Jarmila Kratochvílová

Last updated
Jarmila Kratochvílová
Jarmila Kratochvilova.jpg
Medal record
Women's athletics
Representing Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia
Olympic Games
Silver medal icon (S initial).svg 1980 Moscow 400 m
World Championships
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1983 Helsinki 400 m
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1983 Helsinki 800 m
Silver medal icon (S initial).svg 1983 Helsinki 4x400 m relay
European Championships
Silver medal icon (S initial).svg 1982 Athens 400 m
Silver medal icon (S initial).svg 1982 Athens 4x400 m relay
European Indoor Championships
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1981 Grenoble 400 m
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1982 Milan 400 m
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1983 Budapest 400 m
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1984 Gothenburg 200 m

Jarmila Kratochvílová (Czech pronunciation: [ˈjarmɪla ˈkratoxviːlovaː] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); born 26 January 1951, in Golčův Jeníkov) [1] is a Czech former track and field athlete. [2] She won the 400 metres and 800 metres at the 1983 World Championships, setting a world record in the 400 m. [3]

Contents

In 1983, she set the world record for the 800 metres, which still stands and is currently the longest-standing individual world record in athletics. Only two athletes, Pamela Jelimo of Kenya (2008), and Caster Semenya of South Africa (2018), have come within a second of Kratochvílová's mark since it was set. [4]

Biography

In 1983, Kratochvílová broke the 800 m world record with a time of 1:53.28. At the World Championships shortly afterwards, she set a world record of 47.99 seconds to win the 400 m. [5]

Kratochvílová's 1983 400-metre world record of 47.99 seconds stood for two years until it was broken by her great rival Marita Koch in 1985. Koch's 400-metre world record of 47.60 seconds still stands as of 2021. [6] Koch and Kratochvílová are the only women who have broken the 48 second barrier in a 400-metre laned race. [6] Her 800-metre world record is the longest standing track record in men or women's athletics, and was described by 1996 Olympic champion Svetlana Masterkova as ".. very fast. It's impossible for women to run so fast. It will last for 100 years." [7]

Kratochvílová was a late developer, not breaking 53 seconds for the 400 metres until she was 27, and she was 32 when she set her world records. [8]

Allegations of drug use

Her remarkably fast times and her atypical muscular physique [9] spawned rumors of illegal drug use. [10] Kratochvílová has maintained her innocence, and although in 2006 the Prague newspaper Mladá fronta DNES claimed to have uncovered a doping program run by Czechoslovakia's Communist government, there was no link to Kratochvílová despite her being her country's highest profile athlete. [11] She and her coach of 20 years, Miroslav Kvac, maintain that it was rigorous training and high doses of vitamin B12 that account for her records, a claim treated with scepticism by several anti-doping campaigners. [12] In 2017, she criticized a proposal by European Athletics to remove suspicion about drug-taking by voiding all world records set before 2005. [12]

Post-retirement

Since her retirement, Kratochvílová has worked as an athletics coach and with the Czech national team. [13]

Related Research Articles

The World Athletics Championships are a biennial athletics competition organized by World Athletics. The World Championships were started in 1976 in response to the International Olympic Committee dropping the men's 50 km walk from the Olympic programme for the 1976 Montreal Olympics, despite its constant presence at the games since 1932. The IAAF chose to host its own world championship event instead, a month and a half after the Olympics. It was the first World Championships that the IAAF had hosted separate from the Olympic Games. A second limited event was held in 1980, and the inaugural championships in 1983, with all the events, is considered the official start of the competition. Until 1980, the Olympic champions were considered as reigning World Champions. At their debut, these championships were then held every four years, until 1991, when they switched to a two-year cycle since.

800 metres Middle-distance running event

The 800 metres, or 800 meters, is a common track running event. It is the shortest common middle-distance running event. The 800 metres is run over two laps of the track and has been an Olympic event since the first games in 1896. During indoor track season the event is usually run on a 200-metre track, therefore requiring four laps.

Marita Koch

Marita Koch is a German former sprint track and field athlete. During her career she collected 16 world records in outdoor sprints as well as 14 world records in indoor events. Her record of 47.60 in the 400 metres, set on 6 October 1985, still stands.

400 metres Sprint running event

The 400 metres, or 400-metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440-yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete.

1983 World Championships in Athletics

The inaugural 1983 World Championships in Athletics were run under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations and were held at the Olympic Stadium in Helsinki, Finland between 7 and 14 August 1983.

4 × 400 metres relay

The 4 × 400 metres relay or long relay is an athletics track event in which teams consist of four runners who each complete 400 metres or one lap. It is traditionally the final event of a track meet. At top class events, the first 500 metres is run in lanes. Start lines are thus staggered over a greater distance than in an individual 400 metres race; the runners then typically move to the inside of the track. The slightly longer 4 × 440 yards relay was a formerly run British and American event, until metrication was completed in the 1970s.

1500 metres

The 1500 metres or 1,500-metre run is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics. The distance has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 and the World Championships in Athletics since 1983. It is equivalent to 1.5 kilometers or approximately ​1516 miles.

Christina Lathan East German sprinter

Christina Lathan is a retired East German sprinter, who specialised in the 400 metres.

