ花) and then Takanohana (貴乃花). Another notable example is the wrestler Sentoryu, which means "fighting war dragon" but is also homophonous with St. Louis, his city of origin.

Geisha, maiko and practitioners of traditional crafts and arts such as pottery, the tea ceremony, calligraphy, irezumi (tattooing) and ikebana (flower arranging) often take professional names, known as geimei (lit.'art name'). In many cases, these come from the master under whom they studied. For geisha, these names often feature the first part of the name of their "older sister", and typically all the geisha registered to one okiya share this aspect in their names (such as Ichiume, Ichigiku, Ichiteru, etc).

Kabuki actors take one of the traditional surnames such as Nakamura (中村), Bandō or Onoe. Some names are inherited on succession, such as that of the famous kabuki actor Bandō Tamasaburō V (五代目 坂東 玉三郎, Godaime Bandō Tamasaburō) through a naming ceremony.

Women working in the red-light districts commonly took names as a form of anonymity. However, high-ranking courtesans could inherit a generational name (名跡, myōseki) upon gaining promotion to a higher rank. These names, exclusively the property of the brothel owner, typically carried the prestige of the person who held it previously, and brothel owners commonly chose only those of similar countenance and reputation to inherit them. Myōseki were written in kanji, and were typically more elaborate than the average woman's name of the time, holding meanings taken from poetry, literary history and nature. As they were property of the brothel owner, myōseki were rarely passed from one oiran directly down to their apprentice, as holders were chosen for their suitability to the name's reputation. [30]

In English and other Western languages

In English, the names of living or recently deceased Japanese are generally given surname last and without macrons. [31] Historical figures are given surname first and with macrons, if available. [32]

Haruko Momoi at the Anime Expo 2007 in Los Angeles; her name card features a spelling of her name ("Halko Momoi") written surname last. In Japanese, her name is Momoi Haruko (Tao Jing haruko
). MomoiExpoCrop.png
Haruko Momoi at the Anime Expo 2007 in Los Angeles; her name card features a spelling of her name ("Halko Momoi") written surname last. In Japanese, her name is Momoi Haruko (桃井はるこ).

As of 2008, when using English and other Western languages, Japanese people usually give their names in an order reversed from the traditional Japanese naming order, with the family name after the given name, instead of the given name after the family name. [2] Beginning in Meiji period Japan, in many English-language publications, the naming order of modern-day Japanese people was reversed into the family name last order. [33] The adoption of a Western naming order by Japanese people when writing or speaking in European languages, and when attending Western style or international events such as balls, formed part of the wider Meiji period adoption of aspects of Western culture in efforts to present Japan as a country as developed and advanced as its global neighbours. [34]

Japanese people often have nicknames that are shortened forms of their actual names, and sometimes use these names with foreigners for ease of understanding. For instance, a man named "Kazuyuki" may call himself "Kaz" in the presence of those for whom Japanese is not a first language. [2] Some Japanese people living abroad also adopt nicknames that they use with friends who are not Japanese. [2]

The nameplate of Fumiko Orikasa is presented family name first in Japanese, while it is presented given name first in English. Orikasa Fumiko (3).jpg
The nameplate of Fumiko Orikasa is presented family name first in Japanese, while it is presented given name first in English.

Most foreign publications reverse the names of modern Japanese people, and most Japanese people reverse their own names for materials or publications intended for foreign consumption; for example, a Japanese business executive or official usually has two business cards ( meishi ), the first presenting their name in the Japanese order for Japanese people, and the second presenting their name in the Western order, intended for foreigners. [35] In popular journalism publications, the Western order of naming is used. [34] These practices stand in stark contrast to how English and generally Western names are treated in the Japanese language, where they are typically presented without reordering.

