Jean-Baptiste Kléber

Last updated

Jean-Baptiste Kléber
Guerin general Jean-Baptiste Kleber.JPG
Born(1753-03-09)9 March 1753
Strasbourg, France
Died14 June 1800(1800-06-14) (aged 47)
Cairo, Egypt
Buried
Place Kléber, Strasbourg, France
Allegiance Holy Roman Empire
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg  Kingdom of France
Flag of France.svg French First Republic
Service/branch French Royal Army
Imperial Army
French Revolutionary Army
Years of service1769–1770 (France)
1777–1783 (HRE)
1792–1800 (France)
RankGeneral de Division
Unit 1st Hussar Regiment
Regiment Kaunitz
Commands held4th Haute-Rhin Battalion
Army of Sambre-et-Meuse
Army of the Orient
Battles/wars War of the Bavarian Succession

French Revolutionary War

War in the Vendée

War of the First Coalition

AwardsInscription on the Arc de Triomphe
(Southern Pillar, Column 23)

Jean-Baptiste Kléber (IPA:  [ʒɑ̃ batist klebɛʁ] ) (9 March 1753 – 14 June 1800) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. His military career started in Habsburg service, but his plebeian ancestry hindered his opportunities. Eventually, he volunteered for the French Army in 1792 and quickly rose through the ranks.

Contents

Kléber served in the Rhineland during the War of the First Coalition, and also suppressed the Vendee Revolt. He retired to private life in the peaceful interim after the Treaty of Campo Formio, but returned to military service to accompany Napoleon in the Egyptian Campaign in 1798–99. When Napoleon left Egypt to return to Paris, he appointed Kléber as commander of the French forces. He was assassinated by a student in Cairo in 1800.

A trained architect, Kléber, in times of peace, designed a number of buildings. [1]

Biography

Early career

Kléber was born in Strasbourg, where his father worked as a master builder. He briefly engaged in 1769 in the 1st Hussar Regiment, but resigned to study, from 1770 to 1774, architecture, partly in Paris with Jean Chalgrin. His opportune assistance to two German nobles in a tavern brawl obtained for him nomination to the military school of Munich. From this education, he obtained a commission in the Kaunitz regiment of the Imperial army, he took part in the War of the Bavarian Succession, but did not see major engagements, as he was stationed alternately in the garrisons of Mons, Mechelen, and Luxembourg in the Austrian Netherlands. He resigned his commission in 1783 on finding his humble birth hindered his chances for promotion. [2]

On returning to France he received the appointment of inspector of public buildings at Belfort, where he studied fortification and military science.

French Revolutionary Wars

In 1792 he enlisted in the Haut-Rhin volunteers. Thanks to his military knowledge, he at once gained election as adjutant and soon afterward as lieutenant-colonel. [2] At the defense of Mainz (July 1793) he so distinguished himself that though disgraced along with the rest of the garrison and imprisoned, he promptly won reinstatement, and became in August 1793 a général de brigade. He won considerable distinction in the suppression of the Vendéans, and two months later gained promotion to général de division. In these operations began his intimacy with Marceau, with whom he defeated the Royalists at Le Mans and Savenay. When he openly expressed his opinion that the Vendéans merited lenient measures, the authorities recalled him; but re-instated him once more in April 1794 and sent him to the Armée de Sambre-et-Meuse. [2]

Statue of Kleber on the Place Kleber at Strasbourg Kleber (statue).jpg
Statue of Kléber on the Place Kléber at Strasbourg

He displayed his skill and bravery in the numerous actions around Charleroi, and especially in the crowning victory of Fleurus (26 June 1794), after which in the winter of 1794 – 1795 he besieged Mainz. In 1795, and again in 1796, he held the chief command of an army temporarily, but declined a permanent appointment as commander-in-chief. On 13 October 1795 he fought a brilliant rearguard action at the bridge of Neuwied, and in the offensive campaign of 1796, he served as Jourdan's most active and successful lieutenant, with his victory at Siegburg on 1 June that year enabling Jourdan to get the bulk of the French force across the Rhine. [2]

