Jean-Baptiste Ntidendereza (31 May 1926 – 15 January 1963) was a Burundian politician.
Jean-Baptiste Ntidendereza was born on 31 May 1926 in Irabiro, Burundi.Ethnically, he was Ganwa of the Batare clan, and was a son of Pierre Baranyanka, a paramount chief with close relations to the Belgian colonial administration in Ruanda-Urundi. He was educated at the Groupe Scolaire d'Astrida, studying agriculture and administration.
After completing his studies, Ntidendereza was made chief of Mutabo in 1943. From 1944 to 1960 he served as the chief of Bwambarangwe. In 1950 he accompanied Mwami Mwambutsa IV on his first trip to Europe. In 1954 he was made a member of the Conseil Supérieur du Pays (CSP),an advisory body presided over by the Mwami with some responsibility over budgetary and administrative affairs. The CSP later went defunct and was supplanted on 22 February 1960 by the Provisional Commission, a body designed to study issues left unsolved by the CSP and work out immediate problems before national elections were held. Ntidendereza was placed on the commission.
On 5 February 1960 Ntindereza co-founded the Christian Democratic Party (Parti Démocratique Chrétien, PDC).His brother, Joseph Biroli, subsequently became the party's president. The PDC's main rival was the Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progres National, UPRONA) led by Prince Louis Rwagasore, a Ganwa of the Bezi clan. The PDC, unlike UPRONA, rejected calls for immediate independence and instead focused its platform on socioeconomic reform. Despite ideological differences, the rivalries between the two parties were primarily fueled by the intra-nobility conflicts, as the Bezi and Batare lineages backed UPRONA and PDC respectively. The two lineages had long struggled for control of the country. One of Ntidendereza's other brothers, Charles Baranyanka, joined UPRONA and became a diplomat.
The Belgian administration channeled financial aid to Ntidendereza and the PDC, particularly on the initiative of Assistant Resident Pierre DeFay.In November 1960 Urundi hosted communal elections. Rwagasore was placed under house arrest, hampering UPRONA's campaign, and the PDC emerged as the victor, winning 942 of 2,876 local offices. Ntidendereza's and DeFay's relationship later deteriorated, as Ntidendereza sought to loosen his connections to the administration and act independently of its wishes. In May 1961 Ntidendereza replaced Brioli as PDC president. The administration created an interim government led by Prime Minister Joseph Cimpaye based on the communal election results to lead the country until elections for the national legislature were held. On 6 July the government was modified and Ntidendereza was made Minister of Interior.
For the 1961 legislative elections, UPRONA concentrated its entire election campaign on Rwagasore, using his charisma to rally substantial support. The PDC had assumed a certain victory due to its success during the November 1960 municipal elections and began its election campaign late.To oppose UPRONA it formed a cartel with other parties, termed the Common Front (Front Commun). The elections were held on 18 September 1961. With approximately 80% voter turnout, UPRONA won 58 of 64 seats in the Legislative Assembly, and Rwagasore was declared prime minister designate.
On 13 October 1961 Rwagasore was assassinated by a Greek national.Within three days the police had arrested the Greek, Ioannis Kageorgis, and three Burundian accomplices: Antoine Nahimana, Henri Ntakiyica, and Jean-Baptiste Ntakiyica. The latter three were all members of the PDC. The group quickly admitted responsibility for the murder and incriminated three other persons in their plot: Michel Iatrou, Ntidendereza, and Biroli. The investigators concluded that Ntidendereza and Biroli planned the assassination. Iatrou denied this, while Ntidendereza initially implicated himself in the conspiracy before later recanting his testimony.
On 30 June 1962, one day before Burundi's independence, Kageorgis was executed.Following independence Burundi established a Supreme Court with retroactive competence, and on 27 October it ruled the previous trials to have violated the right to judgement by a jury established by the new constitution and ordered a retrial. On 27 November the lower court found Ntidendereza, Biroli, Nahimana, Iatrou, and Ntakiyica guilty and sentenced them to death. The defendants' final appeal to the Supreme Court was denied, as were the attempts of the Belgian government to convince the Mwami to offer clemency, and on 15 January 1963 all five were publicly hanged in Gitega stadium before thousands of people. With the PDC's loss in the legislative elections and the execution of Ntidendereza and Biroli, the party ceased to be a viable political force.
Burundi originated in the 16th century as a small kingdom in the African Great Lakes region. After European contact, it was united with the Kingdom of Rwanda, becoming the colony of Ruanda-Urundi - first colonised by Germany and then by Belgium. The colony gained independence in 1962, and split once again into Rwanda and Burundi. It is one of the few countries in Africa to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state.
Louis Rwagasore was a Burundian prince and politician who served as Prime Minister of Burundi from 28 September 1961 until his assassination on 13 October 1961. Born to the Ganwa family of Burundian Mwami Mwambutsa IV in Belgian-administered Ruanda-Urundi in 1932, Rwagasore was educated in Burundian Catholic schools before attending university in Belgium. After he returned to Burundi in the mid-1950s he founded a series of cooperatives to economically empower native Burundians and build up his base of political support. The Belgian administration took over the venture, and as a result of the affair his national profile increased and he became a leading figure of the anti-colonial activists. He soon thereafter became involved with a nationalist political party, the Union for National Progress (UPRONA). He pushed for Burundian independence from Belgian control, national unity, and the institution of a constitutional monarchy. Rwagosore sought to bring UPRONA mass appeal across different regions, ethnicities, and castes, and thus under his leadership the party maintained a leadership balanced between ethnic Hutus and Tutsis, though the latter were usually favored for more important positions.