In Russian, Russian names may be written with family name first and given name second, as well as the other way round, and this applies to Japanese names presented in Russian as well. [36] [37]

In English, many historical figures are still referred to with the family name first. [33] This is especially the case in scholarly works about Japan. [34] Many scholarly works use the Japanese order with Japanese names in general, and a scholarly work is more likely to use Japanese order if the author specialises in subjects related to or about Japan. John Power wrote that "People who can speak and read Japanese have a strong resistance to switching Japanese names to the Western order." [2] Books written by these authors often have notes stating that Japanese names are in the original order. [2] Some books, however, do not have consistent naming order practices. Shizuka Saeki of Look Japan said, "This is not only a headache for writers and translators, it is also a source of confusion for readers." [34] Lynne E. Riggs of the Society of Writers, Editors and Translators (SWET), a professional writing organization headquartered in Tokyo, wrote that "When you publish a book about Japan, you are publishing it for people who want to know about Japan. So they are interested in learning something new or something as it is supposed to be." [34]

Edith Terry wrote that because Japanese people are "mastering" a "Western game", people have some pride and at the same time feel insecurity because the "game" is on "Western terms" rather than "Japanese terms." [35] The standard presentation of Japanese names in English differs from the standard presentations of modern Chinese names and Korean names, which are usually not reversed to fit the Western order in English, except when the person is living or traveling abroad. [35] [2] Power wrote that the difference between the treatment of Japanese names and of Chinese and Korean names often results in confusion. [2] Terry wrote, "it was one of the ironies of the late twentieth century that Japan remained stranded in the formal devices underlining its historical quest for equality with the West, while China set its own terms, in language as in big-power politics." [38]

Saeki wrote in 2001 that most Japanese people writing in English use the Western naming order, but that some figures had begun to promote the use of Japanese order as Japan became a major economic power in the 20th century. The Japan Style Sheet, a 1998 guide for producing English language works about Japan written by SWET, advocates the use of the Japanese naming order as often as possible, in order to promote a consistency in naming order. In 1987, one publisher of English language textbooks in Japan used the Japanese order of naming, while in 2001 six of the eight publishers of English language textbooks in Japan used the Japanese order. In December 2000, the council on the National Language of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture recommended that English language productions begin using the Japanese naming order, as "it is in general desirable that personal names be presented and written in a way that preserves their unique forms, except for registries and other documents with specific standards." It recommended using capitalization (YAMADA Taro) or commas (Yamada, Taro) to clarify which part of the personal name is the family name and which part is the given name. In a January 2000 opinion poll from the Agency for Cultural Affairs on the preferred order of Japanese names in the English language, 34.9% had a preference for Japanese order, 30.6% had a preference for Western order, and 29.6% had no preference. In 1986, the Japan Foundation decided that it would use the Japanese naming order in all of its publications. A Japan Foundation publishing division spokesperson stated around 2001 that some SWET publications, including popular anglophone newspapers, continue to use the Western order. As of 2001, the agency's style sheet recommends using a different naming order style depending upon the context. For instance, it advocates using the Western order in publications for readers who are not familiar with Japan, such as international conference papers. [34]

The Chicago Manual of Style recommends indexing Japanese names according to the way the original text treats the name. If the text uses the Western order, the Japanese name is reinverted and indexed by the family name with a comma. If the text uses Japanese order, the name is listed by the family name with no inversion and no comma. [39]

On 21 May 2019, Japanese Foreign Minister Tarō Kōno expressed his hope that foreign media would refer to then-Prime Minister Shinzō Abe in the Japanese custom: family name first (as "Abe Shinzō"). He added that he was currently planning to issue an official request to the international media in that respect. [40] Some others in the government support moving to retaining the original order of names, in line with Chinese and Korean practice, in time for the several major global events the country will be host to during 2020, while others seem not to. [41]

On September 6, 2019, officials from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) announced that the ministry was to start using the traditional order for Japanese names in English in official documents. [42] In 2020, The Economist announced plans to begin writing Japanese names in Japanese order based on a Japanese government decree that had been issued. [43] NHK World-Japan began using Japanese names surname-first (with some exceptions) as early as March 29, 2020, but the new policy regarding name order was only announced early the next day. [44] [45] In Olympic events, starting with the 2020 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japanese athletes have had their names rendered surname first. [46]

In Chinese

In Chinese-speaking communities, Japanese names are pronounced according to the Chinese pronunciations of the characters. [47] For example, in Standard Mandarin, Yamada Tarō (山田 太郎) becomes Shāntián Tàiláng, while Hatoyama Yukio (鳩山 由紀夫) becomes Jiūshān Yóujìfū. As a result, a Japanese person without adequate knowledge of Chinese would not understand their name when it is spoken in Chinese languages. Simply porting the kanji into Chinese and reading them as if they were Chinese is also different from the usual Chinese practice of approximating foreign names with similar-sounding Chinese characters.