Nadezhda Olizarenko

Nadezhda Fyodorovna Olizarenko was a Soviet middle-distance runner. At the 1980 Olympics she won the 800 m event, setting a world record at 1:53.43, and finished third in the 1500 m. Her 800 m world record was improved in 1983, but still remains the second-best time over that distance. Other than world record holder Jarmila Kratochvílová in 1983, only two athletes, Pamela Jelimo of Kenya, in 2008, and Caster Semenya of South Africa, in 2018, have come within a second of Olizarenko's mark since it was set.

Pamela Jelimo

Pamela Jelimo is a Kenyan middle-distance runner, specialising in the 800 metres. She won the gold medal in 800 metres at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing at the age of 18. She is the first Kenyan woman to win an Olympic gold medal and also the first Kenyan to win the Golden League Jackpot. She holds both the 800 m world junior record and the senior African record over the same distance. Jelimo is also one of the youngest women to win an Olympic gold medal for Kenya.

These are the official results of the Women's 400 metres event at the 1983 IAAF World Championships in Helsinki, Finland. There were a total number of 35 participating athletes, with five qualifying heats and the final held on Wednesday 10 August 1983.

Shaunae Miller-Uibo Bahamian sprinter

Shaunae Miller-Uibo is a Bahamian athlete sprinter who competes in the 200 and 400 metres. She was the 400 metres Olympic champion in 2016 and was the 200 m gold medallist at the 2018 Commonwealth Games. At the World Athletics Championships she won 400 m silver in 2015 and 2019 and 200 m bronze in 2017.

400 metres at the World Athletics Championships

The 400 metres at the World Championships in Athletics has been contested by both men and women since the inaugural edition in 1983. It is the second most prestigious title in the discipline after the 400 metres at the Olympics. The competition format typically has two or three qualifying rounds leading to a final between eight athletes.

800 metres at the World Athletics Championships

The 800 metres at the World Championships in Athletics has been contested by both men and women since the inaugural edition in 1983. It is the second most prestigious title in the discipline after the 800 metres at the Olympics. The competition format typically has two qualifying rounds leading to a final between eight athletes.

Olga Antonova is a Russian former track and field sprinter who competed for the Soviet Union. She represented her country at the World Championships in Athletics in 1983 and 1987, winning a relay medal at the latter edition. She was a bronze medallist over 200 m at the 1984 European Athletics Indoor Championships and was a two-time Soviet indoor champion over 60 metres.

Salwa Eid Naser Bahraini sprinter

Salwa Eid Naser is a Nigerian-born Bahraini athlete sprinter who specializes in the 400 metres. She is the 2019, youngest-ever World champion with a best of 48.14 sec, thus becoming first Asian woman to win the event at the World Championships. It ranks her third on the all-time list, behind only Marita Koch and Jarmila Kratochvílová. At the distance, she is also the 2017 World silver medalist.

Zuzana Moravčíková is a female Slovak former track and field athlete who competed in sprint and middle-distance events. She was a silver medallist at the European Athletics Indoor Championships in 1983 and won a global silver in national record time with Czechoslovakia's women's 4 × 400 metres relay team at the 1983 World Championships in Athletics, alongside Tatána Kocembová, Milena Matějkovičová and Jarmila Kratochvílová. She was a double silver medallist at the 1984 Friendship Games, at which Olympic-boycotting nations competed.

Milena Strnadová is a Czech former track and field athlete who competed for Czechoslovakia in the 400 metres and 800 metres events.

Antje Schröder is a German female former track and field athlete who competed in the 800 metres. She holds a personal best of 1:57.57 minutes, set in Leipzig in 1983. That same year she was the silver medallist in the 1983 European Cup behind Jarmila Kratochvílová and was a finalist at the inaugural 1983 World Championships in Athletics.

References

  1. Jarmila Kratochvílová. Sports Reference. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  2. "Jarmila Kratochvílová". databaseolympics.com. Roto Sports. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  3. "Jarmila Kratochvílová". sporting-heroes.net. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  4. "Senior outdoor 800 metres women» All time best". IAAF. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  5. Matthews, Peter (2012). Historical Dictionary of Track and Field. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 128. ISBN   978-0-8108-7985-0. LCCN   2011048496.
  6. 1 2 Senior outdoor 400 metres women IAAF. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  7. Rogers, Iain (24 November 2012). "Russians could break 800m record, Kratochvilova says". Reuters . Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  8. Turnbull, Simon (4 September 2010). "After a quarter of a century, Koch remains untouchable". The Independent. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  9. McClelland, Edward (25 August 2011). "Unbreakable: The women's track and field record book needs to be expunged". Slate . broad-shouldered […] more like a middleweight boxer's than that of a middle-distance runner
  10. Wharton, David (4 August 2009). "Doping at the L.A. Games? Ignorance was bliss". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  11. Gillon, Doug (30 July 2013). "With clear evidence of doping comes every justification for deleting records" . Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  12. 1 2 "Track's Most Resilient (and Suspect) Record Is in Danger". New York Times. 15 June 2017. p. SR1.
  13. "30 Years On". IAAF. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
Records
Preceded by
Marita Koch
Women's 400 metres World Record holder
1983-08-10 - 1985-10-06
Succeeded by
Marita Koch
Preceded by
Nadezhda Olizarenko
Women's 800 metres World Record holder
1983-07-26 —
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Awards
Preceded by
Marita Koch
United Press International
Athlete of the Year

1983
Succeeded by
Martina Navratilova
Preceded by
Marita Koch
Women's Track & Field Athlete of the Year
1983
Succeeded by
Evelyn Ashford