Javelin throw

Last updated

Athletics
Javelin throw
Thomas Rohler 2011.jpg
German javelin thrower Thomas Röhler in 2011
World records
Men Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Jan Železný 98.48 m (323 ft 1 in) (1996)
Women Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Barbora Špotáková 72.28 m (237 ft 1+12 in) (2008)
Olympic records
Men Flag of Norway.svg Andreas Thorkildsen 90.57 m (297 ft 1+12 in) (2008)
Women Flag of Cuba.svg Osleidys Menéndez 71.53 m (234 ft 8 in) (2004)
World Championship records
Men Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Jan Železný 92.80 m (304 ft 5+12 in) (2001)
Women Flag of Cuba.svg Osleidys Menéndez 71.70 m (235 ft 2+34 in) (2005)
German javelin thrower Stephan Steding during the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Osaka, Japan Osaka07 D7M Stephan Steding Javelin.jpg
German javelin thrower Stephan Steding during the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Osaka, Japan

The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in length, is thrown. The javelin thrower gains momentum by running within a predetermined area. Javelin throwing is an event of both the men's decathlon and the women's heptathlon.

Contents

History

A scene depicting javelin throwers and other pentathletes. Originally found on a Panathenaic amphora from Ancient Greece, circa 525 B.C. British Museum. Javelin throwers Ancient Greece.png
A scene depicting javelin throwers and other pentathletes. Originally found on a Panathenaic amphora from Ancient Greece, circa 525 B.C. British Museum.

The javelin throw was added to the Ancient Olympic Games as part of the pentathlon in 708 BC. It included two events, one for distance and the other for accuracy in hitting a target. The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong ( ankyle in Greek) that was wound around the middle of the shaft. Athletes held the javelin by the ankyle, and when they released the shaft, the unwinding of the thong gave the javelin a spiral trajectory.

Throwing javelin-like poles into targets was revived in Germany and Sweden in the early 1870s. In Sweden, these poles developed into the modern javelin, and throwing them for distance became a common event there and in Finland in the 1880s. The rules continued to evolve over the next decades; originally, javelins were thrown with no run-up, and holding them by the grip at the center of gravity was not always mandatory. Limited run-ups were introduced in the late 1890s, and soon developed into the modern unlimited run-up. [1] :435–436

Sweden's Eric Lemming, who threw his first world best (49.32 meters) in 1899 and ruled the event from 1902 to 1912, was the first dominant javelin thrower. [1] :436,441 [2] :478 When the men's javelin was introduced as an Olympic discipline at the 1906 Intercalated Games, Lemming won by almost nine metres and broke his own world record; Sweden swept the first four places, as Finland's best throwers were absent and the event had yet to become popular in any other country. [1] :437 Though challenged by younger talents, Lemming repeated as Olympic champion in 1908 and 1912; his eventual best mark (62.32 m, thrown after the 1912 Olympics) was the first javelin world record to be officially ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations. [1] :436–441 [3]

In the late 19th and early 20th century, most javelin competitions were two-handed; the implement was thrown with the right hand and separately with the left hand, and the best marks for each hand were added together. Competitions for the better hand only were less common, though not unknown. [2] At the Olympics, a both-hands contest was held only once, in 1912; Finland swept the medals, ahead of Lemming. [1] :441 After that, this version of the javelin rapidly faded into obscurity, together with similar variations of the shot and the discus; Sweden's Yngve Häckner, with his total of 114.28 m from 1917, was the last official both-hands world record holder. [4]

Another early variant was the freestyle javelin, in which holding the javelin by the grip at the center of gravity was not mandatory; such a freestyle competition was held at the 1908 Olympics, but was dropped from the program after that. [2] :478 Hungary's Mór Kóczán used a freestyle end grip to break the 60-meter barrier in 1911, a year before Lemming and Julius Saaristo first did so with a regular grip. [1] :440 [5] :214

The first known women's javelin marks were recorded in Finland in 1909. [6] Originally, women threw the same implement as men; a lighter, shorter javelin for women was introduced in the 1920s. Women's javelin throw was added to the Olympic program in 1932; Mildred "Babe" Didrikson of the United States became the first champion. [2] :479

For a long time, javelins were made of solid wood, typically birch, with a steel tip. The hollow, highly aerodynamic Held javelin, invented by American thrower Bud Held and developed and manufactured by his brother Dick, was introduced in the 1950s; the first Held javelins were also wooden with steel tips, but later models were made entirely of metal. [2] :478–479 [6] [7] These new javelins flew further, but were also less likely to land neatly point first; as a response to the increasingly frequent flat or ambiguously flat landings, experiments with modified javelins started in the early 1980s. The resulting designs, which made flat landings much less common and reduced the distances thrown, became official for men starting in April 1986 and for women in April 1999, and the world records (then 104.80 m by Uwe Hohn, and 80.00 m by Petra Felke) were reset. [8] The current (as of 2017) men's world record is held by Jan Železný at 98.48 m (1996); Barbora Špotáková holds the women's world record at 72.28 m (2008).