Sometimes, a Japanese name includes kokuji . These kanji resemble Chinese characters but originate in Japan and do not have widely known Chinese pronunciations. For example, the word komu (), read as in Chinese) is rarely used in modern Chinese reading. When words like this are encountered, usually the rule of "有邊讀邊,沒邊讀中間" ("read the side if any, read the middle part if there is no side") applies. Therefore, "" is read as which is derived from .[ citation needed ]

Heng Ji wrote that because Japanese names have "flexible" lengths, it may be difficult for someone to identify a Japanese name when reading a Chinese text. [48] When consulting English texts a Chinese reader may have difficulty identifying a Japanese name; an example was when Chinese media mistook Obama's pet turkey Abe taken from Abe Lincoln (monosyllabic) for Shinzo Abe (disyllabic). [49]

One place where Japanese names may be transliterated into Chinese languages phonetically is in Japanese video games, anime and manga series. In May 2016, Nintendo sparked anger among fans in Hong Kong by announcing that its new Pokémon games, Sun and Moon, would use translations based upon Mandarin across all parts of China and Taiwan. As the variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong, Cantonese, has many phonological differences from Mandarin, this results in names of well-known characters such as Pikachu being rendered and pronounced much different from the original Japanese. [50]

See also

Related Research Articles

Furigana is a Japanese reading aid consisting of smaller kana printed either above or next to kanji or other characters to indicate their pronunciation. It is one type of ruby text. Furigana is also known as yomigana (読み仮名) and rubi in Japanese. In modern Japanese, it is usually used to gloss rare kanji, to clarify rare, nonstandard or ambiguous kanji readings, or in children's or learners' materials. Before the post-World War II script reforms, it was more widespread.

Hiragana is a Japanese syllabary, part of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana as well as kanji.

Katakana is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji and in some cases the Latin script.

Kana are syllabaries used to write Japanese phonological units, morae. Such syllabaries include (1) the original kana, or magana, which were Chinese characters (kanji) used phonetically to transcribe Japanese, the most prominent magana system being man'yōgana (万葉仮名); the two descendants of man'yōgana, (2) hiragana, and (3) katakana. There are also hentaigana, which are historical variants of the now-standard hiragana. In current usage, 'kana' can simply mean hiragana and katakana.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kanji</span> Chinese characters used in Japanese writing

Kanji are the logographic Chinese characters taken from the Chinese script used in the writing of Japanese. They were made a major part of the Japanese writing system during the time of Old Japanese and are still used, along with the subsequently-derived syllabic scripts of hiragana and katakana. The characters have Japanese pronunciations; most have two, with one based on the Chinese sound. A few characters were invented in Japan by constructing character components derived from other Chinese characters. After the Meiji Restoration, Japan made its own efforts to simplify the characters, now known as shinjitai, by a process similar to China's simplification efforts, with the intention to increase literacy among the common folk. Since the 1920s, the Japanese government has published character lists periodically to help direct the education of its citizenry through the myriad Chinese characters that exist. There are nearly 3,000 kanji used in Japanese names and in common communication.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chinese characters</span> Logographic writing system

Chinese characters are logograms used to write the Chinese languages and several other languages historically influenced by Chinese culture. Chinese characters represent one of the four independent inventions of writing in human history to be universally accepted by scholars, and are the only one of these to be continuously used since its invention, with a documented history spanning more than three millennia. Over this span, the function and style of characters has evolved greatly. Most recently, countries using Chinese characters have standardised their forms and pronunciations. Broadly, simplified characters are used in mainland China, Singapore, and Malaysia, while traditional characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau.

