Jean Rhys

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Jean Rhys

Jean Rhys (left, in hat) with Mollie Stoner, Velthams, 1970s B.jpg
Jean Rhys and Mollie Stoner in the 1970s
Born(1890-08-24)24 August 1890
Roseau, Dominica, British West Indies
Died14 May 1979(1979-05-14) (aged 88)
Exeter, Devon, England
Occupationnovelist, short story writer, essayist
Genre Modernism, postmodernism [1] [2]
Notable works
  • Jean Lenglet (1919–1933; divorced)
  • Leslie Tilden-Smith (1934–1945; his death)
  • Max Hamer (1947–1966; his death)

Jean Rhys, CBE ( /rs/ ; [3] born Ella Gwendolyn Rees Williams (24 August 1890 – 14 May 1979), was a mid-20th-century novelist who was born and grew up in the Caribbean island of Dominica. From the age of 16, she was mainly resident in England, where she was sent for her education. She is best known for her novel Wide Sargasso Sea (1966), written as a prequel to Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre . [4] In 1978 she was awarded the Order of the British Empire for her writing.

Order of the British Empire British order of chivalry

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order.

Dominica Country in the Caribbean

Dominica, officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island country in the West Indies. The capital, Roseau, is located on the western side of the island. It is part of the Windward Islands in the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea. The island is located near Guadeloupe to the northwest and Martinique to the south-southeast. Its area is 750 km2 (290 sq mi), and the highest point is Morne Diablotins, at 1,447 m (4,747 ft) in elevation. The population was 71,293 at the 2011 census.

<i>Wide Sargasso Sea</i> book

Wide Sargasso Sea is a 1966 novel by Dominica-born British author Jean Rhys. It is a feminist and anti-colonial response to Charlotte Brontë's novel Jane Eyre (1847), describing the background to Mr Rochester's marriage from the point-of-view of his mad wife Antoinette Cosway, a Creole heiress. Antoinette Cosway is Rhys' version of Brontë's devilish "madwoman in the attic". Antoinette's story is told from the time of her youth in Jamaica, to her unhappy marriage to a certain unnamed English gentleman, who renames her Bertha, declares her mad, and takes her to England. Antoinette is caught in an oppressive patriarchal society in which she fully belongs neither to Europe nor to Jamaica. Wide Sargasso Sea explores the power of relationships between men and women and develops postcolonial themes, such as racism, displacement, and assimilation.


Early life

Rhys was born in Roseau, the capital of Dominica, an island in the British West Indies. Her father, William Rees Williams, was a Welsh doctor and her mother, Minna Williams, née Lockhart, was a third-generation Dominican Creole of Scots ancestry. ("Creole" was broadly used in those times to refer to any person born on the island, whether they were of European or African descent, or both.) She had a brother. Her mother's family had an estate, a former plantation, on the island.

Roseau City in Saint George, Dominica

Roseau is the capital and largest city of Dominica, with a population of 14,725 as of 2011. It is a small and compact urban settlement, in the Saint George parish and surrounded by the Caribbean Sea, the Roseau River and Morne Bruce. Built on the site of the ancient Island Carib village of Sairi, it is the oldest and most important urban settlement on the island of Dominica.

Rhys was educated in Dominica until the age of 16, when she was sent to England to live with an aunt, as her relations with her mother were difficult. She attended the Perse School for Girls in Cambridge, [5] where she was mocked as an outsider and for her accent. She attended two terms at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London by 1909. Her instructors despaired of her ever learning to speak "proper English" and advised her father to take her away. Unable to train as an actress and refusing to return to the Caribbean as her parents wished, Williams worked with varied success as a chorus girl, adopting the names Vivienne, Emma or Ella Gray. She toured Britain's small towns and returned to rooming or boarding houses in rundown neighborhoods of London. [5]

Royal Academy of Dramatic Art Drama school located in London, England

The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) is a drama school in London, England that provides training for film, television and theatre. It is one of the oldest drama schools in the United Kingdom, founded in 1904 by Herbert Beerbohm Tree.