Of the 69 Olympic medals that have been awarded in the men's javelin, 32 have gone to competitors from Norway, Sweden or Finland. Finland is the only nation to have swept the medals at a currently recognized official Olympics, and has done so twice, in 1920 and 1932, in addition to its 1912 sweep in the two-handed javelin; in 1920 Finland swept the first four places, which is no longer possible as only three entrants per country are allowed. Finland has, however, never been nearly as successful in the women's javelin. [2] :479

The javelin throw has been part of the decathlon since the decathlon was introduced in the early 1910s; the all-around, an earlier ten-event contest of American origin, did not include the javelin throw. The javelin was also part of some (though not all) of the many early forms of women's pentathlon and has always been included in the heptathlon after it replaced the pentathlon in 1981. [9]

Rules and competitions

The size, shape, minimum weight, and center of gravity of the javelin are all defined by IAAF rules. In international competition, men throw a javelin between 2.6 and 2.7 m (8 ft 6 in and 8 ft 10 in) in length and 800 g (28 oz) in weight, and women throw a javelin between 2.2 and 2.3 m (7 ft 3 in and 7 ft 7 in) in length and 600 g (21 oz) in weight. The javelin has a grip, about 150 mm (5.9 in) wide, made of cord and located at the javelin's center of gravity (0.9 to 1.06 m (2 ft 11 in to 3 ft 6 in)) from the javelin tip for the men's javelin and 0.8 to 0.92 m (2 ft 7 in to 3 ft 0 in) from the javelin tip for the women's javelin.

Matti Jarvinen throwing the javelin at the 1932 Olympics Matti Jarvinen.jpg
Matti Järvinen throwing the javelin at the 1932 Olympics

Unlike the other throwing events (shot put, discus, and hammer), the technique used to throw the javelin is dictated by IAAF rules and "non-orthodox" techniques are not permitted. The javelin must be held at its grip and thrown overhand, over the athlete's shoulder or upper arm. Further, the athlete is prohibited from turning completely around or starting with their back facing the direction of the throw. This prevents athletes from attempting to spin and hurl the javelin sidearm in the style of a discus throw. This rule was put in place when a group of athletes began experimenting with a spin technique referred to as "free style". On 24 October 1956, Pentti Saarikoski threw 99.52 m (326 ft 6 in) [10] using the technique holding the end of the javelin. Officials were so afraid of the out of control nature of the technique that the practice was banned through these rule specifications.

Instead of being confined to a circle, javelin throwers have a runway 4 m (13 ft) wide and at least 30 m (98 ft) in length, ending in an 8 m (26 ft) radius throwing arc from which their throw is measured; athletes typically use this distance to gain momentum in a "run-up" to their throw. Like the other throwing events, the competitor may not leave the throwing area (the runway) until after the implement lands. The need to come to a stop behind the throwing arc limits both how close the athlete can come to the line before the release as well as the maximum speed achieved at the time of release.

The javelin is thrown towards a 28.96º circular sector that is centered on the center point of the throwing arc. The angle of the throwing sector (28.96º) provides sector boundaries that are easy to construct and lay out on a field. [11] A throw is only legal if the tip of the javelin lands within this sector and first strikes the ground with its tip before any other part. [12] The distance of the throw is measured from the throwing arc to the point where the tip of the javelin landed, rounded down to the nearest centimeter.

Competition rules are similar to other throwing events: a round consists of one attempt by each competitor in turn, and competitions typically consist of three to six rounds. The competitor with the longest single legal throw (over all rounds) is the winner; in case of a tie, the competitors' second-longest throws are also considered. Competitions involving large numbers of athletes sometimes use a cut whereby all competitors compete in the first three rounds but only those who are currently among the top eight or have achieved some minimum distances are permitted to attempt to improve on their distance in additional rounds (typically three).

Javelin redesigns

Uwe Hohn (pictured in 1984) holds the "eternal world record" with a throw of 104.80 m as a new type of javelin was implemented in 1986. Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1984-0513-018, Uwe Hohn.jpg
Uwe Hohn (pictured in 1984) holds the "eternal world record" with a throw of 104.80 m as a new type of javelin was implemented in 1986.

On 1 April 1986, the men's javelin (800 grams (1.76  lb )) was redesigned by the governing body (the IAAF Technical Committee). They decided to change the rules for javelin design because of the increasingly frequent flat landings and the resulting discussions and protests when these attempts were declared valid or invalid by competition judges. The world record had also crept up to a potentially dangerous level, 104.80 m (343.8 ft) by Uwe Hohn. With throws exceeding 100 meters, it was becoming difficult to safely stage the competition within the confines of a stadium infield. The javelin was redesigned so that the centre of gravity was moved 4 cm (1.6 in) forward. In addition, the surface area in front of centre of gravity was reduced, while the surface area behind the centre of gravity was increased. This had an effect similar to that produced by the feathers on an arrow. The javelin turns into the relative wind. This relative wind appears to originate from the ground as the javelin descends, thus the javelin turns to face the ground. As the javelin turns into the wind less lift is generated, reducing the flight distance by around 10% but also causing the javelin to stick in the ground more consistently. In 1999, the women's javelin (600 grams (1.32 lb)) was similarly redesigned. [13]

Modifications that manufacturers made to recover some of the lost distance, by increasing tail drag (using holes, rough paint or dimples), were forbidden at the end of 1991 and marks made using implements with such modifications removed from the record books. Seppo Räty had achieved a world record of 96.96 m (318.1 ft) in 1991 with such a design, but this record was nullified.

