Jean-Antoine Marbot

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Jean-Antoine
Marbot
General Jean-Antoine Marbot (1754-1800).png
General Jean-Antoine Marbot
Born(1754-12-07)7 December 1754
Altillac, France
Died19 April 1800(1800-04-19) (aged 45)
Genoa, Italy
AllegianceRoyal Standard of the King of France.svg  Kingdom of France
Flag of France (1790-1794).svg Kingdom of France
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  French First Republic
Rank Général de Division
Commands held War of the First Coalition

War of the Second Coalition

AwardsName engraved on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris
Relations Antoine Adolphe Marcelin Marbot (Son)
Jean-Baptiste Antoine Marcellin Marbot (Son)
Marie-Louise Dupuy de Certain (Spouse)
Other workPolitical offices:

Military offices:

Jean-Antoine Marbot, born 7 December 1754 in Altillac (Corrèze), died 19 April 1800 in Genoa (Liguria), was a French General and politician. He belongs to a family that has distinguished itself particularly in the career of arms, giving three Generals to France in less than 50 years.

Altillac Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Altillac is a commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France.

Corrèze Department of France

Corrèze is a department in south-western France, named after the river Corrèze which runs though it. Its capital is Tulle, and its most populated town is Brive-la-Gaillarde.

Genoa Comune in Liguria, Italy

Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera.

Contents

Biography

Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean-Antoine Marbot.jpg
Jean-Antoine Marbot

Ancien Régime

He was born into a family of military nobility in Altillac, in the province of Quercy in southwestern France. His career began in the Maison militaire du roi de France in Versailles, where he joined the cavalry unit of the royal Gardes du Corps of King Louis XV, with the rank of Second-lieutenant. In 1781 he was promoted to the rank of Captain of the dragoons and became aide-de-camp to Lieutenant General de Schomberg, Inspector General of the cavalry, in 1782.

Quercy

Quercy is a former province of France located in the country's southwest, bounded on the north by Limousin, on the west by Périgord and Agenais, on the south by Gascony and Languedoc, and on the east by Rouergue and Auvergne.

Maison militaire du roi de France Military branch of the French royal household

The maison militaire du roi de France, in English the military household of the king of France, was the military part of the French royal household or Maison du Roi under the Ancien Régime. The term only appeared in 1671, though such a gathering of units pre-dates this. Like the rest of the royal household, the military household was under the authority of the Secretary of State for the Maison du Roi, but it depended on the ordinaire des guerres for its budget. Under Louis XIV, these two officers of state were given joint command of the military household.

Palace of Versailles French palace on the outskirts of Paris

The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris.

Assemblée législative

Following of the ideas of Enlightenment, he retired from military service at the beginning of the Revolution and returned to his properties in Altillac. He was elected administrator of the department of Corrèze in 1790 and then deputy of this department in the Legislative Assembly on 3 September 1791 with 206 votes out of 361, where he sat in the majority. On 5 April 1792, he presented a report on the finances of the state in front of the assembly, and proposed a national loan plan, the purpose of which was to reduce the number of assignats in circulation to 12 million, so that acquirers of national property would have to pay in metallic values.

Age of Enlightenment European cultural movement of the 18th century

The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy".

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

An assignat was a type of a monetary instrument used during the time of the French Revolution, and the French Revolutionary Wars.

War of the Pyrenées

He reentered military service during the War of the Pyrenées against Spain with the rank of Captain of the mountain chasseurs. On 30 August 1793, he was promoted to the rank of General of Brigade and fought with the Army of the Eastern Pyrenées (French : Armée des Pyrénées orientales), distinguishing himself during the capture of Spanish Cerdanya under the orders of General Dagobert de Fontenille. He then joined the Army of the Western Pyrenées (French : Armée des Pyrénées occidentales) from 1794 to 1795, where he was promoted to the rank of General of Division. He distinguished himself for valour and won numerous victories against the enemy forces, particularly on 12 August 1794 at Saint-Engrace et Alloqui, on 4 September 1794 at Lescun, on 24–25 November 1794 at Ortès, and on 12 May 1796 during the attack on enemy positions between Glossua and Elgoibar, where he made many prisoners. In 1795 he was dismissed for political motives by Representatives on mission (French : Représentants en mission), envoys of the National Convention before being definitively reinstated on 25 Prairial Year III.

War of the Pyrenees 18th-century conflict between Revolutionary France and Spain and Portugal

The War of the Pyrenees, also known as War of Roussillon or War of the Convention, was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic. It pitted Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal from March 1793 to July 1795 during the French Revolutionary Wars.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Army of the Eastern Pyrenees

The Army of the Eastern Pyrenees was one of the French Revolutionary armies. It fought against the Kingdom of Spain in Rousillon, the Cerdanya and Catalonia during the War of the Pyrenees. This army and the Army of the Western Pyrenees were formed by splitting the original Army of the Pyrenees at the end of April 1793 soon after the war started. Shortly after the Peace of Basel on 22 July 1795, the fighting ended and the army was dissolved on 12 October that same year. Many of its units and generals were transferred to join the Army of Italy and fought under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796.