After her father died in 1910, Rhys appeared to have experimented with living as a demimondaine. She became the mistress of a wealthy stockbroker, Lancelot Grey Hugh ("Lancey") Smith. Though he was a bachelor, Smith did not offer to marry Rhys, and their affair soon ended. However, he continued to be an occasional source of financial help. Distraught by events, including a near-fatal abortion (not Smith's child), Rhys began writing and produced an early version of her novel Voyage in the Dark. [5] In 1913 she worked for a time in London as a nude model.

Demi-monde refers to a group of people who live hedonistic lifestyles, usually in a flagrant and conspicuous manner. The term was commonly used in Europe from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century, and contemporary use has an anachronistic character. Its connotations of pleasure-seeking often contrasted with wealth and ruling class behavior.

During the First World War, Rhys served as a volunteer worker in a soldiers' canteen. In 1918 she worked in a pension office.

Marriage and family

In 1919 Rhys married Willem Johan Marie (Jean) Lenglet, a French-Dutch journalist, spy, and songwriter. He was the first of her three husbands. [5] She and Lenglet wandered through Europe. They had two children, a son who died young and a daughter. They divorced in 1933, and her daughter lived mostly with her father.

The next year Rhys married Leslie Tilden-Smith, an English editor. In 1930 they went briefly to Dominica, the first time Rhys had returned since she had left for school. She found her family estate deteriorating and island conditions less agreeable. Her brother Oscar was living in England, and she took care of some financial affairs for him, making a settlement with an island mixed-race woman and Oscar's illegitimate children by her.

In 1937 Rhys began a friendship with novelist Eliot Bliss (who had taken her first name in honour of two authors she admired). The two women shared Caribbean backgrounds. The correspondence between them survives. [6]

In 1939 Rhys and Tilden-Smith moved to Devon, where they lived for several years. He died in 1945. In 1947 Rhys married Max Hamer, a solicitor who was a cousin of Tilden-Smith. He was convicted of fraud and imprisoned after their marriage. [7] He died in 1966.

Writing career

In 1924 Rhys came under the influence of the English writer Ford Madox Ford. After she met Ford in Paris, Rhys wrote short stories under his patronage. Ford recognised that her experience as an exile gave Rhys a unique viewpoint, and he praised her "singular instinct for form". "Coming from the West Indies, he declared, 'with a terrifying insight and... passion for stating the case of the underdog, she has let her pen loose on the Left Banks of the Old World'." [5] It was Ford who suggested that she change her name to Jean Rhys (from Ella Williams). [8] At the time her husband was in jail for what Rhys described as currency irregularities.

Rhys moved in with Ford and his long-time partner, Stella Bowen. An affair with Ford ensued, which she portrayed in fictionalised form in her novel Quartet. [8]

With Voyage in the Dark (1934) Rhys continued to portray a mistreated, rootless woman. Here her protagonist is a young chorus girl who grew up in the West Indies and feels alienated in England. In Good Morning, Midnight published in 1939, Rhys uses modified stream of consciousness to voice the experiences of an ageing woman.

In the 1940s Rhys largely withdrew from public life. From 1955 to 1960 she lived in Bude in Cornwall, where she was unhappy, calling it "Bude the Obscure", before moving to Cheriton Fitzpaine in Devon.

