Javanese people

Last updated

Javanese people
Ngoko: ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦗꦮ (Wóng Jåwå)
Krama: ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦗꦮꦶ (Tiyang Jawi)
Traditional Javanese marriage costume.jpg
A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Total population
c.95–100 million
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 94,000,000+
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia unknown
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 190,000–240,000 (2018) [2] [3]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 151,021 (2016) [4]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 150,000 (2014) [5] [6]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 150,000 (2018) [7]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 114,000 (2014) [8]
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 108,000
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname 102,000 (2019) [9]
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 48,000 (2014) [8]
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 8,500 [10]
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 33,000 (2014) [8]
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 28,000 (2014) [8]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 21,700 (Javanese Surinamese) [11] [12]
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau 7,000–16,000 (2016) [13]
Flags of New Caledonia.svg  New Caledonia 4,100 [14]
Sunni Islam (97.17%)
Christians (2.56%, of which 1.59% Protestants and 0.97% Roman Catholics), Hindu (0.16%), Buddhist (0.10%), others (0.01%) [15]
Related ethnic groups

The Javanese people (Javanese: Ngoko: ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦗꦮ (Wóng Jåwå), Krama: ꦠꦶꦪꦁꦗꦮꦶ (Tiyang Jawi); [16] Indonesian: Suku Jawa or Orang Jawa) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. With approximately 100 million people, [17] they form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. There are also significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in most provinces of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Suriname, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and the Netherlands.


The Javanese ethnic group has many sub-groups, such as the Osing, Tenggerese and Banyumasan.

A majority of the Javanese people identify themselves as Sunni Muslims, with a small minority identifying as Christians and Hindus. However, Javanese civilisation has been influenced by more than a millennium of interactions between the native animism Kejawen and the Indian HinduBuddhist culture, and this influence is still visible in Javanese history, culture, traditions, and art forms. Javanese heritage has created the largest temples in the world like Prambanan and Borobudur. With a sizeable global population, the Javanese are considered significant as they are the fourth largest ethnic group among Muslims in the world after the Arabs, [18] Bengalis [19] and Punjabis. [20]


Like most Indonesian ethnic groups, including the Sundanese of West Java, the Javanese are of Austronesian origins whose ancestors are thought to have originated in Taiwan, and migrated through the Philippines [21] to reach Java between 1,500BC and 1,000BC. [22] However, according to recent genetic study, Javanese together with Sundanese and Balinese has almost equal ratio of genetic marker shared between Austronesian and Austroasiatic heritages. [23]

Ancient Javanese kingdoms and empires

Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic. Javanese Dance Ramayana Shinta 2.jpg
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.

Hindu and Buddhist influences arrived through trade contacts with the Indian subcontinent. [24] Hindu and Buddhist - traders and visitors, arrived in the 5th century. The Hindu, Buddhist and Javanese faiths blended into a unique local philosophy. [21]

The cradle of Javanese culture is commonly described as being in Kedu and Kewu Plain in the fertile slopes of Mount Merapi as the heart of the Medang i Bhumi Mataram kingdom. [25] The earliest Sanjaya and Sailendra dynasties had their power base there. [26] :238–239

The centre of Javanese culture and politics was moved towards the eastern part of the island when Mpu Sindok (r. 929–947) moved the capital of the kingdoms eastward to the valleys of the Brantas River in the 10th century CE. The move was most likely caused by the volcanic eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya. [26] :238–239

The major spread of Javanese influence occurred under King Kertanegara of Singhasari in the late 13th century. The expansionist king launched several major expeditions to Madura, Bali in 1284, [27] Borneo[ when? ] and most importantly to Sumatra in 1275. [26] Following the defeat of the Melayu Kingdom, Singhasari controlled trade in the Strait of Malacca.

Singhasari dominance was cut short in 1292 by Kediri's rebellion under Jayakatwang, killing Kertanegara. However, Jayakatwang's reign as king of Java soon ended as he was defeated by Kertanegara's son-in-law, Raden Wijaya with the help of invading Mongol troops in March 1293.

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java. Kertanegara policies were later continued by the Majapahits under King Hayam Wuruk and his minister Gajah Mada. [27]

Various kingdoms of Java were actively involved in the spice trade in the sea route of the Silk Road. Although not major spice producers, these kingdoms were able to stockpile spice by trading for it with rice, of which Java was a major producer. [28] Majapahit is usually regarded as the greatest of these kingdoms. It was both an agrarian and a maritime power, combining wet-rice cultivation and foreign trade. [29] The ruin of their capital can be found in Trowulan.

Javanese sultanates

Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD. COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Schildering voorstellende de moord op kapitein Tack in Kartasura TMnr H-796.jpg
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.

Islam gained its foothold in port towns on Java's northern coast such as Gresik, Ampel Denta (Surabaya), Tuban, Demak and Kudus. The spread and proselytising of Islam among the Javanese was traditionally credited to Wali Songo. [30]

Java underwent major changes as Islam spread. Following succession disputes and civil wars, Majapahit power collapsed. After this collapse, its various dependencies and vassals broke free. [31] The Sultanate of Demak became the new strongest power, gaining supremacy among city-states on the northern coast of Java. [32] Aside from its power over Javanese city-states, it also gained overlordship of the ports of Jambi and Palembang in eastern Sumatra. [32] Demak played a major role in opposing the newly arrived colonial power, the Portuguese. Demak twice attacked the Portuguese following their capture of Malacca. They also attacked the allied forces of the Portuguese and the Sunda Kingdom, establishing in the process the Sultanate of Banten.

Demak was succeeded by the Kingdom of Pajang and finally the Sultanate of Mataram. The centre of power moved from coastal Demak, to Pajang in Blora, and later further inland to Mataram lands in Kotagede, near present-day Yogyakarta. The Mataram Sultanate reached its peak of power and influence during the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo between 1613 and 1645.

Colonial Java

A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932. COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM 'Het veertig-jarig regeringsjubileum van Soesoehoenan Pakoe Boewono X van Surakarta in de stoet lopen serimpi's mee' TMnr 10001563.jpg
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.

In 1619 the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia. Java slowly fell to the Dutch East India Company, which would also eventually control most of Maritime Southeast Asia. The internal intrigue and war of succession, in addition to Dutch interference, caused the Mataram Sultanate to break up into Surakarta and Yogyakarta. The further separation of the Javanese realm was marked by the establishment of the Mangkunegaran and Pakualaman princedom. Although the real political power in those days actually lay with the colonial Dutch, the Javanese kings, in their keratons, still held prestige as the supposed power centre of the Javanese realm, especially in and around Surakarta and Yogyakarta.

Dutch rule was briefly interrupted by British rule in the early 19th century. While short, the British administration led by Stamford Raffles was significant, and included the re-discovery of Borobudur. Conflict with foreign rule was exemplified by the Java War between 1825 and 1830, and the leadership of Prince Diponegoro.

Like the rest of the Dutch East Indies, Java was captured by the Empire of Japan during World War II. With Japan's defeat, independence was proclaimed in the new Republic of Indonesia.

