Jean Seberg

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Jean Seberg
Camorra Jean Seberg.png
Seberg in Gang War in Naples (1972)
Born
Jean Dorothy Seberg

(1938-11-13)November 13, 1938
DiedAugust 30, 1979(1979-08-30) (aged 40)
Cause of death Probable suicide [1]
Body discoveredSeptember 8, 1979
Resting place Montparnasse Cemetery
NationalityAmerican
Alma mater University of Iowa
OccupationActress
Years active1957–1979
Spouse(s)
François Moreuil(m. 1958–1960)

Romain Gary (m. 1962–1970)

Dennis Charles Berry (m. 1972–1979)
Partner(s)Ahmed Hasni (1979)
Children2

Jean Dorothy Seberg ( /ˈsbɜːrɡ/ ; [2] French:  [ʒɑ̃ seˈbɛʁg] ; [3] November 13, 1938 August 30, 1979) was an American actress who lived half her life in France. Her performance in Jean-Luc Godard's 1960 film Breathless immortalized her as an icon of French New Wave cinema. [4] [5]

Jean-Luc Godard French-Swiss film director, screenwriter and film critic

Jean-Luc Godard is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s French New Wave film movement.

<i>Breathless</i> (1960 film) 1960 French film by Jean-Luc Godard

Breathless is a 1960 French New Wave crime drama film written and directed by Jean-Luc Godard about a wandering criminal and his American girlfriend. It was Godard's first feature-length work and represented Belmondo's breakthrough as an actor.

Pop icon

A pop icon is a celebrity, character or object whose exposure in popular culture is widely regarded as constituting a defining characteristic of a given society or era. The categorization is usually associated with elements such as longevity, ubiquity and distinction. Moreover, "pop icon" status is distinguishable from other kinds of notoriety outside pop culture, such as with historic figures. Some historic figures are recognized as having reached "pop icon" status during their era, and such status may continue into the present. Pop icons of previous eras include Benjamin Franklin and Mozart.

Contents

She appeared in 34 films in Hollywood and in Europe, including Saint Joan , Bonjour Tristesse , Lilith , The Mouse That Roared , Moment to Moment , A Fine Madness , Paint Your Wagon , Airport , Macho Callahan , and Gang War in Naples .

Hollywood Neighborhood of Los Angeles in California, United States

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California, notable as the home of the U.S. film industry including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry and the people associated with it.

<i>Saint Joan</i> (1957 film) 1957 film by Otto Preminger

Saint Joan is a 1957 historical drama film adapted from the George Bernard Shaw play of the same title about the life of Joan of Arc. The restructured screenplay by Graham Greene, directed by Otto Preminger, begins with the play's last scene, which then becomes the springboard for a long flashback, from which the main story is told. At the end of the flashback, the film then returns to the play's final scene, which then continues through to the end.

<i>Bonjour Tristesse</i> (film) 1958 American film by Otto Preminger

Bonjour Tristesse is a 1958 British-American Technicolor film in CinemaScope, directed and produced by Otto Preminger from a screenplay by Arthur Laurents based on the novel of the same title by Françoise Sagan. The film stars Deborah Kerr, David Niven, Jean Seberg, Mylène Demongeot and Geoffrey Horne, and features Juliette Gréco, Walter Chiari, Martita Hunt and Roland Culver. It was released by Columbia Pictures. This film had colour and black and white sequences, a technique unusual for the 1950s but widely used in silent movies and early talking films.

She was also one of the best-known targets of the FBI COINTELPRO project. [6] [7] Her targeting was a well-documented retaliation for her support of the Black Panther Party in the 1960s.

Federal Bureau of Investigation governmental agency belonging to the United States Department of Justice

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.

COINTELPRO Series of covert, and often illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting American political organizations

COINTELPRO (1956–1971) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations. FBI records show that COINTELPRO resources targeted groups and individuals that the FBI deemed subversive, including the Communist Party USA, anti–Vietnam War organizers, activists of the civil rights movement or Black Power movement, feminist organizations, the American Indian Movement (AIM), independence movements, and a variety of organizations that were part of the broader New Left. The program also targeted the Ku Klux Klan, though these efforts were later admitted to be ineffective. The FBI also financed, armed, and controlled an extreme right-wing group of former members of the Minutemen anti-communist para-military organization, transforming it into a group called the Secret Army Organization that targeted groups, activists, and leaders involved in the Anti-War Movement, using both intimidation and violent acts.