The Japanese numerals are the number names used in Japanese. In writing, they are the same as the Chinese numerals, and large numbers follow the Chinese style of grouping by 10,000. Two pronunciations are used: the Sino-Japanese (on'yomi) readings of the Chinese characters and the Japanese yamato kotoba.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Korean name</span> Korean naming practices and history

A Korean name in the modern era typically consists of a surname followed by a given name, with no middle names. A number of Korean terms for names exist. For full names, seongmyeong, seongham, or ireum (이름) are commonly used. When a Korean name is written in Hangul, there is no space between the surname and the given name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chinese name</span> Naming customs of Chinese culture

Chinese names are personal names used by individuals from Greater China and other parts of the Sinophone world. Sometimes the same set of Chinese characters could be chosen as a Chinese name, a Hong Kong name, a Japanese name, a Korean name, or a Vietnamese name, but they would be spelled differently due to their varying historical pronunciation of Chinese characters.

Nanori are the often non-standard kanji character readings (pronunciations) found almost exclusively in Japanese names.

<i>Manyōgana</i> System of writing Japanese based solely on Chinese characters

Man'yōgana is an ancient writing system that uses Chinese characters to represent the Japanese language. It was the first known kana system to be developed as a means to represent the Japanese language phonetically. The date of the earliest usage of this type of kana is not clear, but it was in use since at least the mid-7th century. The name "man'yōgana" derives from the Man'yōshū, a Japanese poetry anthology from the Nara period written with man'yōgana.

The historicalkanaorthography, or old orthography, refers to the kana orthography in general use until orthographic reforms after World War II; the current orthography was adopted by Cabinet order in 1946. By that point the historical orthography was no longer in accord with Japanese pronunciation. It differs from modern usage in the number of characters and the way those characters are used. There was considerable opposition to the official adoption of the current orthography, on the grounds that the historical orthography conveys meanings better, and some writers continued to use it for many years after.

In the Japanese writing system, hentaigana are variant forms of hiragana.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Japanese writing system</span> Structure of the Japanese writing system

The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana. Kana itself consists of a pair of syllabaries: hiragana, used primarily for native or naturalised Japanese words and grammatical elements; and katakana, used primarily for foreign words and names, loanwords, onomatopoeia, scientific names, and sometimes for emphasis. Almost all written Japanese sentences contain a mixture of kanji and kana. Because of this mixture of scripts, in addition to a large inventory of kanji characters, the Japanese writing system is considered to be one of the most complicated currently in use.

<i>Ateji</i> Kanji used for some Japanese words in a primarily phonetic sense

In modern Japanese, ateji principally refers to kanji used to phonetically represent native or borrowed words with less regard to the underlying meaning of the characters. This is similar to man'yōgana in Old Japanese. Conversely, ateji also refers to kanji used semantically without regard to the readings.

, in hiragana, and , in katakana, are Japanese kana, both representing one mora. In the gojūon system of ordering of Japanese syllables, it occupies the 25th position, between ね (ne) and は (ha). It occupies the 26th position in the iroha ordering. Both represent the sound. The katakana form is written similar to the Kangxi radical 丿, radical 4.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ryakuji</span> Form of shorthand for writing kanji

In Japanese language, Ryakuji are colloquial simplifications of kanji.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Okinawan name</span>

Okinawan names today have only two components, the family names first and the given names last. Okinawan family names represent the distinct historical and cultural background of the islands which now comprise Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. Expatriates originally from Okinawa also have these names.

The Japanese script reform is the attempt to correlate standard spoken Japanese with the written word, which began during the Meiji period. This issue is known in Japan as the kokugo kokuji mondai. The reforms led to the development of the modern Japanese written language, and explain the arguments for official policies used to determine the usage and teaching of kanji rarely used in Japan.

JIS X 0208 is a 2-byte character set specified as a Japanese Industrial Standard, containing 6879 graphic characters suitable for writing text, place names, personal names, and so forth in the Japanese language. The official title of the current standard is 7-bit and 8-bit double byte coded KANJI sets for information interchange. It was originally established as JIS C 6226 in 1978, and has been revised in 1983, 1990, and 1997. It is also called Code page 952 by IBM. The 1978 version is also called Code page 955 by IBM.