Republic of Indonesia

When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed on 17 August 1945, the last sovereign Javanese monarchies, represented by the Sri Sultan of Yogyakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta and Prince of Mangkunegara declared that they would become part of the Republic of Indonesia.

Yogyakarta and Pakualam were later united to form the Yogyakarta Special Region. The Sri sultan became Governor of Yogyakarta, and the Prince of Pakualaman became vice-governor; both were responsible to the President of Indonesia. The Special Region of Yogyakarta was created after the war of independence ended and formalized on 3 August 1950. Surakarta was later absorbed as part of the Central Java province.


Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture. Wayang Performance.jpg
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.

The Javanese culture is one of the oldest civilisations and has flourished in Indonesia. It has gradually absorbed various elements and influences from other cultures, including native reverence for ancestral and natural spirits, Hindu and Buddhist dharmic civilisation, Islamic values, and to a lesser extent, Christianity, Western philosophy and modern ideas. Nevertheless, Javanese culture — especially in the Javanese cultural heartland; those of highly polished aristocratic culture of the keratons in Yogyakarta and Surakarta — demonstrates some specific traits, such as particular concern with elegance and refinement (Javanese: alus), subtlety, politeness, courtesy, indirectness, emotional restraint and consciousness to one's social stature. Javanese culture values harmony and social order highly, and abhors direct conflicts and disagreements. These Javanese values are often promoted through Javanese cultural expressions, such as Javanese dance, gamelan, wayang and batik. It is also reinforced through adherence to Javanese adat (traditional rules) in ceremonies, such as Slametan, Satu Suro , Javanese weddings and Naloni Mitoni .

However, the culture of pesisiran of Javanese north coast and in Eastern Java demonstrates some slightly different traits. They tend to be more open to new and foreign ideas, more egalitarian, and less conscious of one's social stature. Some of these northern settlements — such as Demak, Kudus, Tuban, Gresik and Ampel in Surabaya — have become more overtly Islamic, traditionally because these port towns are among the earliest places that Islamic teachings gained foothold in Java.

Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement. Gamelan Player 1.JPG
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.

Javanese culture is traditionally centred in the Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java provinces of Indonesia. Due to various migrations, it can also be found in other parts of the world, such as Suriname (where 15% of the population are of Javanese descent), the broader Indonesian archipelago region, [33] Cape Malay, [34] Malaysia, Singapore, Netherlands and other countries. The migrants bring with them various aspect of Javanese cultures such as Gamelan music, traditional dances [35] and the art of Wayang kulit shadow play. [36] The migration of Javanese people westward has created a coastal Javanese culture in West Java distinct from the inland Sundanese culture.


Javanese alphabet. Hanacaraka-jawa.svg
Javanese alphabet.

Javanese is a member of the Austronesian family of languages and is closely related to, but distinct from, other languages of Indonesia. [37] It is notable for its great number of nearly ubiquitous Sanskrit loans, found especially in literary Javanese. [38] This is due to the long history of Hindu and Buddhist influences in Java.

Many Javanese in Indonesia are bilingual, being fluent in Indonesian (the standardized variant of the Malay language) and Javanese. [39] In a public poll held c.1990, approximately 12% of Javanese used Indonesian, around 18% used both Javanese and Indonesian, and the rest used Javanese exclusively.[ clarification needed ][ citation needed ]

The Javanese language was formerly written with a script descended from the Brahmi script, natively known as Hanacaraka or Carakan. Upon Indonesian independence it was replaced with a form of the Latin alphabet. While Javanese was not made an official language of Indonesia, it has the status of regional language for communication in the Javanese-majority regions. The language also can be viewed as an ethnic language because it is one of the defining characteristics of the Javanese ethnic identity. [37]

Literature and philosophy

Javanese intellectuals, writers, poets and men of letters are known for their ability to formulate ideas and creating idioms for high cultural purpose, through stringing words to express a deeper philosophical meanings. Several philosophical idioms sprung from Javanese classical literature, Javanese historical texts and oral traditions, and have spread into several media and promoted as popular mottos. For example, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", used as the national motto of the Republic of Indonesia, "Gemah Ripah Loh Jinawi, Toto Tentrem Kerto Raharjo", "Jer Basuki Mawa Bea", "Rawe-Rawe rantas, Malang-Malang putung" and "Tut Wuri Handayani". [40]

Social structure

Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. 1865. COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Portret van een Javaanse vorst of notabele met twee bedienden TMnr 60004903.jpg
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. 1865.

American anthropologist Clifford Geertz divided in the 1960s the Javanese community into three aliran or "streams": santri, abangan and priyayi. According to him, the Santri followed an orthodox interpretation Islam, the abangan followed a syncretic form of Islam that mixed Hindu and animist elements (often termed Kejawen ), and the priyayi were the nobility. [41]

The Geertz opinion is often opposed today because he mixed the social groups with belief groups. It was also difficult to apply this social categorisation in classing outsiders, for example other non-indigenous Indonesians such as persons of Arab, Chinese and Indian descent.

Social stratification is much less rigid in northern coast area.


Religion of Javanese [15]

   Sunni Islam (97.17%)
   Protestantism (1.59%)
   Roman Catholic (0.97%)
   Hinduism (0.16%)
   Buddhism (0.10%)
  Other (0.01%)

Today, most Javanese officially follow Islam as their religion, [42] Orthodox Muslims are most common in the northern coast bordering the Java Sea, where Islam was first brought to the island. Islam first came in contact with Java during the Majapahit period, when they traded or made tributary relations with various states like Perlak and Samudra Pasai in modern-day Aceh. [29]

A minority of Javanese also follow Christianity (Protestantism and Catholicism), which are concentrated in Central Java (particularly Surakarta, Magelang and Yogyakarta for Catholicism). Native Christian churches such as the Gereja Kristen Jawa also exist. On a smaller scale, Hinduism and Buddhism are also found in the Javanese community. The Javanese of the Tengger tribe continue to practice Javanese-Hindu today, and live in villages on the slope of Mount Bromo. [43]

Kebatinan, also called Kejawèn , [44] Agama Jawa [45] and Kepercayaan [46] is a Javanese religious tradition, consisting of an amalgam of animistic, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic, especially Sufi, beliefs and practices. It is rooted in Javanese history and religiosity, syncretising aspects of different religions.


The Javanese calendar is used by the Javanese people concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of Indonesia, while the Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays. The Javanese calendar is presently used mostly for cultural events (such as Siji Surå). The Javanese calendar system is currently a lunar calendar adopted by Sultan Agung in 1633, based on the Islamic calendar. Previously, Javanese people used a solar system based on the Hindu calendar.

Unlike many other calendars, the Javanese calendar uses a 5-day week known as the Pasaran cycle. This is still in use today and is superimposed with 7-day week of the Gregorian calendar and Islamic calendar to become what is known as the 35-day Wetonan cycle.


Traditional Javanese house. Rumah Traditional Jawa di Salatiga (1).jpg
Traditional Javanese house.

Throughout their long history, the Javanese have produced many important buildings, ranging from Hindu monuments, Buddhist stupa, mortuary temples, palace complexes, and mosques.