Black Panther Party Black revolutionary socialist organization

The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a political organization founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966. The party was active in the United States from 1966 until 1982, with international chapters operating in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s, and in Algeria from 1969 until 1972.

Seberg died at the age of 40 in Paris, with police ruling her death a probable suicide. [1] Romain Gary, Seberg's second husband, called a press conference shortly after her death where he publicly blamed the FBI's campaign against Seberg for her deteriorating mental health. Gary claimed that Seberg "became psychotic" after the media reported a false story that the FBI planted about her becoming pregnant with a Black Panther's child in 1970. Romain Gary stated that Seberg had repeatedly attempted suicide on the anniversary of the child's death, August 25. [8]

Romain Gary, born Roman Kacew, was a French novelist, diplomat, film director, and World War II aviator of Jewish origin. He is the only author to have won the Prix Goncourt under two names.

Early life

Jean Dorothy Seberg was born in Marshalltown, Iowa, the daughter of Dorothy Arline (b. Benson; July 11, 1909 – March 7, 1997), a substitute teacher, and Edward Waldemar Seberg (October 2, 1906 – September 5, 1984), a pharmacist. [9] [10] [11] Her family was Lutheran and of Swedish, English, and German ancestry. [11] [12] [13]

Marshalltown, Iowa City and County seat in Iowa, United States

Marshalltown is a city in, and the county seat of, Marshall County, Iowa, United States. The population was 27,552 in the 2010 census, compared to 26,009 in 2000.

Pharmacist healthcare professional who practices in pharmacy

Pharmacists, also known as chemists or druggists, are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand the biochemical mechanisms and actions of drugs, drug uses, therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians, and other health care providers.

Lutheranism branch of Protestantism based on the teachings of Martin Luther

Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.

Her paternal grandfather, Edward Carlson, arrived in the U.S. in 1882 and observed, "there are too many Carlsons in the New World". He decided to change the family's last name to Seberg in memory of the water and mountains of Sweden. [14] Jean had a sister Mary-Ann (b. August 27, 1936), and two brothers: Kurt (b. June 1, 1942) and David (February 2, 1950 – March 24, 1968), who was killed in a car accident at the age of eighteen.[ citation needed ]

In Marshalltown, Seberg babysat Mary Supinger, some eight years her junior, who would later become the stage and film actress known as Mary Beth Hurt. After high school, Seberg enrolled at the University of Iowa to study dramatic arts, but took up movie making instead. [15]

Film career

Otto Preminger

Seberg made her film debut in 1957 in the title role of Saint Joan , from the George Bernard Shaw play, after being chosen from 18,000 hopefuls by director Otto Preminger in a $150,000 talent search. Her name was entered by a neighbor. [16]

When she was cast, on October 21, 1956, her only acting experience had been a single season of summer stock performances. [17] The film was associated with a great deal of publicity about which Seberg commented that she was "embarrassed by all the attention". [16] Despite a big build-up, called in the press a " Pygmalion experiment", both the film and Seberg received poor notices. [18] On the failure, she later told the press:

I have two memories of Saint Joan. The first was being burned at the stake in the picture. The second was being burned at the stake by the critics. The latter hurt more. I was scared like a rabbit and it showed on the screen. It was not a good experience at all. I started where most actresses end up. [19]

Preminger, though, promised her a second chance, [18] and he cast Seberg in his next film Bonjour Tristesse the following year, which was filmed in France. Regarding his decision, Preminger told the press: "It's quite true that, if I had chosen Audrey Hepburn instead of Jean Seberg, it would have been less of a risk, but I prefer to take the risk. [..] I have faith in her. Sure, she still has things to learn about acting, but so did Kim Novak when she started." [18] Seberg again received atrocious reviews and the film nearly ended her career. [19]

She renegotiated her contract with Otto Preminger, and signed a long term contract with Columbia Pictures. Preminger had an option to use her services on another film, but they never worked together again. Her next role was for Columbia, in the successful 1959 comedy The Mouse That Roared , starring Peter Sellers.[ citation needed ]

Breathless and French career

During the filming of Bonjour Tristesse Seberg met François Moreuil, the man who was to become her first husband, and she then based herself in France, finally achieving success as the free-love heroine of French New Wave films. [19]

She appeared as one of the main leads in Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (French title: À bout de souffle, 1960) as Patricia, co-starring with Jean-Paul Belmondo. The film became a success internationally and critics praised Seberg's performance; film critic and director François Truffaut even hailed her "the best actress in Europe". [20] Despite her achievements, Seberg did not identify with her characters or the film plots, saying that she was "making films in France about people [she's] not really interested in." [19] Back in the US, she made another film for Columbia, Let No Man Write My Epitaph (1960).