Ruanda-Urundi was a colonial territory, once part of German East Africa, which was ruled by Belgium from 1916 to 1962.
Pierre Ngendandumwe was a Burundian politician. He was a member of the Union for National Progress and was an ethnic Hutu. On 18 June 1963, about a year after Burundi gained independence and amidst efforts to bring about political cooperation between Hutus and the dominant minority Tutsis, Ngendandumwe became Burundi's first Hutu prime minister. He served as prime minister until 6 April 1964 and then became prime minister again on 7 January 1965, serving until his death. Eight days after beginning his second term, he was assassinated by a Rwandan Tutsi refugee.
Joseph Bamina was a Burundian politician and member of the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) party. Bamina was Prime Minister from 26 January to 30 September 1965, and President of the Senate of Burundi in 1965. He and other leaders of the government were assassinated on 15 December 1965, by Tutsi soldiers during a reprisal effort to stop a coup by Hutu officers.
Prince Léopold Bihumugani or Biha was a Burundian politician. He was appointed Prime Minister 13 October 1965 following the 10 May 1965 legislative election. He was the personal secretary of King Mwambutsa IV previous to his appointment as Prime Minister. He was Prime Minister until a coup on 8 July 1966 when Prince Charles Ndizeye overthrew his father and became King. Ntare V installed Michel Micombero to the post of Prime Minister.
Joseph Cimpaye was a Burundian politician and writer.
Ethnic groups in Burundi include the three main indigenous groups of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa that have largely been emphasized in the study of the country's history due to their role in shaping it through conflict and consolidation. Burundi's ethnic make-up is similar to that of neighboring Rwanda. Additionally, recent immigration has also contributed to Burundi's ethnic diversity. Throughout the country's history, the relation between the ethnic groups has varied, largely depending on internal political, economic and social factors and also external factors such as colonialism. The pre-colonial era, despite having divisions between the three groups, saw greater ethnic cohesion and fluidity dependent on socioeconomic factors. During the colonial period under German and then Belgian rule, ethnic groups in Burundi experienced greater stratifications and solidification through biological arguments separating the groups and indirect colonial rule that increased group tensions. The post-independence Burundi has experienced recurring inter-ethnic violence especially in the political arena that has, in turn, spilled over to society at large leading to many casualties throughout the decades. The Arusha Agreement served to end the decades-long ethnic tensions, and the Burundian government has stated commitment to creating ethnic cohesion in the country since, yet recent waves of violence and controversies under the Pierre Nkurunziza leadership have worried some experts of potential resurfacing of ethnic violence. Given the changing nature of ethnicity and ethnic relations in the country, many scholars have approached the topic theoretically to come up with primordial, constructivist and mixed arguments or explanations on ethnicity in Burundi.
André Muhirwa was a Burundian politician as a member of the Union for National Progress and the third Prime Minister of Burundi from 20 October 1961 to 7 June 1963. His term coincided with Burundi's independence.
Pié Masumbuko is a Burundian retired politician and physician as a member of the Union for National Progress and the acting Prime Minister of Burundi from January 15 to January 26 of 1965.
The Christian Democratic Party was a political alliance in Burundi.
On 18–19 October 1965, a group of ethnic Hutu officers from the Burundian military and gendarmerie attempted to overthrow Burundi's government in a coup d'état. The rebels were frustrated with Burundi's monarch, Mwami Mwambutsa IV, who had repeatedly attempted to cement his control over the government and bypassed parliamentary norms despite Hutu electoral gains. Although the prime minister was shot and wounded, the coup failed due to the intervention of a contingent of troops led by Captain Michel Micombero. The attempted putsch provoked a backlash against Hutus in which thousands of people, including the participants in the coup, were killed. The coup also facilitated a militant Tutsi backlash against the monarchy resulting in two further coups which culminated in the abolition of the monarchy in November 1966 and the proclamation of a republic with Micombero as President of Burundi.
Roberto Régnier was a Belgian Colonial official in Ruanda-Urundi. He served as Regent from 28 July 1961 to January 1962 and as High Representative of Burundi for no more than six months starting in January 1962.
Gilles Bimazubute was a Burundian politician.
Artémon Simbananiye is a Burundian retired politician.
François Rukeba was a Rwandan politician and rebel leader.
Paul Mirerekano was a Burundian politician. Ethnically Hutu, he worked as an agronomist for the Belgian colonial administration in Ruanda-Urundi before starting a successful market garden in Bugarama. Politically, he was a nationalist, monarchist, and advocate for Hutu civil rights. He was a leading member of Louis Rwagasore's political party, the Union for National Progress (UPRONA), and in 1961 served as the organisation's interim president. Rwagasore's assassination in 1961 fueled a rivalry between Mirerekano and Prime Minister André Muhirwa, as both men claimed to be the heirs to Rwagasore's legacy and sought to take control of UPRONA. The controversy led to the coalescing of two factions in the party, with Mirerekano leading what became known as the Hutu-dominated "Monrovia group". His criticism of Muhirwa and his successor led him to be arrested on several occasions, but in 1965 he was elected to a seat in the National Assembly representing the Bujumbura constituency. The body subsequently elected Mirerekano its First Vice-President on 20 July. In October Hutu soldiers launched a coup attempt which failed, but led to the outbreak of ethnic violence. The government believed Mirerekano helped plan the coup attempt and executed him. His reputation remains a controversial subject in Burundi.
Joseph Biroli-Baranyanka was a Burundian politician. He was the first Burundian to receive a university education.
Gervais Nyangoma was a Burundian politician and diplomat.
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Burundi, sometimes called the "independence constitution", was the constitution of the independent Kingdom of Burundi from its promulgation in 1962 until its suspension in 1966.