Two important religious monuments are the Hindu temple of Prambanan and the Buddhist temple of Borobudur. Both of them are 9th century temples and UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Both are located near Yogyakarta in the slope of Mount Merapi.

Meanwhile, examples of secular buildings can be seen in the ruins of the former capital city of the Majapahit Kingdom (14th to 16th century AD) in Trowulan, East Java. The complex covers an area of 11 km x 9 km. It consists of various brick buildings, a canal ranging from 20 to 40 meters wide, purification pools, temples and iconic split gates. [47] The capital complex is currently being considered as a candidate for becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Traditional Javanese buildings can be identified by their trapezoid shaped roofs supported by wooden pillars. [48] Another common feature in Javanese buildings are pendopo , pavilions with open-sides and four large pillars. The pillars and other parts of the buildings can be richly carved. This architecture style can be found at kraton , or palaces, of the Sultanates of Yogyakarta (palaces of Hamengkubuwono and Pakualaman) and Surakarta (palaces of Pakubuwono and Mangkunegaran). [49]

Traditional mosques in Java maintain a distinctive Javanese style. The pendopo model is used as the main feature of mosques as prayer halls. A trapezoidal roof is used instead of the more typically Muslim dome. These roofs are often multi-tiered and tiled. [50] In addition to not using domes, traditional Javanese mosques also often lack minarets. [51] The split gate from earlier Hindu-Buddhist period is still used in many mosques and public buildings in Java.

Some notable examples of mosques using traditional Javanese architecture include the Agung Demak Mosque, the Menara Kudus Mosque and the Great Mosque of Banten. The Kudus Mosque is also of note because it incorporates Hindu-style stone architecture.


Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime. Javanese Cuisine, Djogdja.jpg
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano. Nasi Tumpeng.jpg
Nasi tumpeng , the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.

Javanese cuisine and culture place an important role in rice, which is a staple food on the island. Among the Javanese it is considered not to be a meal if a person hasn't eaten rice yet. [52] It is also important part of identity that differentiate Javanese with foreigners that eat bread (the Europeans) and resident of other island who eat sago (for example Moluccans). Rice is also symbol of development and prosperity, while cassava and tuber is associated with poverty. [53]

Javanese cuisine varies by region. Eastern Javanese cuisine has a preference for more salty and hot foods, [53] while the Central Javanese prefer sweeter foods.

A famous food in Javanese cuisine is Rujak Cingur, [54] marinated cow lips and noses served with vegetable, shrimp prawn and peanut sauce with chili. Rojak Cingur is considered a traditional food in Surabaya in East Java.

Gudeg is a traditional food from Yogyakarta [55] and Central Java which is made from young Nangka (jack fruit) boiled for several hours with palm sugar, and coconut milk.

Pecel , a type of peanut sauce with chili [56] is a common ingredient in Javanese cuisine. It is used in various types of Rujak and Gado-gado. It can also be used as stand-alone sauce with rice, prawns, eggs and vegetables as Nasi Pecel (Pecel rice). [57]

Tumpeng , is a rice served in the shape of a conical volcano, [58] usually with rice coloured yellow using turmeric. It is an important part of many ceremonies in Java. Tumpeng is served at landmark events such as birthdays, moving house, or other ceremonies. [59] Traditionally, Tumpeng is served alongside fried chicken, boiled egg, vegetables, and goat meat on a round plate made from bamboo called besek.

A notable food in Java is tempeh , a meat substitute made from soybean fermented with mould. It is a staple source of protein in Java and popular around the world as a meat substitute for vegetarians.


Javanese do not usually have family names or surnames, with only a single name. Javanese names may come from traditional Javanese languages, many of which are derived from Sanskrit. Names with the prefix Su-, which means good, are very popular. After the advent of Islam, many Javanese began to use Arabic names, especially coast populations, where Islamic influences are stronger. Commoners usually only have one-word names, while nobilities use two-or-more-word names, but rarely a surname. Some people use a patronymic. Due to the influence of other cultures, many people started using names from other languages, mainly European languages. Christian Javanese usually use Latin baptism names followed by a traditional Javanese name.


In Indonesia, Javanese people can be found in all occupations, especially in the government and the military.


Traditionally, most Javanese people are farmers. Farming is especially common because of the fertile volcanic soil in Java. The most important agricultural commodity is rice. In 1997, it was estimated that Java produced 55% of Indonesia's total output of the crop. [60] Most farmers work in small-scale rice fields, with around 42% of farmers working and cultivating less than 0.5 hectares of land. [60] In region where soil is less fertile of where rainy season is short, other staple crops is cultivated, such as cassava. [61]


A Javanese sailor. Een Javaansch Matroos.jpg
A Javanese sailor.

In ancient times, the Javanese people excelled at navigating the seas and trading. This is because not all commodities can be found at the island of Java, and trading is required to fulfill the life necessities. Javanese merchants and sailors were already in frequent voyage in the seas between India and China as early as 1st century CE. [62] The Borobudur ship of the Javanese Sailendra dynasty brought Nusantaran sailors and settlers to Ghana and Madagascar in the 8th century CE, [63] but there is a possibility that they were there as early as 500 BCE. [64] [65]

The Javanese may have contacted Australia in 10th century AD, and migrated there, their settlement existing until early 1600s. According to Waharu IV inscription (931 AD) and Garaman inscription (1053 AD), [66] [67] the Medang kingdom and Airlangga's era Kahuripan kingdom (1000–1049 AD) of Java experienced a long prosperity so that it needed a lot of manpower, especially to bring crops, packings, and send them to ports. Black labor was imported from Jenggi (Zanzibar), Pujut (Australia), and Bondan (Papua). [68] [69] According to Naerssen, they arrived in Java by trading (bought by merchants) or being taken prisoner during a war and then made slaves. [70] According to Chiaymasiouro, the king of Demak, in 1601 AD a subgroup of Javanese people already settled in a land called LucaAntara, which is believed to be Australia. [71] But when Eredia's servant went to LucaAntara in 1610, the land had seemingly been abandoned. [72]

The 10th century Arab account Ajayeb al-Hind (Marvels of India) gives an account of invasion in Africa by people called Wakwak or Waqwaq, [73] :110 probably the Malay people of Srivijaya or Javanese people of Medang kingdom, [74] :39 in 945–946 CE. They arrived in the coast of Tanganyika and Mozambique with 1000 boats and attempted to take the citadel of Qanbaloh, though eventually failed. The reason of the attack is because that place had goods suitable for their country and for China, such as ivory, tortoise shells, panther skins, and ambergris, and also because they wanted black slaves from Bantu people (called Zeng or Zenj by Arabs, Jenggi by Javanese) who were strong and make good slaves. [75] :110