Weight rules by age group

The weight of the javelin in the Under-20 category is the same as the senior level. [14]

MenWomen
Age groupWeightWeight
U13400g400g
U15600g500g
U18 700g500g
Junior (U20) 800g600g
Senior 800g600g
35–49800g600g
50–74500g
50–59700g
60–69600g
70–79500g
75+400g
80+400g

Technique and training

Unlike other throwing events, javelin allows the competitor to build speed over a considerable distance. In addition, the core and upper body strength is necessary to deliver the implement, javelin throwers benefit from the agility and athleticism typically associated with running and jumping events. Thus, the athletes share more physical characteristics with sprinters than with others, although they still need the skill of heavier throwing athletes.

Traditional free-weight training is often used by javelin throwers. Metal-rod exercises and resistance band exercises can be used to train a similar action to the javelin throw to increase power and intensity. Without proper strength and flexibility, throwers can become extremely injury prone, especially in the shoulder and elbow. Core stability can help in the transference of physical power and force from the ground through the body to the javelin. Stretching and sprint training are used to enhance the speed of the athlete at the point of release, and subsequently, the speed of the javelin. At release, a javelin can reach speeds approaching 113 km/h (70 mph).

The javelin throw consists of three separate phases: the run-up, the transition, and the delivery. During each phase, the position of the javelin changes while the thrower changes his or her muscle recruitment. In the run-up phase as Luann Voza states, "your arm is bent and kept close to your head, keeping the javelin in alignment with little to no arm movement". [15] This allows the thrower's bicep to contract, flexing the elbow. In order for the javelin to stay up high, the thrower's deltoid flexes. In the transition phase, the thrower's "back muscles contract" as "the javelin is brought back in alignment with the shoulder with the thrower's palm up". [15] This, according to Voza, "stretches your pectoral, or chest, muscles. From there, a stretch reflex, an involuntary contraction of your chest, helps bring your throwing arm forward with increased force". [15] During the final phase, the rotation of the shoulders initiates the release, which then "transfers movement through the triceps muscles, wrists and fingers to extend the throwing arm forward to release the javelin". [15]

US high school and youth competitions

Due to the fear of liability, the javelin throw is not an event in NFHS high school competition in 36 states, though USATF youth competitions for the same aged athletes do hold javelin competitions. [16] At various points in time, high schools have attempted to create substitute events, including the softball throw, football throw [17] and the grenade throw, [18] throwing different objects under rules similar to javelin throw rules. In those states that do allow high school javelin competition, a few specify that the tip must be of rubber. Further, in age group track meets in the U.S., and in particular with elementary-school children in the Northeast, the Turbojav—a smaller plastic implement with a rubber tip but with similar flying characteristics as a real javelin—is a popular alternative.

Culture

A women's and a men's javelin A mens and womens javelin.png
A women's and a men's javelin

In 1994, Michael Torke composed Javelin , commissioned by the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games in celebration of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra's 50th anniversary season, in conjunction with the 1996 Summer Olympics.

Javelin throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €5 Finnish 10th IAAF World Championships in Athletics commemorative coin, minted in 2005 to commemorate the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. On the obverse of the coin, a javelin thrower is depicted. On the reverse, legs of hurdle runners with the Helsinki Olympic Stadium tower in the background can be seen.

All-time top 25 (current models)