In France she appeared in Time Out for Love (Les grandes personnes, 1961) then Seberg took on the lead role in her then-husband François Moreuil's directorial debut, La recréation (Love Play, also 1961). By that time, Seberg had become estranged from Moreuil, and she recollected that production was "pure hell" and that he "would scream at [her]." [19] She followed it with Five Day Lover (1962) and Congo vivo (1962). In the French Style (1962) was a French-American film featuring Stanley Baker released through Columbia. Les plus belles escroqueries du monde (1963) was an anthology movie and Backfire (1964) reunited her with Jean-Paul Belmondo.

In the United States, she starred with Warren Beatty in Lilith (1964) for Columbia, which prompted the critics to acknowledge Seberg as a serious actress. [20] She returned to France to make Diamonds Are Brittle (1965).

Return to Hollywood

In the late 1960s, she based herself increasingly in Hollywood. In 1965, Moment to Moment - her first major role in a Hollywood film after more than five years absence - was shot for the most part in Los Angeles, only a small part of the film being shot on the French Cote d'Azur. [21] In late 1965, in New York, she acted in A Fine Madness (released in 1966) alongside Sean Connery under the direction of Irvin Kershner. [22]

In 1966 and 1967, she acted as the lead in two French films directed by Claude Chabrol and co-starring Maurice Ronet: In February and March 1966, she starred in Line of Demarcation , shot around Dole, Jura in France, [23] and in May and June 1967 played the title role in the French-Italian Eurospy film The Road to Corinth , shot in Greece. [24]

After making Pendulum (1969), she appeared in her first and only musical film, Paint Your Wagon (also 1969), based on Lerner and Loewe's stage musical, and co-starring Lee Marvin and Clint Eastwood. Her singing voice was dubbed by Anita Gordon. [25] Seberg also starred in the disaster film Airport (1970).

Later career

Seberg was François Truffaut's first choice for the central role of Julie in Day for Night (1973) but, after several fruitless attempts to contact her, he gave up and cast British actress Jacqueline Bisset instead. [26]

Her last US film appearance was in the TV movie Mousey (1974). Seberg remained active during the 1970s in European films. She appeared in Bianchi cavalli d'Agosto (White Horses of Summer) (1975), Le Grand Délire (Die Große Ekstase) (1975, with husband Dennis Berry) and Die Wildente (1976, based on Ibsen's The Wild Duck [27] ).

At the time of her death she was working on the French film Operation Leopard ( La Légion saute sur Kolwezi , 1980). She had scenes filmed in French Guiana and returned to Paris for additional work in September. After her death, the scenes were reshot with actress Mimsy Farmer.[ citation needed ]

FBI COINTELPRO investigation

FBI inter-office memo: "... cause her embarrassment and cheapen her image" FBI vs. Jean Seberg1.jpg
FBI inter-office memo: "... cause her embarrassment and cheapen her image"
FBI inter-office memo: "Usual precautions to avoid identification of the Bureau" FBI vs. Jean Seberg2.jpg
FBI inter-office memo: "Usual precautions to avoid identification of the Bureau"

During the late 1960s, Seberg provided financial support to various groups supporting civil rights, such as the NAACP as well as Native American school groups such as the Meskwaki Bucks at the Tama settlement near her home town of Marshalltown, for whom she purchased US$500 worth of basketball uniforms. The FBI became aware of several gifts to the Black Panther Party, [28] [29] totaling US$10,500 (estimated) in contributions; these were noted among a list of other celebrities in FBI internal documents later declassified and released to the public under FOIA requests. The financial support and alleged interracial love affairs or friendships are thought to have been triggers to an FBI investigation.[ citation needed ]

The FBI operation against Seberg used COINTELPRO program techniques to harass, intimidate, defame, and discredit Seberg. [30] The FBI's stated goal was an unspecified "neutralization" of Seberg with a subsidiary objective to "cause her embarrassment and serve to cheapen her image with the public", while taking the "usual precautions to avoid identification of the Bureau". [31] FBI strategy and modalities can be found in FBI inter-office memos. [32]