During the Majapahit era, almost all of the commodities from Asia were found in Java. This is because of extensive shipping by the Majapahit empire using various type of ships, particularly the jong, for trading to faraway places. [74] :267–293 Ma Huan (Zheng He's translator) who visited Java in 1413, stated that ports in Java were trading goods and offer services that were more numerous and more complete than other ports in Southeast Asia. [74] :241 It was also during Majapahit era that Nusantaran exploration reached its greatest accomplishment. Ludovico di Varthema (1470–1517), in his book Itinerario de Ludouico de Varthema Bolognese stated that the Southern Javanese people sailed to "far Southern lands" up to the point they arrived at an island where a day only lasted four hours long and was "colder than in any part of the world". Modern studies have determined that such place is located at least 900 nautical miles (1666 km) south of the southernmost point of Tasmania. [76] When Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, the Portuguese recovered a chart from a Javanese pilot, which already included part of the Americas. [77]

The Javanese people, like other Austronesian ethnicities, use a solid navigation system: Orientation at sea is carried out using a variety of different natural signs, and by using a very distinctive astronomy technique called "star path navigation". Basically, the navigators determine the bow of the ship to the islands that are recognized by using the position of rising and setting of certain stars above the horizon. [78] :10 In the Majapahit era, compasses and magnets were used, and cartography (mapping science) was developed: The use of maps full of longitudinal and transverse lines, rhumb lines, and direct route lines traveled by ships were recorded by Europeans, to the point that the Portuguese considered the Javanese maps were the best map in the early 1500s. [76] [79]

European colonial presence diminished the range of the Javanese merchant-sailors. However, in 1645, Diogo de Couto confirmed that the Javanese were still in communication with the east coast of Madagascar. [80] The decision of Amangkurat I of the Mataram Sultanate to destroy ships on coastal cities and close ports to prevent them from rebelling in mid-17th century further reduced the Javanese people's ability in long-distance sailing. In the second half of 18th century, most of the Javanese merchant-sailors were restricted to only short range travel. [78]


Borobudur Ship (Leemans, pl. ci, 172).png
Situs civitatis Bantam et Navium Insulae Iauae delineatio.jpg
Ships of the Javanese people:
  • Borobudur ship from Borobudur temple, 8th century AD
  • Javanese jong in Banten bay, 1610

The Javanese were known to produce large ships called jong. These ships already plied the seas between India and China as early as 1st century CE, carrying up to 1000 people alongside 250-1000 tons of cargo. [62] :41 The jong was mainly constructed in two major shipbuilding centres around Java: north coastal Java, especially around Rembang-Demak (along the Muria strait) and Cirebon; and the south coast of Borneo (Banjarmasin) and the adjacent islands. Pegu, which is a large shipbuilding port at the 16th century, also produced jong, built by Javanese who resided there. [81]

Impressed by their ability, Albuquerque hired 60 Javanese carpenters and shipbuilders to work in Malacca for the Portuguese. The shipbuilding in Java was hampered when the VOC gained foothold in Java starting in early 17th century. They prohibited the locals from building vessels more than 50 tons in tonnage and assigned European supervisors to shipyards. [82] :95 However, in the 18th century the Javanese shipbuilding areas (particularly Rembang and Juwana) has started building large European-styled vessels (bark and brigantine type) ranging between 160 and 600 tons in tonnage. [78] :20


Blacksmiths are traditionally valued. Some blacksmiths fast and meditate to reach perfection. Javanese blacksmiths create a range of tools and farming equipment, and also cultural items such as gamelan instruments and kris. [61] The art of kris-making provided the technical skills applied to gunmaking. Cannon and firearms required special expertise and may have been made by the same individuals. The blacksmith's spiritual power was said to be transferred to the guns. [83] :384 The Majapahit used fire-arms and cannonade as a feature of warfare. Cetbang, the Javanese bronze breech-loaded swivel-gun, was used ubiquitously by the Majapahit navy, pirates, and rival lords. The demise of the Majapahit empire also caused the flight of disaffected skilled bronze cannon-smiths to Brunei, modern Sumatra and Malaysia, and the Philippines. This led to near universal use of the swivel-gun, especially on trade vessels to protect against pirates, in the Makassar Strait. [84] Pole gun (bedil tombak) was recorded as being used by Javanese people in 1413. [85] [86]

Duarte Barbosa ca. 1514 said that the inhabitants of Java are great masters in casting artillery and very good artillerymen. They make many one-pounder cannons (cetbang or rentaka), long muskets, spingarde (arquebus), schioppi (hand cannon), Greek fire, guns (cannons), and other fire-works. Every place are considered excellent in casting artillery, and in the knowledge of using it. [76] :254 [87] :198 [88] :224 In 1513, the Javanese fleet led by Patih Yunus, sailed to attack Portuguese Malacca "with much artillery made in Java, for the Javanese are skilled in founding and casting, and in all works in iron, exceeding what they have in India". [89] :162 [90] :23

Zhang Xie in Dong Xi Yang Kao (1618) mentioned that city of Palembang, which has been conquered by Javanese, produces the furious fiery oil (ming huo yu), which according to the Hua I Kao is a kind of tree secretion (shu chin), and is also called mud oil (ni yu). Zhang Xie wrote: [91] :88

It much resemble camphor, and can corrode human flesh. When ignited and thrown on water, its light and flame become all the more intense. The barbarians use it as a fire-weapon and produce great conflagrations in which sails, bulwarks, upperworks and oars all catch fire and cannot withstand it. Fishes and tortoises coming in contact with it cannot escape from being scorched.

Because there was no mention of projector pump, the weapon is probably breakable bottles with fuses. [91] :88

Kris knives are important items, with many heirloom kris holding significant historical value. The design of the kris is to tear apart an opponent's abdomen, making the injury more severe.

Kota Gede is famous for its silverworks and silver handicrafts. [92]

Batik making

Batiks are traditionally made by women as a pastime, but some town and villages have specialised in making batik, such as Pekalongan, Kauman, Kampung Taman and Laweyan.

Wood carving

The Javanese art of wood carving is traditionally applied to various cultural attributes such as statues, (wayang-)dolls, and masks. Woodcarving also prominent as house ornamentation and details. The elaborately carved Omah Kudus is a fine example of Javanese woodcarving mastery. The Central Java town of Jepara is famous as a center of Javanese woodcarving workshops, where artists and carpenters especially working on Javan teak wood. [93]


The Javanese were probably involved in the Austronesian migration to Madagascar in the first centuries C.E. While the culture of the migration is most closely related with the Ma'anyan people of Borneo, a portion of the Malagasy language is derived from loanwords from the Javanese language. [94]

A Portuguese account described how the Javanese people already had advanced seafaring skills and still communicated with Madagascar in 1645: [80]

(The Javanese) are all men very experienced in the art of navigation, to the point that they claim to be the most ancient of all, although many others give this honor to the Chinese, and affirm that this art was handed on from them to the Javanese. But it is certain that they formerly navigated to the Cape of Good Hope and were in communication with the east coast of the island of San Laurenzo (Madagascar), where there are many brown and Javanized natives who say they are descended from them. - Diogo de Couto, Decada Quarta da Asia

Since the Hindu kingdom period, Javanese merchants settled at many places in the Indonesian archipelago. [26] :247 In the late 15th century, following the collapse of Majapahit and the rise of Muslim principalities on the northern coast of Java, many Hindu nobilities, artisans and courtiers migrated to Bali, [27] where they would contribute to the refined culture of Bali. Others who refused to convert to Islam retreated to Tengger mountain, retaining their Hindu religion and becoming the Tenggerese people.

