Jean-Andoche Junot

Last updated

Jean-Andoche Junot
Duke of Abrantes
General Jean Andoche Junot.jpg
Military Governor of Paris
In office
1803 – 1804

Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantes (French pronunciation:  [ʒɑ̃ ɑ̃dɔʃ ʒyno] , 24 September 1771 – 29 July 1813) was a French military officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.



Early life

Junot was born in Bussy-le-Grand, Côte-d'Or, son of Michel Junot, a farmer (1739–1814), and wife Marie Antoinette Bienaymé (1735–1806). His father was the son of François Junot (?–1759) and wife Edmée Laurain (1703–1784), while his mother was the daughter of Guy Bienaymé and wife Ursule Rigoley. Jean-Andoche went to school in Châtillon. He was studying law in Dijon when the French Revolution started. After joining a battalion as volunteer, he was twice wounded and also made sergeant. He first met Napoleon Bonaparte during the siege of Toulon in 1793, when he became his secretary (aide de camp).

Junot as a grenadier in 1792, by Felix Philippoteaux (1834) General Jean Andoche Junot.jpg
Junot as a grenadier in 1792, by Félix Philippoteaux (1834)

Italian campaign

He distinguished himself in Italy but received a serious head wound at the Battle of Lonato, which some claim led to a permanent change in his character, reduced the quality of his judgement and made him rash and temperamental. He was made a general of brigade at the beginning of the Egyptian campaign but was injured in a duel and captured when he was returning as an invalid to France. He later participated in the coup of 18 Brumaire. He married Laure (Laurette) Martin de Permond, a long-time friend of the Bonapartes, in 1800. He was briefly ambassador to Portugal before hurrying back to serve under Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805).

Peninsular War

Junot's major command was during the Peninsular War, when he commanded the 1807 Invasion of Portugal. Setting out in November from Salamanca, with the promise of a ducal title and a marshals baton, his vanguard accomplished a bloodless occupation of Lisbon on 30 November. For this feat, he was granted the ducal victory title of Duc d'Abrantès and was made Governor of Portugal, though he was not given the baton.

However, when a British expeditionary force landed, Junot was beaten at the Battle of Vimeiro on 21 August 1808, and he was cut off from France. Only the signing of the advantageous Convention of Sintra allowed him to avoid capture, taking with him "the weapons and baggages" and pillage the army had managed to gather—an expression that later became famous in Portuguese usage. He went back to France in October, narrowly escaping a court martial. He returned to the Iberian peninsula in 1810 in command of the VIII Corps, under Marshal André Masséna, and was badly wounded.

Later years

In the Russian campaign Junot's record was erratic. He was blamed for allowing the Russian army to retreat following the Battle of Smolensk (17 August), but at the Battle of Borodino (7 September 1812) he commanded the 7th Corps competently. Junot's performance at Smolensk infuriated Napoleon to the point that he vowed never to grant Junot a baton.

In 1813 he was made Governor of the Illyrian Provinces but his growing mental instability, caused by his fall from favor, led to him being returned to France, to be placed under the surveillance of his father. Suffering from delirium he slashed at his broken leg and died of infectious complications several days later. Many think he committed suicide in Montbard by leaping from a window.

Family and relations

He had two daughters and three sons:

During the peninsular war, he had a relationship with Juliana de Almeida e Oyenhausen, daughter of Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna.

Related Research Articles

Convention of Cintra 1808 agreement allowing French troops to evacuate from Portugal

The Convention of Cintra was an agreement signed on 30 August 1808, during the Peninsular War. By the agreement, the defeated French were allowed to evacuate their troops from Portugal without further conflict. The Convention was signed at the Palace of Queluz, in Queluz, Cintra, Estremadura.

Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro 1811 battle during the Peninsular War

In the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro, the British-Portuguese Army under the Duke of Wellington checked an attempt by the French Army of Portugal under Marshal André Masséna to relieve the besieged city of Almeida.