In 1970, the FBI created the false story, from a San Francisco-based informant, that the child Seberg was carrying was not fathered by her husband Romain Gary but by Raymond Hewitt, a member of the Black Panther Party. [33] [34] The story was reported by gossip columnist Joyce Haber of the Los Angeles Times , [35] and was also printed by Newsweek magazine. [36] Seberg went into premature labor and, on August 23, 1970, gave birth to a 4 lb (1.8 kg) baby girl. The child died two days later. [37] She held a funeral in her hometown with an open casket that allowed reporters to see the infant's white skin, which disproved the rumors. [38]

Seberg and Gary later sued Newsweek for libel and defamation, asking for US$200,000 in damages. She contended she became so upset after reading the story, that she went into premature labor, which resulted in the death of her daughter. A Paris court ordered Newsweek to pay the couple US$10,800 in damages and ordered Newsweek to print the judgment in their publication, plus eight other newspapers. [39]

The investigation of Seberg went far beyond the publishing of defamatory articles. According to her friends interviewed after her death, she reportedly experienced years of aggressive in-person surveillance (constant stalking), as well as break-ins and other intimidation-oriented activity. These newspaper reports make clear that Seberg was well aware of the surveillance. FBI files show that she was wiretapped, and in 1980, the Los Angeles Times published logs of her Swiss wiretapped phone calls. [32] U.S. surveillance was deployed while she was residing in France and while travelling in Switzerland and Italy. Per FBI files the FBI cross-contacted the "FBI Legat" (legal attachés) in U.S. Embassies in Paris and Rome and provided files on Seberg to the CIA, U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Military intelligence to assist monitoring while she was abroad.

FBI records show that J. Edgar Hoover kept U.S. President Richard Nixon informed of FBI activities related to the Jean Seberg case through President Nixon's domestic affairs chief John Ehrlichman. John Mitchell, then Attorney General, and Deputy Attorney General Richard Kleindienst were also kept informed of FBI activities related to Seberg. [32]

Possible Hollywood blacklisting

At the peak of her career, Seberg suddenly stopped acting in Hollywood films. Reportedly, she was not pleased with the roles she had been offered, some of which, she said, bordered on pornography. [40] Conversely, she was not offered any great Hollywood roles, regardless of their size. [40] Experts in the FBI's actions in the COINTELPRO project suggest that Seberg was "effectively blacklisted" [41] from Hollywood films, as was Jane Fonda, for a period of time.

Personal life

On September 5, 1958, aged 19, Seberg married François Moreuil, a French lawyer (aged 23) in her native Marshalltown after having met in France 15 months earlier. [42] They divorced in 1960. Moreuil had ambitions in movies and directed his estranged wife in La récréation. According to Seberg, the marriage was a "violent" one and said that she "got married for all the wrong reasons." [19]

On living in France for a period of time, Seberg said in an interview:

I'm enjoying it to the fullest extent. I've been tremendously lucky to have gone through this experience at an age where I can still learn. That doesn't mean that I will stay here. I'm in Paris because my work has been here. I'm not an expatriate. I will go where the work is. The French life has its drawbacks. One of them is the formality. The system seems to be based on saving the maximum of yourself for those nearest you. Perhaps that is better than the other extreme in Hollywood, where people give so much of themselves in public life that they have nothing left over for their families. Still, it is hard for an American to get used to. Often I will get excited over a luncheon table only to have the hostess say discreetly that coffee will be served in the other room. ... I miss that casualness and friendliness of Americans, the kind that makes people smile. I also miss blue jeans, milk shakes, thick steaks and supermarkets. [19]

Despite extended stays in the United States, she remained Paris-based for the rest of her life. In 1962, she married French aviator, resistant, novelist and diplomat Romain Gary, who was 24 years her senior and had been married to Lesley Blanch. Gary's divorce took place on September 5, 1962, and he married Seberg on October 6. The marriage in Corsica was secret and used accommodations with the law. [43]

Their sole child together, Alexandre Diego Gary, was born in Barcelona on July 24, 1962. The child's birth and first years of life were hidden from even close friends and relatives. Thanks to his contacts in the diplomat services, Gary later "established" Diego's birth at the French village of Charquemont on October 26, 1963, after his parents' marriage. [44]

During her marriage to Gary, Seberg lived in Paris, Greece, Southern France and Majorca. [45] Diego married and as of 2009 resides in Spain where he runs a bookstore and oversees his father's literary and real estate holdings. [46]