In the conflicts during the transitions of power between the Demak, the Pajang and the Mataram in the late 16th century, some Javanese migrated to Palembang in southern Sumatra. There they established a sultanate and formed a mix of Malay and Javanese culture. [95] Palembang language is a dialect of Malay language with heavy influence of Javanese.

Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard. Inhabitants of Australia or Jave la Grande.jpg
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.

Declaraçam de Malaca e India Meridional com o Cathay by Manuel Godinho de Eredia (1613), described what he called India Meridional (Meridional India - Southern/South India). In his book he relates about the voyage of Chiaymasiouro (or Chiay Masiuro), king of Damuth (Demak) in Java, to a Southern land called LucaAntara (or Lucaantara, a peninsula in North Australia). [note 1] [note 2] The book explained that in Meridional India already settled a subgroup of Javanese people. A brief description of this country is given in a letter written by Chiaymasiouro to the King of Pahang and in a certificate made by Pedro de Carvalhaes at Malacca on 4 October 1601. [96] In Report of Meridional India (1610) Eredia mentioned that the Javanese people of LucaAntara in all of their customs and in figure resemble the Javanese of Sunda (west Java), [note 3] only a slight difference in the language, which he described as "much the same as between the Castillian and the Portuguese". The hair extends as far as the shoulders, the tonsure resembles the tonsure of Balinese people, with a curiously curved contour. [72]

During the reign of Sultan Agung (1613–1645), some Javanese began to establish settlements in coastal West Java around Cirebon, Indramayu and Karawang. These Javanese settlements were originally commissioned by Sultan Agung as rice farming villages to support the Javanese troop logistics on his military campaign against Dutch Batavia.

The Javanese were also present in Peninsular Malaya since early times. [97] The Link between Java and Malacca was important during spread of Islam in Indonesia, when religious missionaries were sent from Malacca to seaports on the northern coast of Java. [29] Large migrations to the Malay Peninsula occurred during the colonial period, mostly from Central Java to British Malaya. Migration also took place from 1880 to 1930 from other parts of Java with a secondary migration Javanese from Sumatra. Those migrations were to seek a new life away from the Dutch colonists who ruled Indonesia at that time. Today these people live throughout Peninsular Malaysia and are mainly concentrated in parts of Johor, Perak and Selangor and cities such as Kuala Lumpur.

Today, the Javanese of Malaysia are included in the Malay race along with other native Indonesian ethnic groups, the so-called bumiputera . Many immigrants of the colonial period retain their Javanese identity, and the Javanese language is still spoken, although the younger generation in urban centers mostly has shifted to Malay. [98]

In Singapore, approximately 50–60% of its Malay population have some degree of Javanese ancestry. Most of them have identified themselves as Malays, rather than Javanese. [99]

Javanese merchants were also present in the Maluku Islands as part of the spice trade. Following the Islamisation of Java, they spread Islam in the islands, with Ternate being a Muslim sultanate circa 1484. [100] Javanese merchants also converted coastal cities in Borneo to Islam. [101] The Javanese thus played an important part in transmitting Islam from the western part to the eastern part of the Archipelago with trade based from northern coast of Java.

Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940 Tropenmuseum Royal Tropical Institute Objectnumber 60006744 Javaanse arbeiders aangekomen bij de.jpg
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940

New migration patterns emerged during colonial periods. During the rise of VOC power starting in the 17th century, many Javanese were exiled, enslaved or hired as mercenaries for the Dutch colonies of Ceylon in South Asia and the Cape colony in South Africa. These included princes and nobility who lost their dispute with the company and were exiled along with their retinues. These, along with exiles from other ethnicities like Bugis and Malay became the Sri Lankan Malay [33] and Cape Malay [34] ethnic groups respectively. Other political prisoners were transported to closer places. Prince Diponegoro and his followers were transported to North Sulawesi, following his defeat in Java War in the early 19th century. Their descendants are well known as Jaton (abbreviation of "Jawa Tondano"/Tondano Javanese).

Major migrations started during the Dutch colonial period under transmigration programs. The Dutch needed many labourers for their plantations and moved many Javanese under the program as contract workers, mostly to other parts of the colony in Sumatra. They also sent Javanese workers to Suriname in South America. [102] As of 2019, approximately 13.7% of the Suriname population is of Javanese ancestry. [9] Outside of the Dutch colonies, Javanese workers were also sent to plantations administrated by the Dutch colonial government in New Caledonia, a French territory. [102]

The transmigration program that was created by the Dutch continued following independence. A significant Javanese population can be found in the Jabodetabek (Greater Jakarta) area, Lampung, South Sumatra and Jambi provinces. Several paguyuban (traditional community organisation) were formed by these Javanese immigrants, such as "Pujakesuma" (abbreviation of Indonesian: Putra Jawa Kelahiran Sumatera or Sumatra-born Javanese).


  1. Lucaantara: i.e. Nusaantara, the southern land which Eredia claims to have discovered The name Nusaantara occurs in the Pararaton, a Javanese historical work of about the 16th century. Blagden adopts Brandes’ explanation that the expression Nusantara refers to the Archipelago in general. (JRASSB . No. 53. (1909). p. 144). Crawfurd says that the expression Nusaantara denoted Madura. Janssen thinks that Eredia’s Lucaantara was Australia or one of the islands off the north Australian coast: Hamy considers it to be Sumba. (Janssen. Malaca, Vlnde Meridionale ei le Cathay. (1882). pp, xi, xii). Major thinks it was Madura.
  2. According to Ferrand, the word nusa is only used in Java, Madura, and Madagascar (nusi); elsewhere, island is generally represented by the name pulaw, pulo, or some dialectical variant thereof. (JournalAsiatique. Tome XX. (1920). p. 190). Nusa may be connected, through Sanskrit, with the Greek νῆσος (nesos). It would appear that the human tongue has a tendency to corrupt an "N" into an "L" thus "Nakhon" has become "Lakhon" (Ligor) and the Malay word nuri has become lory. Linschoten’s map of the Eastern Seas contains the forms Lusa (Luca) and Nusa.
  3. Likely what he meant here is the Cirebonese people, an Austronesian ethnic group with mixed culture of Javanese and Sundanese (heavier influence from Javanese).

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Java Indonesian island

Java is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 151.8 million, including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands, principally Madura, Java constitutes 56.1 percent of the Indonesian population. 147.7 million people live on Java itself, making it the world's most populous island.

Majapahit Empire based on the island of Java from 1293 to around 1500

The Majapahit was a Javanese Hindu thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java. It existed from 1293 to circa 1527 and reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 was marked by conquests that extended throughout Southeast Asia. His achievement is also credited to his prime minister, Gajah Mada. According to the Nagarakretagama (Desawarñana) written in 1365, Majapahit was an empire of 98 tributaries, stretching from Sumatra to New Guinea; consisting of present-day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, East Timor, southwestern Philippines although the scope of Majapahit sphere of influence is still the subject of debate among historians. The nature of Majapahit relations and influences upon its overseas vassals, and also its status as an empire are still provoking discussions.