Battle of Vimeiro 1808 Battle during the Peninsular War

In the Battle of Vimeiro on 21 August 1808, the British under General Arthur Wellesley defeated the French under Major-General Jean-Andoche Junot near the village of Vimeiro, near Lisbon, Portugal during the Peninsular War. This battle put an end to the first French invasion of Portugal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Michel Ney</span> 18/19th-century French Army marshal

Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen, 1st Prince of the Moskva, popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French military commander and Marshal of the Empire who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original 18 Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon I. He was known as Le Rougeaud by his men, Napoleon characterized him as "le Brave des Braves, a real paladin in the field, a braggart without judgment and decision in the workroom and after all is said, a Don Quixote."

Maximilien Sébastien Foy

Maximilien Sébastien Foy was a French military leader, statesman and writer.

Henri François Delaborde

Henri-François Delaborde was a French general in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Laure Junot, Duchess of Abrantès</span> French writer and memoirist (1784–1838)

Laure Junot, Duchess of Abrantès was a French writer. She was the spouse of French general Jean-Andoche Junot.

Philippe Junot is a French venture capitalist and property developer, who was the first husband of Princess Caroline of Monaco. He has business interests in Paris, Spain and New York City.

Antoine François Brenier de Montmorand

Antoine-François Brenier de Montmorand served as a French general of division during the period of the First French Empire and became an officer of the Légion d'honneur.

Louis Lepic

Général de division Louis, Comte Lepic was a French cavalry commander of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He eventually rose to the rank of général de division and held the prestigious command of the Grenadiers à Cheval de la Garde Impériale, the senior heavy cavalry regiment of the Imperial Guard. He was made a baron in 1809 and then became a count in 1815, after which he was known as Comte Lepic.

This is an order of battle for the Battle of Vimeiro that was fought on 20 August 1808.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nobility of the First French Empire</span>

As Emperor of the French, Napoleon I created titles of nobility to institute a stable elite in the First French Empire, after the instability resulting from the French Revolution.

Events from the year 1807 in France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jean-Baptiste Berthier</span>

Jean-Baptiste Berthier (1721–1804) was an officer (Lieutenant-Colonel) in the French Corps of Topographical Engineers during the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Military governor of Paris</span> French army post

The Military governor of Paris is a post within the French Army. He commands the garrison of Paris and represents all the military based in Paris at high state occasions. He is also responsible for organizing major national ceremonies such as the Bastille Day military parade down the Champs-Élysées.

Battle of Évora (1808) 1808 battle during the Peninsular War

The Battle of Évora saw an Imperial French division under Louis Henri Loison attack a combined Portuguese-Spanish force led by Francisco de Paula Leite de Sousa. Encountering Leite's smaller body of soldiers outside Évora, the French easily brushed them aside and went on to storm the city, which was held by poorly armed townsmen and militia. The French butchered the Portuguese defenders and brutally sacked the town.

Invasion of Portugal (1807) 1807 Invasion during the Peninsular War

The invasion of Portugal saw an Imperial French corps under Jean-Andoche Junot and Spanish military troops invade the Kingdom of Portugal, which was headed by its Prince Regent João of Bragança. The military operation resulted in the occupation of Portugal. The French and Spanish presence was challenged by the Portuguese people and by the United Kingdom in 1808. The invasion marked the start of the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars.

This is the order of battle for the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro, which took place on 3–6 May 1811.

Pierre Margaron

Pierre Margaron led the French cavalry at the Battle of Vimeiro in 1808. He joined a volunteer battalion in 1792. He rose in rank during the French Revolutionary Wars until he commanded a heavy cavalry regiment in 1798. He led his horsemen at the Trebbia, Novi and Genola in 1799 and Pozzolo and San Massimo in 1800. He became a general of brigade in 1803 and led a corps light cavalry brigade at Austerlitz, Jena and Lübeck. He participated in the 1807 invasion of Portugal and fought at Évora and Vimeiro. From 1810 to 1812 he held a post in the interior. He became a general of division in 1813 and led troops at the Battle of Leipzig. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 2.

Duke of Abrantès

The Dukedom of Abrantès was a title of Napoleonic nobility created in 1808 by Napoleon for Jean-Andoche Junot.


  1. Dubief, Sylvian. "Le général Junot en Egypte". (in French). Foundation Napoleon. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  2. Zamoyski, Adam (2018). Napoleon: the man behind the myth. London: William Collins. p. 192. ISBN   978-0-00-811609-5.
  3. Louis Andoche Junot D'abrantÈs

Further reading

Military offices
Preceded by Military governor of Paris
Succeeded by