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Jean-Baptiste Cléry (1759–1809) was the personal valet to King Louis XVI.
A valet is a male servant who serves as personal attendant to his employer. In the Middle Ages and Ancien Régime, valet de chambre was a role for junior courtiers and specialists such as artists in a royal court, but the term "valet" by itself most often refers to a normal servant responsible for the clothes and personal belongings of an employer, and making minor arrangements.
First serving as secretary of the Princess of Guéménée, he was made valet of the dauphin (who would become Louis XVII).
Cléry became the valet of Louis XVI when he was imprisoned in the Temple until January 21, 1793. Although he was arrested on September 25, 1793, he avoided the fate of the guillotine and was freed on July 27, 1794.
Cléry became valet to the Count of Provence (future Louis XVIII) and gave him his journal detailing the events of the revolution. His journal gave an account of what he saw of his touching farewell with his family. The journal was published and was well received, and later led to Cléry's being knighted by Louis XVIII. The popularity and pro-royalist sentiments generated by the memoirs led the French government to release a distorted copy of the book.
Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba.
Cléry moved to Austria and purchased an estate where he stayed until his death in 1809.
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had taken the name "Philippe Égalité" because he initially supported the French Revolution. However, following the deposition and execution of his cousin King Louis XVI, Louis Philippe fled the country. His father denounced his actions and voted for his death, but was imprisoned and executed that same year. Louis Philippe spent the next 21 years in exile before returning during the Bourbon Restoration. He was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate by the July Revolution. The reign of Louis Philippe is known as the July Monarchy and was dominated by wealthy industrialists and bankers. He followed conservative policies, especially under the influence of French statesman François Guizot during the period 1840–48. He also promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria. His popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, and he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848. He lived out his life in exile in the United Kingdom. His supporters were known as Orléanists, as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon.
Jean-Baptiste Drouet was a French politician of the 1789 Revolution, chiefly noted for the part he played in the arrest of King Louis XVI during the Flight to Varennes.
Charlotte-Jeanne Béraud de La Haye de Riou was a mistress to Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans, and ultimately, his wife; however, Louis XV would not allow her to become the Duchess. She wrote and acted in several plays. She is known simply as Madame de Montesson.
Louis-Alexandre Berthier, 1st Prince of Wagram, Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel, was a French Marshal and Vice-Constable of the Empire, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon.
Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, also known as Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, was a French painter and pupil of Jacques-Louis David, who participated in the early Romantic movement by including elements of eroticism in his paintings. Girodet is remembered for his precise and clear style and for his paintings of members of the Napoleonic family.
Hugues-Bernard Maret, 1st Duc de Bassano, was a French statesman, diplomat and journalist.
Marie-Thérèse Charlotte of France, Madame Royale, was the eldest child of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, and the only one to reach adulthood. She was married to Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, who was the eldest son of the future Charles X, her father's younger brother; thus the bride and groom were also first cousins.
Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon was the son of Louis Alexandre de Bourbon and his wife Marie Victoire de Noailles. He was also a grandson of Louis XIV of France and his mistress, Madame de Montespan. From birth he was known as the Duke of Penthièvre. He also possessed the following titles: Prince of Lamballe ; Prince of Carignano; Duke of Rambouillet; Duke of Aumale (1775); Duke of Gisors; Duke of Châteauvillain; Duke of Arc-en-Barrois; Duke of Amboise; Count of Eu; Count of Guingamp. He was the father in law of Philippe Égalité.
Henry Essex Edgeworth, also known as L'Abbé Edgeworth de Firmont, was an Irish Catholic priest and confessor of Louis XVI.
Charles Louis Huguet, marquis de Sémonville was a French diplomat and politician. He was made a count of the First French Empire in 1808, and marquis in 1819.
Louis Gustave le Doulcet, comte de Pontécoulant was a French politician. He was the father of Louis Adolphe le Doulcet and Philippe Gustave le Doulcet.
Jean-Baptiste Treilhard was an important French statesman of the revolutionary period. He passed through the troubled times of the Republic and Empire with great political savvy, playing a decisive role at important times.
Clery is the surname of:
"Let them eat cake" is the traditional translation of the French phrase "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche", supposedly spoken by "a great princess" upon learning that the peasants had no bread. Since brioche was a luxury bread enriched with butter and eggs, the quotation would reflect the princess's disregard for the peasants, or her poor understanding of their situation.
The Square du Temple is a garden in Paris, France in the 3rd arrondissement, established in 1857. It is one of 24 city squares planned and created by Georges-Eugène Haussmann and Jean-Charles Alphand. The Square occupies the site of a medieval fortress in Paris, built by the Knights Templar. Parts of the fortress were later used as a prison during the French Revolution, and then demolished by the mid 19th century.
La Révolution française is a two-part film, co-produced by France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Canada. The first part, titled La Révolution française: les Années lumière was directed by Robert Enrico. The second part, La Révolution française: les Années terribles, was directed by Richard T. Heffron. The full movie runs at 360 minutes, but the edited-for-television version is slightly longer.
Agathe de Rambaud was born in Versailles as Agathe-Rosalie Mottet and was baptized in the future cathedral Saint-Louis of Versailles, on 10 December 1764. She died in Aramon, in the département of Gard, on 19 October 1853. She was the official nurse of the royal children, and particularly in charge of the Dauphin from 1785 to 1792.
Pauline de Tourzel (1771-1839) was a French noblewoman, courtier and memoir writer.
The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. The National Convention had convicted the king in a near-unanimous vote and condemned him to death by a simple majority.
Events from the year 1755 in France
"The memoirs were published in London in 1798. They enjoyed tremendous success from the beginning, and were translated into most European languages. As a mark of his appreciation, Louis XVIII made Cléry a Knight of the Order of St Louis. The French government, however, has alarmed at the reaction in the King's favour produced by the publication of the memoirs, and caused a spurious edition to be printed containing a distorted account of the facts.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia . London and New York: Frederick Warne.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
The Reverend James Wood was a Scottish editor and Free Church minister. He was born in Leith and studied at the University of Edinburgh, living most of his life in Edinburgh. His admiration for Thomas Carlyle and John Ruskin may have contributed to his failure to secure a ministry. Instead he earned a living as a writer. He translated Auguste Barth's Religions of India and edited Nuttall's Standard Dictionary, The Nuttall Encyclopaedia, Warne's Dictionary of Quotations, Bagster & Sons' Helps to the Bible, and a Carlyle School Reader. In 1881 he published anonymously The Strait Gate, and Other Discourses, with a Lecture on Thomas Carlyle, by a Scotch Preacher. He is described by P. J. E. Wilson as " that most conscientious of pedants".
The Nuttall Encyclopædia: Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge is a late 19th-century encyclopedia, edited by Rev. James Wood, first published in London in 1900 by Frederick Warne & Co Ltd.
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