Hinduism in Southeast Asia Religion in southeast Asia

Hinduism in Southeast Asia had a profound impact on the region's cultural development and its history. As the Indic scripts were introduced from India, people of Southeast Asia entered the historical period by producing their earliest inscriptions around the 1st to 5th century CE. Today, the only practicing Hindus in Southeast Asia other than Overseas Indians are the Balinese and Tenggerese minorities in Indonesia, and the Cham minority in Cambodia and southern Vietnam.

East Java Province of Indonesia

East Java is a province of Indonesia. It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west; the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean border its northern and southern coasts, respectively, while the narrow Bali Strait to the east separates Java from Bali. Located in eastern Java, it also includes the island of Madura, as well as the Kangean islands and other smaller island groups located further east and Masalembu archipelagos in the north. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, a major industrial center and also a major business center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East Java and the largest on the island of Java.

Javanese language Austronesian language

Javanese is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers on the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people.

Central Java Province of Indonesia

Central Java is a province of Indonesia, located in the middle of the island of Java. Its administrative capital is Semarang. It is bordered by West Java in the west, the Indian Ocean and the Special Region of Yogyakarta in the south, East Java in the east, and the Java Sea in the north. It has a total area of 32,800.69 km², with a population of 36,516,035 at the 2020 Census making it the third-most populous province in both Java and Indonesia after West Java and East Java. The province also includes the island of Nusakambangan in the south, and the Karimun Jawa Islands in the Java Sea. Central Java is also a cultural concept that includes the Special Region and city of Yogyakarta. However, administratively the city and its surrounding regencies have formed a separate special region since the country's independence, and is administrated separately. Although known as the "heart" of Javanese culture, there are several other non-Javanese ethnic groups, such as the Sundanese on the border with West Java. Chinese Indonesians, Arab Indonesians, and Indian Indonesians are also scattered throughout the province.

Nusantara Sociopolitical term for Maritime Southeast Asia

Nusantara is a historical Old Javanese term which literally means "outer islands"; in essence referring to the islands surrounding Java. The word is taken from an oath by Gajah Mada in 1336, as written in the Old Javanese Pararaton and Nagarakretagama: Gajah Mada was a powerful military leader and prime minister of Majapahit credited with bringing the empire to its peak of glory. Gajah Mada delivered an oath called Sumpah Palapa, in which he vowed not to eat any food containing spices until he had conquered all of Nusantara under the glory of Majapahit.

Architecture of Indonesia Overview of the architecture in Indonesia

The architecture of Indonesia reflects the diversity of cultural, historical and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole. Invaders, colonizers, missionaries, merchants and traders brought cultural changes that had a profound effect on building styles and techniques.

Spread of Islam in Indonesia

The history of arrival and spread of Islam in Indonesia is unclear. One theory states it arrived directly from Arabia before the 9th century, while another credits Sufi merchants and preachers for bringing Islam to Indonesian islands in the 12th or 13th century either from Gujarat in India or directly from the Middle East. Before the arrival of Islam, the predominant religions in Indonesia were Hinduism and Buddhism.

Demak Sultanate Historic state in the island of Java

The Demak Sultanate was a Javanese Muslim state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present-day city of Demak. A port fief to the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Muslim traders from China, Gujarat, Arabia and also Islamic kingdoms in the region, such as Samudra Pasai, Malacca and Bani (Muslim) Champa. The sultanate was the first Muslim state in Java, and once dominated most of the northern coast of Java and southern Sumatra.

Javanese culture culture of the Javanese people

Javanese culture is the culture of the Javanese people. Javanese culture is centered in the provinces of Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java in Indonesia. Due to various migrations, it can also be found in other parts of the world, such as Suriname, the broader Indonesian archipelago region, Cape Malay, Malaysia, Singapore, Netherlands and other countries. The migrants bring with them various aspects of Javanese cultures such as Gamelan music, traditional dances and art of Wayang kulit shadow play.

Sunan Ampel was one of the Javanese nine revered saints Wali Songo, credited for the spread Islam in Java. According to local history around Demak the mosque of Demak Masjid Agung Demak was built by Sunan Ampel in 1479 CE, but other source credited the construction of the mosque to Sunan Kalijaga.


Javanisation or Javanization is the process in which Javanese culture dominates, assimilates, or influences other cultures in general. The term "Javanise" means "to make or to become Javanese in form, idiom, style, or character." This domination could take place in various aspects; such as cultural, language, politics and social.

Banyumasan people or Banyumasan Javanese is a collective term for a Javanese subgroup native to the Indonesia's westernmost part of Central Java. At approximately ±9 million people, they are concentrated in Banyumas, Cilacap, Kebumen, Purworejo, Purbalingga, and Banjarnegara regencies. The Banyumasan-Javanese speak Banyumasan dialect of Javanese language, a dialect which is often called "basa ngapak-ngapak".

Bali Kingdom

The Kingdom of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences – adopted from India through ancient Java intermediary – flourished, enriched and shaped the Balinese culture.

Cetbang Majapahit-Javanese cannon

The Cetbang refers to cannons produced and used by the Majapahit Empire (1293–1527) and other kingdoms in the Indonesian archipelago. There are 2 main types of cetbang: the eastern-style cetbang which looks like a Chinese cannon and is loaded from the front, and the western-style cetbang which is shaped like a Turkish and Portuguese cannon, loaded from the back.


Kelulus or kalulus is a type of rowing boat used in Indonesia. It is typically small in size and propelled using oar or paddle. However, for long-distance voyages, this boat can be equipped with sails. It is not the same as prahu kalulis of the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago.

Javanese contact with Australia

The Javanese presence in Australia has been reported by native Southeast Asian and European people over several centuries. The most renowned record is from the itinerary of Chiaymasiouro, king of Demak, and Declaraçam de Malaca e India Meridional com o Cathay by Manuel Godinho de Eredia. Chiaymasiouro describes a land called LucaAntara in Southeast direction of Java, which Eredia coined the term India Meridional. According to Chiaymasiouro's accounts, a subgroup of Javanese people already settled in those lands, but when Eredia's servant went to LucaAntara in 1610, the land had seemingly been abandoned.

Javanese diaspora People of Javanese ethnicity residing outside Indonesia

The Javanese diaspora is the demographic group of descendants of ethnic Javanese who emigrated from the island of Java to other parts of the world. The Javanese diaspora includes a significant population in Suriname, with over 13% of the country's population being of Javanese ancestry. Other major enclaves are found in Australia, French Guiana, Malaysia, the Netherlands, New Caledonia, Singapore, South Africa, and Sri Lanka.