Egyptian campaign

After the retreat to the Rhine, he again declined a chief command, he withdrew into private life early in 1798. He accepted a division in the expedition to Egypt under Bonaparte, but suffered a wound in the head at Alexandria in the first engagement, which prevented his taking any further part in the campaign of the Pyramids, and caused his appointment as governor of Alexandria. In the Syrian campaign of 1799, however, he commanded the vanguard, took El-Arish, Gaza, and Jaffa, and won the great victory of Mount Tabor on 15–16 April 1799. [2]

When Napoleon returned to France towards the end of 1799, he left Kléber in command of the French forces. [3] In this capacity, seeing no hope of bringing his army back to France or of consolidating his conquests, he negotiated the Convention of El-Arish (24 January 1800) with Commodore Sidney Smith, winning the right to an honorable evacuation of the French army. [3] When Admiral Lord Keith refused to ratify the terms, Kléber attacked the Turks at the Battle of Heliopolis. [3] Although he had only 10,000 men against 60,000 Turks, Kléber's forces utterly defeated the Turks on 20 March 1800. He then re-took Cairo, which had revolted against French rule. [2]

Kléber, son of an operative mason and a prominent freemason himself, was attestedly instrumental in bringing freemasonry to Egypt. While he was negotiating with Sidney Smith in January 1800, Kléber opened a masonic temple in Cairo and thus created the Isis lodge (La Loge Isis), serving as its first master. [4] [5]

Assassination

Assassination of Kleber, painting in the Musee historique de Strasbourg. Assassination of Kleber f4925505.jpg
Assassination of Kléber, painting in the Musée historique de Strasbourg.

Shortly after these victories, while Kléber was walking in the garden of the palace of Alfi bika, he was knifed by Soleyman El-Halaby, an Arab Syrian [6] student living in Egypt. The assassin appeared to be begging from Kléber, but then took his hand and stabbed him in the heart, stomach, left arm, and right cheek, before running away to hide near the palace. He was soon caught, with the dagger which he had used to kill Kléber, and was later executed. The assassination happened in Cairo on 14 June 1800, coincidentally the same day on which his friend and comrade Desaix fell at Marengo. The assassin's right arm was burned off, and he was impaled in a public square in Cairo and left for several hours to die. Suleiman's skull was shipped to France and used to teach French medical students what the French authorities claimed was the bump of "crime" and "fanaticism". [7]

Burial

Kleber's name inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Arc de Triomphe mg 6841.jpg
Kléber's name inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.

After his assassination, Kléber's embalmed body was repatriated to France. [8] Fearing that his tomb would become a symbol of Republicanism, Napoleon ordered it held at the Château d'If, on an island near Marseilles. It stayed there for 18 years until Louis XVIII granted Kléber a burial place in his home town of Strasbourg. [9] He was buried on 15 December 1838 below his statue located in the center of Place Kléber. His heart is in an urn in the caveau of the Governors beneath the altar of the Saint Louis Chapel in Les Invalides, Paris. Kléber's name is inscribed in column 23 on the southern pillar of the Arc de Triomphe.

Assessment

Kléber emerged as undoubtedly one of the greatest generals of the French revolutionary epoch. Though he distrusted his powers and declined the responsibility of supreme command, there is nothing in his career to show that he would have been unequal to it. As a second-in-command no general of his time excelled him. His conduct of affairs in Egypt, at a time when the treasury was empty and the troops were discontented for want of pay, shows that his powers as an administrator were little – if at all – inferior to those he possessed as a general. [2]

Kléber the architect

Town hall of Thann Thann 01.jpg
Town hall of Thann

Between 1784 and 1792, Kléber designed a number of buildings both on public and private commission. Perhaps the most notable is the current town hall of Thann, Haut-Rhin (1787–1793), which was originally designed as a hospital but turned into an administrative building before its completion. [10] Other surviving buildings are the château of Grandvillars (often erroneously spelled "Granvillars"), built around 1790 [11] and the canoness houses of the Benedictine abbey of Masevaux (1781–1790). Nine of these houses had been planned but due to the French Revolution, only seven were built. [12] The Musée historique de Strasbourg features a room dedicated to Jean-Baptiste Kléber that also displays a number of his sketches and architectural designs.

See also

Related Research Articles

Château dIf Fortressa and prison near Marseille, France

The Château d'If is a fortress located on the island of If, the smallest island in the Frioul archipelago situated in the Mediterranean Sea about 1.5 kilometres offshore in the Bay of Marseille in southeastern France. It is famous for being one of the settings of Alexandre Dumas' adventure novel The Count of Monte Cristo.