Men

Ath.#Perf.#MarkAthleteNationDatePlaceRef
1198.48 m (323 ft 1 in) Jan Železný Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 25 MAY 1996 Jena
2297.76 m (320 ft 8+34 in) Johannes Vetter Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 06 SEP 2020 Chorzów [21]
396.29 m (315 ft 10+34 in)Vetter #229 MAY 2021 Chorzów
495.66 m (313 ft 10 in)Železný #229 AUG 1993 Sheffield
595.54 m (313 ft 5+14 in) A Železný #306 APR 1993 Pietersburg
694.64 m (310 ft 5+34 in)Železný #431 MAY 1996 Ostrava
794.44 m (309 ft 10 in)Vetter #311 JUL 2017 Luzern
894.20 m (309 ft 12 in)Vetter #419 MAY 2021 Ostrava
994.02 m (308 ft 5+12 in)Železný #526 MAR 1997 Stellenbosch
31093.90 m (308 ft 34 in) Thomas Röhler Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 05 MAY 2017 Doha [22]
1193.88 m (308 ft 0 in)Vetter #518 AUG 2017 Thum
1293.59 m (307 ft 12 in)Vetter #626 JUN 2021 Kuortane
1393.20 m (305 ft 9+14 in)Vetter #721 MAY 2021 Dessau
41493.09 m (305 ft 4+34 in) Aki Parviainen Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 26 JUN 1999 Kuortane
51593.07 m (305 ft 4 in) Anderson Peters Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada 13 MAY 2022 Doha [23]
1692.80 m (304 ft 5+12 in)Železný #612 AUG 2001 Edmonton
61792.72 m (304 ft 2+14 in) Julius Yego Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 26 AUG 2015 Beijing [24]
1892.70 m (304 ft 1+12 in)Vetter #811 MAR 2018 Leiria
71992.61 m (303 ft 10 in) Sergey Makarov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 30 JUN 2002 Sheffield
82092.60 m (303 ft 9+12 in) Raymond Hecht Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 14 AUG 1996 Zürich
2192.42 m (303 ft 2+12 in)Železný #728 MAY 1997 Ostrava
2292.41 m (303 ft 2 in)Parviainen #224 JUN 2001 Vaasa
2392.28 m (302 ft 9 in)Železný #809 SEP 1995 Monaco
Hecht #214 AUG 1996 Zürich
2592.14 m (302 ft 3+12 in)Vetter #929 JUN 2021 Luzern
992.06 m (302 ft 14 in) Andreas Hofmann Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 02 JUN 2018 Offenburg [25]
1091.69 m (300 ft 9+34 in) Konstadinós Gatsioúdis Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 24 JUN 2000 Kuortane
1191.59 m (300 ft 5+34 in) Andreas Thorkildsen Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 02 JUN 2006 Oslo
1291.53 m (300 ft 3+12 in) Tero Pitkämäki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 26 JUN 2005 Kuortane
1391.46 m (300 ft 34 in) Steve Backley Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 25 JAN 1992 Auckland [26]
1491.36 m (299 ft 8+34 in) Cheng Chao-tsun Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei 26 AUG 2017 Taipei [27]
1591.29 m (299 ft 6 in) Breaux Greer Flag of the United States.svg  United States 21 JUN 2007 Indianapolis
1690.88 m (298 ft 1+34 in) Jakub Vadlejch Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 13 MAY 2022 Doha [23]
1790.82 m (297 ft 11+12 in) Kimmo Kinnunen Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 26 AUG 1991 Tokyo
1890.73 m (297 ft 8 in) Vadims Vasiļevskis Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 22 JUL 2007 Tallinn
1990.61 m (297 ft 3+14 in) Magnus Kirt Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 22 JUN 2019 Kuortane [28]
2090.60 m (297 ft 2+34 in) Seppo Räty Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 20 JUL 1992 Nurmijärvi
2190.44 m (296 ft 8+12 in) Boris Henry Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 09 JUL 1997 Linz
2290.18 m (295 ft 10+14 in) Arshad Nadeem Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 07 AUG 2022 Birmingham [29]
2390.16 m (295 ft 9+12 in) Keshorn Walcott Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago 09 JUL 2015 Lausanne
2489.94 m (295 ft 34 in) Neeraj Chopra Flag of India.svg  India 30 JUN 2022 Stockholm [30]
2589.83 m (294 ft 8+12 in) Oliver Helander Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 14 JUN 2022 Turku [31]