  1. Pramono, S.B. (2013). Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak. Grafindo Litera Media. ISBN   978-979-3896-38-0.
  2. "產業及社福外籍勞工人數-按國籍分". 行政院勞動部勞力發展署. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  3. "TKI di China Lebih Besar Dibandingkan Pekerja China di RI". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  4. "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  5. Kompasiana (2016). Kami Tidak Lupa Indonesia. Bentang Pustaka. ISBN   9786022910046.
  6. Silvey, Rachel (2005), "Transnational Islam: Indonesian Migrant Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia", in Falah, Ghazi-Walid; Nagel, Caroline (eds.), Geographies of Muslim Women: Gender, Religion, and Space, Guilford Press, pp. 127–146, ISBN   1-57230-134-1
  7. "TKI di Singapura Bisa Kirim Uang ke Kampung Lewat HP". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  8. 1 2 3 4 "1,3 Juta TKI Kerja di Timteng Terbanyak Arab Saudi". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  9. 1 2 "Suriname". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 18 December 2019. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  10. Project, Joshua. "Javanese in Sri Lanka". Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  11. Ko Oudhof, Carel Harmsen, Suzanne Loozen en Chan Choenni, " Omvang en spreiding van Surinaamse bevolkingsgroepen in Nederland " (CBS - 2011)
  12. Ko Oudhof en Carel Harmsen, " De maatschappelijke situatie van Surinaamse bevolkingsgroepen in Nederland " (CBS - 2011)
  13. "Ini Data TKA di Indonesia dan Perbandingan Dengan TKI di Luar Negeri". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  14. Institut de la statistique et des études économiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie (ISEE). "Population totale, selon la communauté par commune et Province de résidence" (in French). Archived from the original (XLS) on 28 September 2007.
  15. 1 2 Aris Ananta, Evi Nurvidya Arifin, M Sairi Hasbullah, Nur Budi Handayani, Agus Pramono. Demography of Indonesia's Ethnicity. Singapore: ISEAS: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2015. p. 270 (based on 2010 census data).
  16. Harjawiyana, Haryana; Theodorus Supriya (2001). Kamus unggah-ungguh basa Jawa. Kanisius. p. 185. ISBN   978-979-672-991-3.
  17. Ananta, Aris; Arifin, Evi Nurvidya; Hasbullah, M. Sairi; Handayani, Nur Budi; Pramono, Agus (December 2015). Demography of Indonesia's Ethnicity (in Indonesian). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. doi:10.1355/9789814519885. ISBN   978-981-4519-87-8 . Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  18. Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN   1931930252, page xxiii, 14
  19. roughly 152 million Bengali Muslims in Bangladesh and 36.4 million Bengali Muslims in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimates, numbers subject to rapid population growth); about 10 million Bangladeshis in the Middle East, 1 million Bengalis in Pakistan, 5 million British Bangladeshi.
  20. Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. p. 1. ISBN   978-93-83064-41-0.
  21. 1 2 Spiller, Henry (2008). Gamelan music of Indonesia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN   978-0-415-96067-0.
  22. Taylor (2003), p. 7.
  23. "Pemetaan Genetika Manusia Indonesia". (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  24. Miksic, John; Marcello Tranchini; Anita Tranchini (1996). Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddhas. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN   978-0-945971-90-0.
  25. Tarling, Nicholas (1999). Cambridge history of South East Asia: From early times to c.1500. Cambridge University Press. p. 203. ISBN   978-0-521-66369-4.
  26. 1 2 3 4 Spuler, Bertold; F.R.C. Bagley (31 December 1981). The Muslim world: a historical survey, Part 4. Brill Archive. p. 252. ISBN   978-90-04-06196-5.
  27. 1 2 3 Capaldi, Liz; Joshua Eliot (2000). Bali handbook with Lombok and the Eastern Isles: the travel guide. Footprint Travel Guides. ISBN   978-0-658-01454-3.
  28. Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007). World and Its Peoples: Indonesia and East Timor. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1333. ISBN   978-0-7614-7643-6.
  29. 1 2 3 Wink, André (2004). Indo-Islamic society, 14th-15th centuries. BRILL. p. 217. ISBN   978-90-0413561-1.
  30. Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 9–10. ISBN   0-333-57689-6.
  31. Muljana, Slamet (2005). Runtuhnya kerajaan Hindu-Jawa dan timbulnya negara-negara Islam di Nusantara. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: LKiS. ISBN   979-8451-16-3.
  32. 1 2 Pires, Tomé (1990). The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN   81-206-0535-7.
  33. 1 2 Shucker, M. A. M. (1986). Muslims of Sri Lanka: avenues to antiquity. Jamiah Naleemia Inst. OCLC   15406023.
  34. 1 2 Williams, Faldela (1988). Cape Malay Cookbook. Struik. ISBN   978-1-86825-560-3.
  35. Matusky, Patricia Ann; Sooi Beng Tan (2004). The music of Malaysia: the classical, folk, and syncretic traditions . Ashgate Publishing. pp.  107. ISBN   978-0-7546-0831-8.
  36. Osnes, Beth (2010). The Shadow Puppet Theatre of Malaysia: A Study of Wayang Kulit with Performance Scripts and Puppet Designs. McFarland. p. 26. ISBN   978-0-7864-4838-8.
  37. 1 2 Robson, Stuart; Singgih Wibisono (2002). Javanese English dictionary. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN   978-0-7946-0000-6.
  38. Marr, David G.; Anthony Crothers Milner (1986). Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th centuries. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN   978-9971-988-39-5.
  39. Errington, James Joseph (1998). Shifting languages: interaction and identity in Javanese Indonesia . Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-63448-9.
  40. Soeseno, Ki Nardjoko (2014). Falsafah Jawa Soeharto & Jokowi. Araska. ISBN   978-602-7733-82-4.
  41. McDonald, Hamish (1980). Suharto's Indonesia. Melbourne: Fontana. pp. 9–10. ISBN   0-00-635721-0.
  42. Geertz, Clifford (1976). The religion of Java. University of Chicago Press. ISBN   978-0-226-28510-8.
  43. Beatty, Andrew (1999). Varieties of Javanese religion: an anthropological account. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-62473-2.
  44. Gin 2004, p. 719.
  45. Caldarola 1982, p. 501.
  46. Hooker 1988, p. 196.
  47. Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia (6 October 2009). "Trowulan - Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Convention.
  48. Karaton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat (2002). Kraton Jogja: the history and cultural heritage. Kraton Yogyakarta, Indonesia Marketing Association. ISBN   978-979-969060-9.
  49. Eliot, Joshua; Liz Capaldi; Jane Bickersteth (2001). Indonesia handbook, Volume 3. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 303. ISBN   978-1-900949-51-4.
  50. Kusno, Abidin (2000). Behind the postcolonial: architecture, urban space, and political cultures in Indonesia. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN   9780415236157.
  51. Singh, Nagendra Kr (2002). International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties. Anmol Publications. p. 148. ISBN   978-81-2610403-1.