Seal of the Council of Ancients Conseil des anciens sans txt.svg
Seal of the Council of Ancients

Conseil des Anciens

He was elected Deputy of Corrèze in the Council of the Ancients, the upper house of French legislature during the French First Republic on 23 Vendémiaire Year IV (15 October 1795), with 121 votes out of 236. His republican convictions led him to become opposed to the Club de Clichy, which he accused of conspiring against the interest of the Republic and he subsequently approved the coup d'état of 18 Fructidor Year V, engineered by Generals Napoleon Bonaparte and Pierre Augereau, his protégé during the War of the Pyrenées. On 6 September 1797, he was elected President of the Council of Ancients. On 11 January 1798, he passed a proposal aiming to contain the uprising that was being ignited by émigrés in the county of Avignon, in the south of France. Re-elected President of the Council of Ancients on 19 June 1798, he delivered a commemorative speech during the celebrations of the 14th of July, and favoured decisive actions against the coalition powers at war with France. On 18 April 1799, he supported a bill for the conscription of two hundred thousand men for the army, opposing the system adopted by the Minister of the Interior, François de Neufchâteau.

French First Republic Republic governing France, 1792–1804

In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory, and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power.

The Clichy Club was a political group active during the French Revolution from 1794 to 1797.

Coup of 18 Fructidor coup détat

The Coup of 18 Fructidor, Year V, was a seizure of power by members of the French Directory on 4 September 1797 when their opponents, the Royalists, were gaining strength. Howard G. Brown, Professor of History at Binghamton University, stresses the turn toward dictatorship and the failure of liberal democracy under the Directory, blaming it on "chronic violence, ambivalent forms of justice, and repeated recourse to heavy-handed repression."

Military governor of Paris

In 1799, he was appointed Military governor of Paris, replacing General Barthélemy Joubert at the head of the 17th Military Division stationed in Paris. He became opposed to the planned coup d'état of 18 Brumaire, which was to overthrow the government of the Directory and replace it with the more autocratic Consulate after General Napoleon Bonaparte's return from the Egyptian campaign. Directors Emmanuel Sieyès, Paul Barras and the remaining authors of the planned coup knew that they needed the support of the armed forces in Paris. Fearing its current commander's attachment to republican ideals, they offered him a new position in the leadership of the Army of Italy (French : Armée d'Italie) which he accepted. After his resignation, the more favorable General François Lefebvre succeeded him as Military governor of Paris.

Military governor of Paris

The Military Governor of Paris has a very old and prestigious post in the French Army. He commands the garrison of Paris and represents all the military based in Paris at high state occasions. He is also responsible for organizing major national ceremonies such as the Bastille Day Military Parade down the Champs-Élysées.

Barthélemy Catherine Joubert French general (1769–1799)

Barthélemy Catherine Joubert was a French general. He joined the royal French army in 1784 and rose rapidly in rank during the French Revolutionary Wars. Napoleon Bonaparte recognized his talents and gave him increased responsibilities. Joubert was killed while commanding the French army at the Battle of Novi in 1799.

Paris Capital city of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.

Plan of the fortifications of Genoa in 1800 1800 Bardi Map of Genoa (Genova), Italy - Geographicus - Genoa-bardi-1800.jpg
Plan of the fortifications of Genoa in 1800

Italian campaign

Shortly before the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire, he was sent as General of Division to the Army of Italy, which was then under the command of General Jean-Étienne Championnet. After his death, he obtained the command of the Army of Italy until the arrival of General André Masséna. He commanded one of the Divisions of the French forces fighting in Liguria, and was stationed in the city of Savona. The heights of the city were the subject of numerous battles, especially on 6 and 13 April 1800, as the Austrian troops were trying to make their way to the city of Genoa. He soon fell ill and had to be transported to Genoa to receive medical treatment. He died on 19 April 1800, during the Austrian siege of Genoa as a result of his wounds and of typhus. He was accompanied by his son, then Second-lieutenant and later General Marcellin Marbot, who also took part in the siege and described his father's last moments in his famous Memoirs.

Tribute

The name of General Jean-Antoine Marbot on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris Jean-Antoine Marbot Arc de Triomphe.png
The name of General Jean-Antoine Marbot on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris

General Jean-Antoine Marbot is among the 660 personalities to whom Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte paid tribute for fighting and dying for France during the Napoleonic Wars. His name is engraved on the western pillar, 34th column of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.

Family

General Jean-Antoine Marbot General Jean-Antoine Marbot (1754-1800).jpg
General Jean-Antoine Marbot

On 3 October 1775, he married Marie-Louise Dupuy de Certain, with whom he had four sons:

His wife was related to François Certain de Canrobert, Marshal of France during the Second French Empire.

See also

Sources

Political offices
Preceded by
André-Daniel Laffon de Ladebat
President of the Council of Ancients
1797
Succeeded by
Emmanuel Crétet
Preceded by
Claude Ambroise Régnier
President of the Council of Ancients
1798
Succeeded by
Étienne Maynaud de Bizefranc de Lavaux
Military offices
Preceded by
Barthélemy Catherine Joubert
Military governor of Paris
1799
Succeeded by
François Joseph Lefebvre
Preceded by
Louis-Gabriel Suchet
Commander of the Armée d'Italie
1800
Succeeded by
André Masséna

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