  1. 山田太郎から進化を続ける「名前例」 ['Example Names' Continue to Evolve beyond Yamada Tarō]. Excite Bit (in Japanese). Excite News. 20 February 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Power, p. C4-2.
  3. "名字由来net|日本人の名字99%を掲載!! 【年末緊急発表】日本人の名字30万種は事実か?". 名字由来net|日本人の名字99%を掲載!!.
  4. "Japanese name translations". Japanese-name-translation.com. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2006-06-24.
  5. https://news.goo.ne.jp/amp/article/postseven/trend/postseven-581287.html [ dead link ]
  6. "市史編さんこぼれ話No.18 「近世の百姓に苗字はあったのか」|東京都小平市公式ホームページ". www.city.kodaira.tokyo.jp.
  7. "明治安田生命 全国同姓調査 [Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company - National same family name investigation]" (PDF) (Press release). Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company. 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
  8. "日本一長い苗字 [Japan's Longest Surnames]" . Retrieved 2023-10-24.
  9. Hakes, Molly. The Everything Conversational Japanese Book: Basic Instruction For Speaking This Fascinating Language In Any Setting. Everything Books, 2004. 120. Retrieved from Google Books on August 8, 2011. ISBN   1-59337-147-0, ISBN   978-1-59337-147-0.
  10. Hakes, Molly. The Everything Conversational Japanese Book: Basic Instruction For Speaking This Fascinating Language In Any Setting. Everything Books, 2004. 119. Retrieved from Google Books on August 8, 2011. ISBN   1-59337-147-0, ISBN   978-1-59337-147-0.
  11. 1 2 3 "What to call baby?". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
  12. 佐藤 稔 [Minoru Sato] (2007). "『読みにくい名前はなぜ増えたか』" [Yominikui Namae wa Naze Fuetaka ("Why We See More Hard-to-read Names")].
  13. "How do Japanese names work?". www.sljfaq.org. Retrieved 2017-11-14.
  14. 1 2 Hakes, Molly. The Everything Conversational Japanese Book: Basic Instruction For Speaking This Fascinating Language In Any Setting. Everything Books, 2004. 121. Retrieved from Google Books on August 8, 2011. ISBN   1-59337-147-0, ISBN   978-1-59337-147-0.
  15. 1 2 3 Hanks, Patrick, Kate Hardcastle, and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of First Names. Oxford University Press, 2006. Appendix 8: Japanese Names. Retrieved from Google Books on April 1, 2012. ISBN   0-19-861060-2, ISBN   978-0-19-861060-1.
  16. Hakes, Molly. The Everything Conversational Japanese Book: Basic Instruction For Speaking This Fascinating Language In Any Setting. Everything Books, 2004. 122. Retrieved from Google Books on August 8, 2011. ISBN   1-59337-147-0, ISBN   978-1-59337-147-0.
  17. Mori-Kolbe, Noriko (2020). "Child Naming Practice and Changing Trends in Modern Japan". The Coastal Review. 11 (1). Retrieved 2023-10-24.
  18. Tomozawa, Akie. Chapter 6: "Japan's Hidden Bilinguals: The Languages of 'War Orphans' and Their Families After Repatriation From China." In: Noguchi, Mary Goebel and Sandra Fotos (editors). Studies in Japanese Bilingualism. Multilingual Matters, 2001. 158-159. Retrieved from Google Books on October 25, 2012. ISBN   185359489X, 9781853594892.
  19. Otake, Tomoko, "What to call baby?", Japan Times , 22 January 2012, p. 7.
  20. "Legal Regulations on the Advanced Science and Technology 15". Archived from the original on April 6, 2006.
  21. 人名用漢字の新字旧字:「曽」と「曾」 (in Japanese). Sanseido Word-Wise Web. 6 November 2008. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
  22. Jōya, Mock (1963). Mock Jōya's Things Japanese. Tokyo News Service. p. 668. OCLC   12619597.
  23. "Bishops of Japan (by Age)". www.gcatholic.org. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  24. Nagata, Mary Louise. "Names and Name Changing in Early Modern Kyoto, Japan." International Review of Social History 07/2002; 47(02):243 – 259. P. 246.
  25. 1 2 Plutschow, Herbert E. Japan's Name Culture: The Significance of Names in a Religious, Political and Social Context. Psychology Press, 1995.
  26. Nagata 2002, pp. 245-256.
  27. Ravina, Mark. The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori. John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Names, Romanizations, and Spelling (page 1 of 2). Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2011. ISBN   1-118-04556-4, ISBN   978-1-118-04556-5.