Women

Ath.#Perf.#MarkAthleteNationDatePlaceRef
1172.28 m (237 ft 1+12 in) Barbora Špotáková Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 13 SEP 2008 Stuttgart
2271.70 m (235 ft 2+34 in) Osleidys Menéndez Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 14 AUG 2005 Helsinki
371.58 m (234 ft 10 in)Špotáková #202 SEP 2011 Daegu
471.54 m (234 ft 8+12 in)Menéndez #201 JUL 2001 Rethymno
571.53 m (234 ft 8 in)Menéndez #327 AUG 2004 Athens
671.42 m (234 ft 3+34 in)Špotáková #321 AUG 2008 Beijing
3771.40 m (234 ft 3 in) Maria Andrejczyk Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 09 MAY 2021 Split [33]
4870.53 m (231 ft 4+34 in) Mariya Abakumova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 01 SEP 2013 Berlin
5970.20 m (230 ft 3+34 in) Christina Obergföll Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 23 JUN 2007 Munich
1070.03 m (229 ft 9 in)Obergföll #214 AUG 2005 Helsinki
1169.82 m (229 ft 34 in)Menéndez #429 AUG 2001 Beijing
1269.81 m (229 ft 14 in)Obergföll #331 AUG 2008 Elstal
1369.75 m (228 ft 10 in)Abakumova #225 AUG 2013 Elstal
1469.57 m (228 ft 2+34 in)Obergföll #408 SEP 2011 Zürich
1569.55 m (228 ft 2 in)Špotáková #409 AUG 2012 London
1669.53 m (228 ft 1+14 in)Menéndez #506 AUG 2001 Edmonton
61769.48 m (227 ft 11+14 in) Trine Hattestad Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 28 JUL 2000 Oslo
1869.45 m (227 ft 10+14 in)Špotáková #522 JUL 2011 Monaco
71969.35 m (227 ft 6+14 in) Sunette Viljoen Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 09 JUN 2012 New York City
2069.34 m (227 ft 5+34 in)Abakumova #316 MAR 2013 Castellón
82169.19 m (227 ft 0 in) Christin Hussong Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 30 MAY 2021 Chorzów [34]
2269.15 m (226 ft 10+14 in)Špotáková #631 MAY 2008 Zaragoza
2369.09 m (226 ft 8 in)Abakumova #416 AUG 2013 Moscow
2469.05 m (226 ft 6+12 in)Obergföll #518 AUG 2013 Moscow
2568.94 m (226 ft 2 in)Abakumova #529 AUG 2013 Zürich
968.92 m (226 ft 1+14 in) Kathryn Mitchell Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 11 APR 2018 Gold Coast [35]
1068.43 m (224 ft 6 in) Sara Kolak Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 06 JUL 2017 Lausanne [36]
1168.34 m (224 ft 2+12 in) Steffi Nerius Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 31 AUG 2008 Elstal
1268.11 m (223 ft 5+14 in) Kara Winger Flag of the United States.svg  United States 02 SEP 2022 Brussels [37]
1367.98 m (223 ft 14 in) Lü Huihui Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 02 AUG 2019 Shenyang [38]
1467.70 m (222 ft 1+14 in) Kelsey-Lee Barber Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 09 JUL 2019 Lucerne [39]
1567.69 m (222 ft 34 in) Katharina Molitor Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 30 AUG 2015 Beijing [40]
1667.67 m (222 ft 0 in) Sonia Bisset Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 06 JUL 2005 Salamanca
1767.51 m (221 ft 5+34 in) Mirela Manjani Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 30 SEP 2000 Sydney
1867.47 m (221 ft 4+14 in) Tatsiana Khaladovich Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 07 JUN 2018 Oslo [41]
1967.40 m (221 ft 1+12 in) Nikola Ogrodníková Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 26 MAY 2019 Offenburg [42]
Maggie Malone Flag of the United States.svg  United States 17 JUL 2021 East Stroudsburg
2167.32 m (220 ft 10+14 in) Linda Stahl Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 14 JUN 2014 New York City
2267.30 m (220 ft 9+12 in) Vera Rebrik Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 19 FEB 2016 Sochi
2367.29 m (220 ft 9 in) Hanna Hatsko-Fedusova Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 26 JUL 2014 Kirovohrad
Liu Shiying Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 15 SEP 2020 Shaoxing [43]
2567.21 m (220 ft 6 in) Eda Tuğsuz Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 18 MAY 2017 Baku [44]

Annulled marks

  • In 2011, Mariya Abakumova threw 71.99 metres. This performance was annulled due to doping offences.

All-time top 5 (dimpled models 1990–1991)

Marks set using dimpled rough-tailed javelins manufactured by several companies were nullified effective 20 September 1991. [5] :208–209

RankMarkAthleteDatePlaceRef
196.96Flag of Finland.svg  Seppo Räty  (FIN)2 June 1991 Punkalaidun [45]
291.36Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Steve Backley  (GBR)15 September 1991 Sheffield
390.84Flag of Germany.svg  Raymond Hecht  (GER)8 September 1991 Gengenbach
490.82Flag of Finland.svg  Kimmo Kinnunen  (FIN)26 August 1991 Tokyo
590.72Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Jan Železný  (TCH)10 July 1991 Lausanne

All-time top 15 (old models)

Men

RankMarkAthleteDatePlaceRef
1104.80Flag of East Germany.svg  Uwe Hohn  (GDR)21 July 1984 Berlin
299.72Flag of the United States.svg  Tom Petranoff  (USA)15 May 1983 Westwood
396.72Flag of Hungary.svg  Ferenc Paragi  (HUN)23 April 1980 Tata
Flag of East Germany.svg  Detlef Michel  (GDR)9 June 1983 Berlin
595.80Flag of the United States.svg  Bob Roggy  (USA)29 August 1982 Stuttgart
695.10Flag of the United States.svg  Brian Crouser  (USA)5 August 1985 Eugene
794.58Flag of Hungary.svg  Miklós Németh  (HUN)26 July 1976 Montreal
894.22Flag of Germany.svg  Michael Wessing  (FRG)3 August 1978 Oslo
994.20Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Heino Puuste  (URS)5 June 1983 Birmingham
1094.08Flag of Germany.svg  Klaus Wolfermann  (FRG)5 May 1973 Leverkusen
1194.06Flag of the United States.svg  Duncan Atwood  (USA)26 July 1985 Eugene
1293.90Flag of Finland.svg  Hannu Siitonen  (FIN)6 June 1973 Helsinki
1393.84Flag of Finland.svg  Pentti Sinersaari  (FIN)27 January 1979 Auckland
1493.80Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Jānis Lūsis  (URS)6 July 1972 Stockholm
1593.70Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Viktor Yevsyukov  (URS)17 July 1985 Kyiv