  52. Kalekin-Fishman, Devorah; Kelvin E. Y. Low (2010). Everyday Life in Asia: Social Perspectives on the Senses. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 52. ISBN   978-0-7546-7994-3.
  53. 1 2 DuFon, Margaret A.; Eton Churchill (2006). Language learners in study abroad contexts. Multilingual Matters. p. 110. ISBN   978-1-85359-851-7.
  54. Tania, Vania (2008). Djakabaia: Djalan-djalan dan Makan-makan. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. ISBN   978-979-223923-2.
  55. Tempat Makan Favorit di 6 Kota. AgroMedia. 2008. p. 136. ISBN   978-979-006166-8.
  56. Witton, Patrick; Mark Elliott; Paul Greenway; Virginia Jealous (2003). Indonesia. Lonely Planet. p. 108. ISBN   978-1-74059-154-6.
  57. Soebroto, Chris (2004). Indonesia OK!!: the guide with a gentle twist. Galangpress Group. p. 72. ISBN   978-979-934179-2.
  58. Kim, Hyung-Jun (2006). Reformist Muslims in Yogyakarta Village: the Islamic transformation of contemporary socio-religious life. ANU E Press. p. 126. ISBN   978-1-920942-34-2.
  59. Owen, Sri (1999). Indonesian Regional Food and Cookery. Frances Lincoln Ltd. p. 173. ISBN   978-0-7112-1273-2.
  60. 1 2 Gérard, Françoise; François Ruf (2001). Agriculture in crisis: people, commodities and natural resources in Indonesia, 1996-2000. Routledge. p. 301. ISBN   978-0-7007-1465-0.
  61. 1 2 Dunham, Stanley Ann; Alice G. Dewey (2009). Surviving Against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia. Duke University Press. p. 50. ISBN   978-0-8223-4687-6.
  62. 1 2 Dick-Read, Robert (2005). The Phantom Voyagers: Evidence of Indonesian Settlement in Africa in Ancient Times. Thurlton.
  63. Beale, Philip (April 2006). "From Indonesia to Africa: Borobudur Ship Expedition". Ziff Journal: 22 via
  64. Blench, “The Ethnographic Evidence for Long-distance Contacts”, p. 432.
  65. I. W. Ardika & P. Bellwood, “Sembiran: The Beginnings of Indian Contact with Bali”, Antiquity 65 (1991): 221–32. See also I. W. Ardika, P. Bellwood, I. M. Sutaba & K. C. Yuliati, “Sembiran and the First Indian Contacts with Bali: An Update”, Antiquity 71(1997): 193–95.
  66. Nastiti (2003), in Ani Triastanti, 2007, p. 39.
  67. Nastiti (2003), in Ani Triastanti, 2007, p. 34.
  68. Nugroho (2011). p. 39.
  69. Nugroho (2011). p. 73.
  70. Kartikaningsih (1992). p. 42, in Ani Triastanti (2007), p. 34.
  71. de Eredia (1613). p. 63.
  72. 1 2 de Eredia (1613). p. 262.
  73. Kumar, Ann. (1993). 'Dominion Over Palm and Pine: Early Indonesia’s Maritime Reach', in Anthony Reid (ed.), Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies), 101–122.
  74. 1 2 3 Nugroho, Irawan Djoko (2011). Majapahit Peradaban Maritim. Suluh Nuswantara Bakti. ISBN   9786029346008.
  75. Reid, Anthony (2012). Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN   978-9814311960.
  76. 1 2 3 Jones, John Winter (1863). The travels of Ludovico di Varthema in Egypt, Syria, Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix, in Persia, India, and Ethiopia, A.D. 1503 to 1508. Hakluyt Society.
  77. Cartas de Afonso de Albuquerque, Volume 1, p. 64, April 1, 1512
  78. 1 2 3 Liebner, Horst H. (2002). Perahu-Perahu Tradisional Nusantara. Jakarta.
  79. "Majapahit-era Technologies". Nusantara Review. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  80. 1 2 Couto, Diogo do (1645). Da Asia: Nine decades. Lisbon: Regia Officina Typografica, 1778-88. Reprint, Lisbon, 1974. Vol. IV, p. 169.
  81. Pires, Tome (1944). Suma Oriental. London: The Hakluyt Society. ISBN   9784000085052.
  82. Lombard, Denys (1990). The Javanese Crossroads. Essay of Global History. ISBN   2713209498.
  83. Tarling, Nicholas (1992). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 1, From Early Times to C.1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521355056.
  84. Thomas Stamford Raffles, The History of Java, Oxford University Press, 1965, ISBN   0-19-580347-7, 1088 pages.
  85. Mayers (1876). "Chinese explorations of the Indian Ocean during the fifteenth century". The China Review. IV: p. 178.
  86. Manguin, Pierre-Yves (1976). "L'Artillerie legere nousantarienne: A propos de six canons conserves dans des collections portugaises" (PDF). Arts Asiatiques. 32: 233–268. doi:10.3406/arasi.1976.1103.
  87. Barbosa, Duarte (1866). A Description of the Coasts of East Africa and Malabar in the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century. The Hakluyt Society.
  88. Partington, J. R. (1999). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. JHU Press. ISBN   978-0-8018-5954-0.
  89. Reid, Anthony (2012). Anthony Reid and the Study of the Southeast Asian Past. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN   978-981-4311-96-0.
  90. Crawfurd, John (1856). A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries. Bradbury and Evans.
  91. 1 2 Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  92. Tadié, J; Guillaud, Dominique (ed.); Seysset, M. (ed.); Walter, Annie (ed.) (1998), Kota Gede : le devenir identitaire d'un quartier périphérique historique de Yogyakarta (Indonésie); Le voyage inachevé... à Joël Bonnemaison, ORSTOM, retrieved 20 April 2012CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  93. "In a Central Java town, local wood enterprises carve a niche in the global market - CIFOR Forests News". CIFOR Forests News. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  94. Adelaar, Alexander (2006). The Indonesian migrations to Madagascar: making sense of the multidisciplinary evidence. Melbourne Institute of Asian Languages and Societies, The University of Melbourne. ISBN   9789792624366.
  95. Simanjuntak, Truman; Ingrid Harriet Eileen Pojoh; Muhamad Hisyam (2006). Austronesian diaspora and the ethnogeneses of people in Indonesian archipelago. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 422. ISBN   978-979-26-2436-6.
  96. Mills (1930). p. 3.
  97. Crawfurd, John (1856). A descriptive dictionary of the Indian islands & adjacent countries. Bradbury & Evans. pp.  244.
  98. Miyazaki, Koji (2000). "Javanese-Malay: Between Adaptation and Alienation". Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. 15 (1): 76–99. doi:10.1355/SJ15-1D. JSTOR   41057030. P. 83: "Generally speaking, however, as one might expect, younger Javanese-Malays can hardly understand Javanese and are Malay monolingual".
  99. LePoer, Barbara Leitch (1991). Singapore, a country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 83. ISBN   9780160342646 . Retrieved 17 February 2013. Singapore Malay community leaders estimated that some 50 to 60 percent of the community traced their origins to Java and an additional 15 to 20 percent to Bawean Island, in the Java Sea north of the city of Surabaya.
  100. Storch, Tanya (2006). Religions and missionaries around the Pacific, 1500-1900. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN   978-0-7546-0667-3.
  101. Lapidus, Ira Marvin (2002). A history of Islamic societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 384. ISBN   978-0-521-77933-3.
  102. 1 2 Martinez, J.T; Vickers, A.H (2012). "Indonesians overseas - deep histories and the view from below". Indonesia and the Malay World. 40 (117): 111–121. doi:10.1080/13639811.2012.683667. S2CID   161553591 . Retrieved 28 December 2019.


Further reading