Pierre Choderlos de Laclos French novelist, official and army general

Pierre Ambroise François Choderlos de Laclos was a French novelist, official, freemason and army general, best known for writing the epistolary novel Les Liaisons dangereuses (1782).

Jean Lannes Marshall Of France

Jean Lannes, 1st Duke of Montebello, Prince of Siewierz, was a Marshal of the Empire. He was one of Napoleon's most daring and talented generals. Napoleon once commented on Lannes: "I found him a pygmy and left him a giant". A personal friend of the emperor, he was allowed to address him with the familiar "tu", as opposed to the formal "vous".

Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte dErlon Marshal of France

Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d'Erlon was a marshal of France and a soldier in Napoleon's Army. D'Erlon notably commanded the I Corps of the Armée du Nord at the battle of Waterloo.

War in the Vendée part of the War of the First Coalition

The War in the Vendée was a counter-revolution in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution. The Vendée is a coastal region, located immediately south of the Loire River in western France. Initially, the war was similar to the 14th-century Jacquerie peasant uprising, but quickly acquired themes considered by the Jacobin government in Paris to be counter-revolutionary, and Royalist. The uprising headed by the newly formed Catholic and Royal Army was comparable to the Chouannerie, which took place in the area north of the Loire.

Battle of Abukir (1799) first battle of the French campaign in Egypt and Syria to be fought at Abu Qir

The Battle of Abukir was a battle in which Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Seid Mustafa Pasha's Ottoman army on July 25, 1799, during the French campaign in Egypt. It is considered the first pitched battle with this name, as there already was a naval battle on August 1, 1798. No sooner had the French forces returned from a campaign to Syria, than the Ottoman forces were transported to Egypt by Sidney Smith's British fleet to put an end to French rule in Egypt.

The Siege of El Arish was a successful siege by French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte against Ottoman forces under Mustafa Pasha. The French army, commanded by Jean Baptiste Kleber and Jean Reynier laid siege to the fortress of El Arish for nine days. The fortress finally fell to the French on 20 February, 1799.

French campaign in Egypt and Syria French campaign against the Ottomans in 1798–1801

The French campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, seek further direct alliances with Tipu Sultan, weaken Britain's access to India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region. It was the primary purpose of the Mediterranean campaign of 1798, a series of naval engagements that included the capture of Malta. The campaign ended in defeat for Napoleon, and the withdrawal of French troops from the region.

Louis Desaix French general

Louis Charles Antoine Desaix was a French general and military leader during French Revolutionary Wars. According to the usage of the time, he took the name Louis Charles Antoine Desaix de Veygoux.

Place Kléber square in Strasbourg, France

The Place Kléber is the central square of Strasbourg, France.

Battle of Heliopolis (1800)

The Battle of Heliopolis was a French victory by the armée d'Orient under General Kléber over the Ottoman army at Heliopolis on 20 March 1800.

Jean Baptiste Camille Canclaux French general

Jean Baptiste Camille de Canclaux was a French army commander during the French Revolution and a Peer of France. He joined a cavalry regiment the French Royal Army in 1756 and fought at Minden in the Seven Years' War. He attained the rank of maréchal de camp in 1788 and lieutenant general in 1792. He commanded the Army of the Coasts of Brest from May until October 1793 fighting several actions during the War in the Vendée. Replaced for political reasons, he led the Army of the West in 1794–1795. He held interior posts during the rest of the French Revolutionary Wars and under the First French Empire of Napoleon.

Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte

The military career of Napoleon Bonaparte spanned over 20 years. As emperor, he led the French armies in the Napoleonic Wars. Widely regarded as a military genius and one of the finest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns have been studied at military schools worldwide. He fought more than 70 battles, losing only seven, mostly at the end. The great French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. Napoleon was defeated in 1814 and exiled to the island of Elba, before returning and was finally defeated in 1815 at Waterloo. He spent his remaining days in British custody on the remote island of St. Helena.

