|Born||26 May 1907|
|Died||17 April 2006 (aged 98)|
|Fields|| physician |
Jean Bernard (26 May 1907 in Paris – 17 April 2006 in Paris) was a French physician and haematologist. He was professor of haematology and director of the Institute for Leukaemia at the University of Paris. After graduating in medicine in Paris in 1926 he commenced his laboratory training with the bacteriologist Gaston Ramon at the Pasteur Institute in 1929.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system.
In 1932 Bernard gave the first description of the use of high dosage radiotherapy in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Bernard's research has ranged from the demonstration of neoplastic nature of leukaemia (1933–1937) to the formulation of methods of treatment. Bernard gave his name to Bernard's syndrome and Bernard-Soulier syndrome. In all, Bernard published 14 textbooks and monographs on haematology.
During the German occupation of France, Bernard was active in the French resistance.
In 1973, he became a member of the Académie Nationale de Médecine; he was elected at the Académie française on 18 March 1976.
Situated at 16 rue Bonaparte in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, the Académie nationale de médecine was created in 1820 by king Louis XVIII at the urging of baron Antoine Portal. At its inception, the institution was known as the Académie royale de médecine. This academy was endowed with the legal status of two institutions which preceded it — the Académie royale de chirurgie, which was created in 1731 and of the Société royale de médecine, which was created in 1776.
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language. The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII. Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution, it was restored as a division of the Institut de France in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte. It is the oldest of the five académies of the institute.
In 1981 he was elected as a member of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in the Department of Medical Sciences. In 1983, he was awarded the Artois-Baillet Latour Health Prize.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is a national academy and the most prominent academic institution in Serbia, founded in 1841 as Society of Serbian Letters.
Antoine Houdar de la Motte was a French author.
The French Academy of Sciences is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences.
Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues or tumours of the haematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies are tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, lymph, and lymphatic system. As those elements are all intimately connected through both the circulatory system and the immune system, a disease affecting one will often affect the others as well, making myeloproliferation and lymphoproliferation closely related and often overlapping problems.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells. In APL, there is an abnormal accumulation of immature granulocytes called promyelocytes. The disease is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha gene and is distinguished from other forms of AML by its responsiveness to all-trans retinoic acid therapy. Acute promyelocytic leukemia was first characterized in 1957 by French and Norwegian physicians as a hyperacute fatal illness, with a median survival time of less than a week. Today, prognoses have drastically improved; 10-year survival rates are estimated to be approximately 80-90% according to one study.
Gabriel Andral was a distinguished French pathologist and a professor at the University of Paris.
Érik Orsenna is the pen-name of Érik Arnoult, a French politician and novelist. After studying philosophy and political science at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, Orsenna specialized in economics at the London School of Economics. He was a close collaborator of François Mitterrand and held several government positions in the 1980s and 1990s. He is a member of the Conseil d'État, having been appointed in 1985. He was elected to the Académie française on 28 May 1998. For Voyage au pays du coton he received the second prize of the Lettre Ulysses Award in 2006.
Jean Hamburger was a French physician, surgeon and essayist. He is particularly known for his contribution to nephrology, and for having performed the first renal transplantation in France in 1952.
Louis-Anne-Jean Brocq was a French dermatologist born in Laroque-Timbaut, a village in the department of Lot-et-Garonne.
Louis-Charles Malassez was a French anatomist and histologist born in Nevers, department of Nièvre.
Georges Hayem was a physician and hematologist born in Paris.
Moyse Charas, or Moses Charas, was an apothecary in France during the reign of Louis XIV. He became famous for publishing compendiums of medication formulas, which played vital roles in the development of modern pharmacy and chemistry. He is best remembered for his medical compendium Pharmacopée royale galénique et chymyque published in 1676
Sir John Vivian Dacie, FRS was a British haematologist.
Raymond Alexander Turpin, born 5 November 1895 in Pontoise, died May 24, 1988, in Paris, was a French pediatrician and geneticist. In the late 1950s, his team discovered the chromosomal abnormality, trisomy 21, responsible for Down syndrome.
Martial Piéchaud, was a 20th-century French writer, literary critic and playwright.
Yves-Marie Bercé, is a French historian known for his work on popular revolts of the modern era. He is a member of the Institut de France.
Clotilde-Camille Deflandre was a French scientist primarily known for her discovery with her mentor Paul Carnot of Hémopoïétine" (erythropoietin). She also pioneered work that led to the development of organ transplantation. She was the first woman in France to receive both a "docteur en médicine” and a docteur ès naturel sciences.
Intermittent fever is a type or pattern of fever in which there is an interval where temperature is elevated for several hours followed by an interval when temperature drops back to normal. This type of fever usually occurs during the course of an infectious disease. Diagnosis of intermittent fever is frequently based on the clinical history but some biological tests like complete blood count and blood culture are also used. In addition radiological investigations like chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography can also be used in establishing diagnosis.
Paul Bourdarie was a French explorer, journalist, lecturer and professor. He became known as a specialist in colonial topics and gave lectures on subjects such as growing cotton and domesticating African elephants. He believed in a liberal policy regarding the indigenous people of the French colonies. Bourdarie was one of those responsible for founding the Grand Mosque of Paris.
Secondary cold agglutinin syndrome is a type of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). It occurs when autoantibodies bind to red blood cells, rendering them subject to attack by the complement system. It is similar to primary cold agglutinin disease but much less common. Primary CAD is directly caused by over-production of an autoantibody, whereas secondary CAS is secondary to another condition, such as infection or a lymphoma. In both CAD and CAS, the antibodies responsible bind to the antigens better at cold temperatures, so that the symptoms of the disease may worsen in the cold.
Michel Zink is a French writer, medievalist, philologist, and professor of French literature, particularly that of the Middle Ages. He is the Permanent Secretary of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, a title he has held since 2011, and was elected to the Académie française in 2017. In addition to his academic work, he has also written historical crime novels, one of which continues the story of Arsène Lupin.
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.