Women

Tessa Sanderson appeared in every Summer Olympics from 1976 to 1996, winning the gold medal in the javelin at the 1984 Olympics. She was the first Black British woman to win an Olympic gold medal, and the second track and field athlete to compete at six Olympics. Sanderson won gold medals at three Commonwealth Games and at the 1992 IAAF World Cup. She set five Commonwealth records and ten British national records in the javelin, as well as records at junior and masters levels. Sanderson had a rivalry with fellow Briton Fatima Whitbread, who took the bronze in the 1984 Olympics. Tessa Sanderson-2.jpg
Tessa Sanderson appeared in every Summer Olympics from 1976 to 1996, winning the gold medal in the javelin at the 1984 Olympics. She was the first Black British woman to win an Olympic gold medal, and the second track and field athlete to compete at six Olympics. Sanderson won gold medals at three Commonwealth Games and at the 1992 IAAF World Cup. She set five Commonwealth records and ten British national records in the javelin, as well as records at junior and masters levels. Sanderson had a rivalry with fellow Briton Fatima Whitbread, who took the bronze in the 1984 Olympics.
RankMarkAthleteDatePlaceRef
180.00Flag of East Germany.svg  Petra Felke  (GDR)8 September 1988 Potsdam
277.44Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Fatima Whitbread  (GBR)28 August 1986 Stuttgart
374.76Flag of Finland.svg  Tiina Lillak  (FIN)13 June 1983 Tampere
474.20Flag of Greece.svg  Sofia Sakorafa  (GRE)26 September 1982 Hania
573.58Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Tessa Sanderson  (GBR)26 June 1983 Edinburgh
672.70Flag of Greece.svg  Anna Verouli  (GRE)20 May 1984 Hania
772.16Flag of East Germany.svg  Antje Kempe  (GDR)5 May 1984 Celje
872.12Flag of Norway.svg  Trine Hattestad  (NOR)10 July 1993 Oslo
971.88Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Antoaneta Todorova  (BUL)15 August 1981 Birmingham
1071.82Flag of Cuba.svg  Ivonne Leal  (CUB)30 August 1985 Leverkusen
1171.40Flag of Belarus.svg  Natalya Shikolenko  (BLR)5 June 1994 Sevilla
1271.00Flag of East Germany.svg  Silke Renk  (GDR)25 June 1988 Rostock
1370.76Flag of East Germany.svg  Beate Koch  (GDR)22 June 1989 Rostock
1470.42Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Zhang Li  (CHN)6 August 1990 Tianjin
1570.20Flag of Germany.svg  Karen Forkel  (GER)9 May 1991 Halle

Olympic medalists

Men

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1908 London
details
Eric Lemming
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Arne Halse
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Otto Nilsson
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
1912 Stockholm
details
Eric Lemming
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Julius Saaristo
Flag of Russia.svg  Finland
Mór Kóczán
Flag of Hungary (1867-1918).svg  Hungary
1920 Antwerp
details
Jonni Myyrä
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Urho Peltonen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Pekka Johansson
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
1924 Paris
details
Jonni Myyrä
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Gunnar Lindström
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Eugene Oberst
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
Erik Lundqvist
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Béla Szepes
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Hungary
Olav Sunde
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
1932 Los Angeles
details
Matti Järvinen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Matti Sippala
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Eino Penttilä
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
1936 Berlin
details
Gerhard Stöck
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg  Germany
Yrjö Nikkanen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Kalervo Toivonen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
1948 London
details
Tapio Rautavaara
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Steve Seymour
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
József Várszegi
Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957).svg  Hungary
1952 Helsinki
details
Cy Young
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Bill Miller
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Toivo Hyytiäinen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
1956 Melbourne
details
Egil Danielsen
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Janusz Sidło
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland
Viktor Tsybulenko
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Viktor Tsybulenko
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Walter Krüger
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany
Gergely Kulcsár
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
1964 Tokyo
details
Pauli Nevala
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Gergely Kulcsár
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Jānis Lūsis
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Jānis Lūsis
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Jorma Kinnunen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Gergely Kulcsár
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
1972 Munich
details
Klaus Wolfermann
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Jānis Lūsis
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Bill Schmidt
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1976 Montreal
details
Miklós Németh
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Hannu Siitonen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Gheorghe Megelea
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania
1980 Moscow
details
Dainis Kūla
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Aleksandr Makarov
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Wolfgang Hanisch
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Arto Härkönen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
David Ottley
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Kenth Eldebrink
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
1988 Seoul
details
Tapio Korjus
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Jan Železný
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia
Seppo Räty
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
1992 Barcelona
details
Jan Železný
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia
Seppo Räty
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Steve Backley
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
1996 Atlanta
details
Jan Železný
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Steve Backley
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Seppo Räty
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
2000 Sydney
details
Jan Železný
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Steve Backley
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Sergey Makarov
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
2004 Athens
details
Andreas Thorkildsen
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Vadims Vasiļevskis
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia
Sergey Makarov
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
2008 Beijing
details
Andreas Thorkildsen
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Ainārs Kovals
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia
Tero Pitkämäki
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
2012 London
details
Keshorn Walcott
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago
Antti Ruuskanen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Vítězslav Veselý
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Thomas Röhler
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Julius Yego
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya
Keshorn Walcott
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago
2020 Tokyo
details
Neeraj Chopra
Flag of India.svg  India
Jakub Vadlejch
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Vítězslav Veselý
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic

Women

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1932 Los Angeles
details
Babe Didrikson
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Ellen Braumüller
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Germany
Tilly Fleischer
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Germany
1936 Berlin
details
Tilly Fleischer
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg  Germany
Luise Krüger
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg  Germany
Maria Kwaśniewska
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland
1948 London
details
Herma Bauma
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Kaisa Parviainen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Lily Carlstedt
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
1952 Helsinki
details
Dana Zátopková
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia
Aleksandra Chudina
Flag SSSR ot 5 dekabria 1936 goda.svg  Soviet Union
Yelena Gorchakova
Flag SSSR ot 5 dekabria 1936 goda.svg  Soviet Union
1956 Melbourne
details
Inese Jaunzeme
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Marlene Ahrens
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Nadezhda Konyayeva
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Elvīra Ozoliņa
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Dana Zátopková
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia
Birutė Kalėdienė
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1964 Tokyo
details
Mihaela Peneș
Flag of Romania (1952-1965).svg  Romania
Márta Rudas
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Yelena Gorchakova
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Angéla Németh
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Mihaela Peneș
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania
Eva Janko
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
1972 Munich
details
Ruth Fuchs
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Jacqueline Todten
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Kate Schmidt
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1976 Montreal
details
Ruth Fuchs
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Marion Becker
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Kate Schmidt
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1980 Moscow
details
María Caridad Colón
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Saida Gunba
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Ute Hommola
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Tessa Sanderson
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Tiina Lillak
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Fatima Whitbread
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
1988 Seoul
details
Petra Felke
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Fatima Whitbread
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Beate Koch
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
1992 Barcelona
details
Silke Renk
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Natalya Shikolenko
Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team
Karen Forkel
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
1996 Atlanta
details
Heli Rantanen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Louise McPaul
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia
Trine Hattestad
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
2000 Sydney
details
Trine Hattestad
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Mirela Maniani-Tzelili
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
Osleidys Menéndez
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
2004 Athens
details
Osleidys Menéndez
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Steffi Nerius
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Mirela Maniani
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
2008 Beijing
details
Barbora Špotáková
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Christina Obergföll
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany [46]
Goldie Sayers
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
2012 London
details
Barbora Špotáková
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Christina Obergföll
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Linda Stahl
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Sara Kolak
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia
Sunette Viljoen
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Barbora Špotáková
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
2020 Tokyo
details
Liu Shiying
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Maria Andrejczyk
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Kelsey-Lee Barber
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia

World Championships medalists

Men

ChampionshipsGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki
details
Flag of East Germany.svg  Detlef Michel  (GDR)Flag of the United States.svg  Tom Petranoff  (USA)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Dainis Kūla  (URS)
1987 Rome
details
Flag of Finland.svg  Seppo Räty  (FIN)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Viktor Yevsyukov  (URS)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Jan Železný  (TCH)
1991 Tokyo
details
Flag of Finland.svg  Kimmo Kinnunen  (FIN)Flag of Finland.svg  Seppo Räty  (FIN)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Vladimir Sasimovich  (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Jan Železný  (CZE)Flag of Finland.svg  Kimmo Kinnunen  (FIN)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Mick Hill  (GBR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Jan Železný  (CZE)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Steve Backley  (GBR)Flag of Germany.svg  Boris Henry  (GER)
1997 Athens
details
Flag of South Africa.svg  Marius Corbett  (RSA)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Steve Backley  (GBR)Flag of Greece.svg  Konstadinos Gatsioudis  (GRE)
1999 Seville
details
Flag of Finland.svg  Aki Parviainen  (FIN)Flag of Greece.svg  Konstadinos Gatsioudis  (GRE)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Jan Železný  (CZE)
2001 Edmonton
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Jan Železný  (CZE)Flag of Finland.svg  Aki Parviainen  (FIN)Flag of Greece.svg  Konstadinos Gatsioudis  (GRE)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
Flag of Russia.svg  Sergey Makarov  (RUS)Flag of Estonia.svg  Andrus Värnik  (EST)Flag of Germany.svg  Boris Henry  (GER)
2005 Helsinki
details
Flag of Estonia.svg  Andrus Värnik  (EST)Flag of Norway.svg  Andreas Thorkildsen  (NOR)Flag of Russia.svg  Sergey Makarov  (RUS)
2007 Osaka
details
Flag of Finland.svg  Tero Pitkämäki  (FIN)Flag of Norway.svg  Andreas Thorkildsen  (NOR)Flag of the United States.svg  Breaux Greer  (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
Flag of Norway.svg  Andreas Thorkildsen  (NOR)Flag of Cuba.svg  Guillermo Martínez  (CUB)Flag of Japan.svg  Yukifumi Murakami  (JPN)
2011 Daegu
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Matthias de Zordo  (GER)Flag of Norway.svg  Andreas Thorkildsen  (NOR)Flag of Cuba.svg  Guillermo Martínez  (CUB)
2013 Moscow
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Vítězslav Veselý  (CZE)Flag of Finland.svg  Tero Pitkämäki  (FIN)Flag of Russia.svg  Dmitriy Tarabin  (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
Flag of Kenya.svg  Julius Yego  (KEN)Flag of Egypt.svg  Ihab Abdelrahman  (EGY)Flag of Finland.svg  Tero Pitkämäki  (FIN)
2017 London
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Johannes Vetter  (GER)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Jakub Vadlejch  (CZE)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Petr Frydrych  (CZE)
2019 Doha
details
Flag of Grenada.svg  Anderson Peters  (GRN)Flag of Estonia.svg  Magnus Kirt  (EST)Flag of Germany.svg  Johannes Vetter  (GER)
2022 Eugene
details
Flag of Grenada.svg  Anderson Peters  (GRN)Flag of India.svg  Neeraj Chopra  (IND)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Jakub Vadlejch  (CZE)