  28. Nagata 2002, p. 257.
  29. Brown, Delmer M.; Ishida, Ichirō (1979). The Future and the Past (a translation and study of the Gukanshō, an interpretive history of Japan written in 1219). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 264. ISBN   978-0-520-03460-0. OCLC   251325323.
  30. "Kamuro". issendai.com. Issendai. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  31. See International Who's Who, which is recommended for this purpose by the Chicago Manual of Style.
  32. See Merriam-Webster's Biographical Dictionary, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, and Encyclopædia Britannica. See also Chicago Manual of Style , "Personal names—additional resources" (§8.3): "For names of well-known deceased persons, Chicago generally prefers the spellings in Merriam-Webster's Biographical Dictionary or the biographical section of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary."
  33. 1 2 "三.国際化に伴うその他の日本語の問題." Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved on May 23, 2011. "日本人の姓名をローマ字で表記するときに,本来の形式を逆転して「名-姓」の順とする慣習は,明治の欧化主義の時代に定着したものであり,欧米の人名の形式に合わせたものである。現在でもこの慣習は広く行われており,国内の英字新聞や英語の教科書も,日本人名を「名-姓」順に表記しているものが多い。ただし,「姓-名」順を採用しているものも見られ,また,一般的には「名-姓」順とし,歴史上の人物や文学者などに限って「姓-名」順で表記している場合もある。"
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Saeki, Shizuka. "First Name Terms." Look Japan . June 2001. Volume 47, No. 543. p. 35.
  35. 1 2 3 Terry, Edith. How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. ISBN   0-7656-0356-X, 9780765603562. 632.
  36. "Поиск ответа". new.gramota.ru.
  38. Terry, Edith. How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. ISBN   0-7656-0356-X, 9780765603562. p.
  39. "Indexes: A Chapter from The Chicago Manual of Style" (Archive). Chicago Manual of Style. Retrieved on December 23, 2014. p. 27 (PDF document p. 29/56).
  40. Griffiths, James (22 May 2019). "Japan wants you to say its leader's name correctly: Abe Shinzo". CNN . Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  41. Osaki, Tomohiro (May 31, 2019). "Moves are afoot to push media to switch Japanese name order in English, but will it work?". The Japan Times . Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  42. Yamaguchi, Mari (September 6, 2019), "Japan to put surname first for Japanese names in English", Associated Press
  43. "Why Japanese names have flipped". The Economist . 2020-01-02. Retrieved 2020-01-11.
  44. "Style for Japanese persons' names". NHK World-Japan . 2020-03-30. Retrieved 2020-04-04.
  45. "The Cabinet agreed yesterday to begin making the change with government documents, though no timeline was given for its start." "Japan to put surnames first for documents in English". The Straits Times. Singapore. September 7, 2019. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  46. "Change for Japanese Names at Tokyo 2020". infobae. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
  47. British Broadcasting Corporation Monitoring Service. Summary of World Broadcasts: Far East, Part 3. Monitoring Service of the British Broadcasting Corporation, 1984. p. SWB FE/7688/A3/9 6 Jul 84. "Meanwhile, the Chinese give Japanese names in Chinese pronunciation."
  48. Ji, Heng. "Improving Information Extraction and Translation Using Component Interactions." ProQuest, 2007. ISBN   0549582479, 9780549582472. p. 53. "Chinese → Japanese It's difficult to identify Japanese names in Chinese texts because of their flexible name lengths. However, if they can be 'back-translated' into Japanese, the Japanese-specific information could be used for names – they[...]"
  49. Denyer, Simon. "A turkey, or the Japanese prime minister? Chinese smirk as Obama pardons Abe." (Archive). Washington Post . November 26, 2015. Retrieved on December 17, 2015.
  50. Huang, Zheping (30 May 2016). "Nintendo is renaming Pikachu in one of its largest markets, and Hong Kongers are not happy — Quartz". qz.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.


Further reading