The Army of the West was one of the French Revolutionary Armies that was sent to fight in the War in the Vendée in western France. The army was created on 2 October 1793 by merging the Army of the Coasts of La Rochelle, the so-called Army of Mayence and part of the Army of the Coasts of Brest. In 1793 the army or its component forces fought at Second Châtillon, First Noirmoutier, La Tremblaye, Cholet, Laval, Entrames, Fougères, Granville, Dol, Angers, Le Mans and Savenay. After the main Vendean army was crushed, the revolt evolved into guerilla warfare and there were few pitched battles. In 1794 Louis Marie Turreau tried to suppress the rebellion with extremely brutal methods using the infamous infernal columns. Calmer heads finally prevailed and Turreau was recalled. On 6 January 1796, the army was absorbed into the newly-formed Army of the Coasts of the Ocean. The Army of the West came into existence a second time on 17 January 1800 and was finally suppressed on 21 May 1802.

Jean Léchelle or Jean L'Échelle briefly commanded a French army during the French Revolutionary Wars. Having served in the French Royal Army as a youth, the outbreak of the French Revolution found him employed as a fencing master. He was elected to lead a volunteer National Guard battalion which fought at Valmy and Jemappes in 1792. He earned promotion to general officer after distinguishing himself at the Siege of Valenciennes and saving a representative from an angry mob. He won such favor with the politicians and the war office that he was rapidly catapulted into command of an army in the War in the Vendée. After the capable battalion leader demonstrated his total unfitness for the post of army commander, he was just as quickly arrested and thrown into prison where he died, a probable suicide.

Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Baron de Strolz, 6 August 1771 Belfort, France – 27 October 1841 Paris, was a French general during the Napoleonic wars and subsequently an important political figure. He was chief of staff to André Masséna during the Italian campaign; governor of the Basilicata province; aide-de-camp to Joseph Bonaparte King of Naples and King of Spain; Baron of the First French Empire; Member of Parliament and Pair de France. Strolz is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 22.

Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha, also known as Yusuf Ziya Pasha, was an Ottoman statesman of Georgian origin, who twice served as the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire in 1798–1805 and 1809–1811. Before, between and after his terms as grand vizier, he served numerous posts as governor of various provinces and districts throughout the empire. As grand vizier, he commanded the Ottoman ground forces against the French Army in the Ottoman reconquest of Egypt and later served as a commander in the Ottoman wars with the Russian Empire.

Marc Bédarride French writer

Marc Bédarride was a French writer, military officer and Freemason. He served the First French Empire during the French Revolutionary Wars under Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt and later in the Italian Peninsula. Although born in France, the conquests of the War of the Second Coalition brought him to the Italian Peninsula where his chief legacy was the founding of the masonic Rite of Misraim in 1813.

Jean-Urbain Guérin was a French draughtsman and miniaturist. With Jean-Baptiste Isabey and Jacques Augustin, he is still held to be one of the most notable miniaturists of his time.

Convention of El Arish

The Convention of El Arish was signed on 24 January 1800 by representatives from France and the Ottoman Empire in the presence of a British representative. It was intended to bring to an end the French campaign in Egypt and Syria, with the repatriation of French troops to France and the return of all territory to the Ottomans.

References

  1. Jensen, Nathan D. "General Jean-Baptiste Kléber". frenchempire.net. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Chisholm 1911.
  3. 1 2 3 Charles River Editors (2018). Napoleon in Egypt: The History and Legacy of the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria. Charles River Editors. ISBN   978-1718863620.
  4. Dictionnaire universelle de la Franc-Maçonnerie (Marc de Jode, Monique Cara and Jean-Marc Cara, ed. Larousse , 2011)
  5. La franc-maçonnerie révélée aux profanes (Pierre Ripert – ed. Presses de Chatelet- 2009)
  6. Al-Asadi, Khair al-Din. "Digital version, from the Encyclopedia of Aleppo Comparative" (PDF) (in Arabic). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2016.
  7. https://web.archive.org/web/20091231235534/http://damascus-online.com/se/bio/halabi_suleiman.htm
  8. Cimetières de France et d’ailleurs (in French)
  9. Jean Paul Baillard. Kléber après Kléber (1800–2000) – Les pérégrinations posthumes des restes du général Kléber ISBN   2-913302-08-4 (in French)
  10. "Hôtel de ville de Thann". patrimoine.alsace. Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  11. "Château, puis tréfilerie et usine de petite métallurgie dites le Château". actuacity.com. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  12. "Abbaye de bénédictines Saint-Léger". actuacity.com. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
Attribution

Further reading