Women

ChampionshipsGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki
details
Flag of Finland.svg  Tiina Lillak  (FIN)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Fatima Whitbread  (GBR)Flag of Greece.svg  Anna Verouli  (GRE)
1987 Rome
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Fatima Whitbread  (GBR)Flag of East Germany.svg  Petra Felke-Meier  (GDR)Flag of Germany.svg  Beate Peters  (FRG)
1991 Tokyo
details
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Xu Demei  (CHN)Flag of Germany.svg  Petra Felke-Meier  (GER)Flag of Germany.svg  Silke Renk  (GER)
1993 Stuttgart
details
Flag of Norway.svg  Trine Solberg-Hattestad  (NOR)Flag of Germany.svg  Karen Forkel  (GER)Flag of Belarus (1918, 1991-1995).svg  Natalya Shikolenko  (BLR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
Flag of Belarus.svg  Natalya Shikolenko  (BLR)Flag of Romania.svg  Felicia Țilea-Moldovan  (ROU)Flag of Finland.svg  Mikaela Ingberg  (FIN)
1997 Athens
details
Flag of Norway.svg  Trine Solberg-Hattestad  (NOR)Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Joanna Stone  (AUS)Flag of Germany.svg  Tanja Damaske  (GER)
1999 Seville
details
Flag of Greece.svg  Mirela Manjani-Tzelili  (GRE)Flag of Russia.svg  Tatyana Shikolenko  (RUS)Flag of Norway.svg  Trine Solberg-Hattestad  (NOR)
2001 Edmonton
details
Flag of Cuba.svg  Osleidys Menéndez  (CUB)Flag of Greece.svg  Mirela Manjani-Tzelili  (GRE)Flag of Cuba.svg  Sonia Bisset  (CUB)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
Flag of Greece.svg  Mirela Maniani  (GRE)Flag of Russia.svg  Tatyana Shikolenko  (RUS)Flag of Germany.svg  Steffi Nerius  (GER)
2005 Helsinki
details
Flag of Cuba.svg  Osleidys Menéndez  (CUB)Flag of Germany.svg  Christina Obergföll  (GER)Flag of Germany.svg  Steffi Nerius  (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Barbora Špotáková  (CZE)Flag of Germany.svg  Christina Obergföll  (GER)Flag of Germany.svg  Steffi Nerius  (GER)
2009 Berlin [47]
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Steffi Nerius  (GER)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Barbora Špotáková  (CZE)Flag of Romania.svg  Monica Stoian  (ROM)
2011 Daegu [48]
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Barbora Špotáková  (CZE)Flag of South Africa.svg  Sunette Viljoen  (RSA)Flag of Germany.svg  Christina Obergföll  (GER)
2013 Moscow
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Christina Obergföll  (GER)Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Kim Mickle  (AUS)Flag of Russia.svg  Mariya Abakumova  (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Katharina Molitor  (GER)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Lü Huihui  (CHN)Flag of South Africa.svg  Sunette Viljoen  (RSA)
2017 London
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Barbora Špotáková  (CZE)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Li Lingwei  (CHN)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Lü Huihui  (CHN)
2019 Doha
details
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Kelsey-Lee Barber  (AUS)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Liu Shiying  (CHN)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Lü Huihui  (CHN)
2022 Eugene
details
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Kelsey-Lee Barber  (AUS)Flag of the United States.svg  Kara Winger  (USA)Flag of Japan.svg  Haruka Kitaguchi  (JPN)

Season's bests

See also

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  46. Mariya Abakumova, from Russia, was disqualified in 2016, after retesting. Sayers was later confirmed as the bronze medalist.
  47. Original bronze medalist Russian Mariya Abakumova was later disqualified for failing retests of samples
  48. Original gold medalist Russian Mariya Abakumova was later disqualified for failing retests of samples