After a long absence from the public eye she was rediscovered by Selma Vaz Dias, who in 1949 placed an advertisement in the New Statesman asking about her whereabouts with a view to obtaining the rights to adapt her novel Good Morning Midnight for radio. Rhys responded, and thereafter developed a long-lasting and collaborative friendship with Vaz Dias, who encouraged her to start writing again. This encouragement ultimately lead to the publication in 1966 of her critically acclaimed novel Wide Sargasso Sea . She intended it as the account of the woman whom Rochester married and kept in his attic in Jane Eyre . Begun well before she settled in Bude, the book won the prestigious WH Smith Literary Award in 1967. She returned to themes of dominance and dependence, especially in marriage, depicting the mutually painful relationship between a privileged English man and a Creole woman from Dominica made powerless on being duped and coerced by him and others. Both the man and woman enter into marriage under mistaken assumptions about the other. Her female lead marries Mr Rochester and deteriorates in England as the "madwoman in the attic". Rhys portrays this woman from quite a different perspective from that drawn in Jane Eyre. Diana Athill of the publishing house André Deutsch gambled on publishing Wide Sargasso Sea; she and the writer Francis Wyndham helped to revive interest in Rhys's work. [9]

Later years

From 1960, and for the rest of her life, Rhys lived in Cheriton Fitzpaine, a small village in Devon that she once described as "a dull spot which even drink can't enliven much." [10] She characteristically remained unimpressed by her belated ascent to literary fame, commenting, "It has come too late." [9] In an interview shortly before her death she questioned whether any novelist, not least herself, could ever be happy for any length of time: "If I could choose I would rather be happy than write... if I could live my life all over again, and choose...". [11]

Jean Rhys died in Exeter on 14 May 1979, at the age of 88, before completing her autobiography, which she had begun dictating only months earlier. [12] In 1979 the incomplete text was published posthumously under the title Smile Please: An Unfinished Autobiography.

Legacy and honours

Jean Rhys was appointed a CBE in the 1978 New Year Honours. In 2012 English Heritage marked her Chelsea flat at Paulton House in Paultons Square with a blue plaque. [13]

Selected bibliography


Rhys's collected papers and ephemera are housed in the University of Tulsa's McFarlin Library. [14]

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  1. Gardiner, Judith Kegan (Autumn 1982 – Winter 1983). "Good Morning, Midnight; Good Night, Modernism". boundary 2. 11 (1/2): 233–51. JSTOR   303027.
  2. Castro, Joy (Summer 2000). "Jean Rhys" (PDF). The Review of Contemporary Fiction. XX (2): 8–46. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2014.
  3. "Collins English Dictionary: Definition of Rhys". Collins. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  4. Modjeska, Drusilla (1999). Stravinsky's Lunch. Sydney: Picador. ISBN   0-330-36259-3.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Carr, Helen (2004). "Williams, Ella Gwendoline Rees (1890–1979)," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press.
  6. McFarlin Library Retrieved 17 September 2015. Bliss is quoted on their relations in Alexandra Pringle's introduction to the 1984 reissue of Bliss's novel Luminous Isle: "She used to make me delightful West-Indian suppers, and we used to drink an awful lot. Well, she could hold it, but it used to make me ill, frequently ill. And she had a delightful husband who used to leave us, go out. Well, often he would come home and find us drunk. He once picked her off the floor. And he was furious if he found we'd drunk his wine."
  7. "Kent: From Maidstone Prison to the Wide Sargasso Sea!" Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine , Reading Detectives.
  8. 1 2 Owen, Katie, "Introduction", Quartet, Penguin Modern Classics edition, Penguin, 2000, p. vi. ISBN   978-0-14-118392-3
  9. 1 2 Preliminary page in Jean Rhys, Quartet, Penguin: 2000, ISBN   978-0-14-118392-3
  10. "Villagers Reject 'Dull Spot' Jibe" Archived 21 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine , Exeter Express & Echo, 11 February 2010.
  11. In Their Own Words: British Novelists. Ep. 1: Among the Ruins (1919–1939). BBC (2010).
  12. Lisa Paravisini, "BBC Interviews Jean Rhys's Typist", Repeating Islands, 14 May 2009.
  13. "Rhys, Jean (1880–1979)". English Heritage. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  14. "Collection: Jean Rhys archive, 1920–1991 | ArchivesSpace Public Interface". Retrieved 23 October 2017.

Further reading