While filming Macho Callahan in Mexico in 1969–70, Seberg became romantically involved with a student revolutionary named Carlos Ornelas Navarra. She gave birth to Navarra's daughter, Nina Hart Gary, on August 23, 1970. The baby died two days later, on August 25, 1970, and is buried at Riverside Cemetery in Marshalltown. Estranged husband Romain Gary had publicly claimed to have been the father during Seberg's pregnancy, but she acknowledged that Navarra was actually the father. [47]

In 1972, she was married for the third time, to aspiring film director Dennis Berry.[ citation needed ] In 1979, while separated from her husband, Seberg went through "a form of marriage" to an Algerian, Ahmed Hasni. [48] Hasni persuaded her to sell her second apartment on the Rue du Bac, and he kept the proceeds (reportedly 11 million francs in cash), announcing that he would use the money to open a Barcelona restaurant. [49] The couple departed for Spain, but she was soon back in Paris alone and went into hiding from Hasni, who she said had grievously abused her. [50]

Death

Grave of Jean Seberg Seberggrave.jpg
Grave of Jean Seberg

On the night of August 30, 1979, Seberg disappeared. Hasni told police that they had gone to a movie that night and when he awoke the next morning, Seberg was gone. [51] After Seberg went missing, Hasni told police that he had known she was suicidal for some time. He claimed that she had attempted suicide in July 1979 by jumping in front of a Paris subway train. [52]

On September 8, nine days after her disappearance, her decomposing body was found wrapped in a blanket in the back seat of her Renault, parked close to her Paris apartment in the 16th arrondissement. Police found a bottle of barbiturates, an empty mineral water bottle and a note written in French from Seberg addressed to her son. It read, in part, "Forgive me. I can no longer live with my nerves." [53] In 1979, her death was ruled a probable suicide by Paris police, [1] but the following year additional charges were filed against persons unknown for "non-assistance of a person in danger". [54]

Romain Gary, Seberg's second husband, called a press conference shortly after her death where he publicly blamed the FBI's campaign against Seberg for her deteriorating mental health. Gary claimed that Seberg "became psychotic" after the media reported a false story that the FBI planted about her becoming pregnant with a Black Panther's child in 1970. Romain Gary stated that Seberg had repeatedly attempted suicide on the anniversary of the child's death, August 25. [8]

Seberg is interred in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. [55]

Aftermath

Six days after the discovery of Seberg's body, the FBI released documents under FOIA admitting the defamation of Seberg, [56] [57] while making statements attempting to distance themselves from practices of the Hoover era. The FBI's campaign against Seberg was further explored at this time by Time magazine in a front-page article, "The FBI vs. Jean Seberg". [58]

Media attention surrounding the abuse Seberg had undergone at FBI hands led to examination of the case by the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a.k.a. "the Church Committee", which noted that notwithstanding FBI claims of reform, "COINTELPRO activities may continue today under the rubric of investigation". [59] [60]

In his autobiography, Los Angeles Times editor Jim Bellows described events leading up to the Seberg articles, in which he expressed regret that he had not vetted the Seberg articles sufficiently. [60] He echoed this sentiment in subsequent interviews. [61]

In June 1980, Paris police filed charges against "persons unknown" in connection with Seberg's death. Police stated that Seberg had such a high amount of alcohol in her system at the time of her death, that it would have rendered her comatose and unable to get into her car without assistance. Police noted there was no alcohol in the car where Seberg's body was found. Police theorized that someone was present at the time of her death and failed to get her medical care. [54]

In December 1980, Seberg's former husband Romain Gary committed suicide. Gary's suicide note, which was addressed to his publisher, indicated that he had not killed himself over the loss of Seberg but over the fact that he felt he could no longer produce literary works. [8]

The Talent Scout by Romain Gary (1961) features a recognizable portrait of Seberg.

In 1983 a musical, Jean Seberg , by librettist Julian Barry, composer Marvin Hamlisch, and lyricist Christopher Adler, based on Seberg's life, was presented at the National Theatre in London.

In 1986, pop singer Madonna copied Jean Seberg's iconic Breathless look in her music video for "Papa Don't Preach", sporting a pixie blonde haircut, French striped jersey shirt and black capri pants in her interpretation of the New Wave ingenue that Seberg played in Breathless.

In 1991, actress Jodie Foster, a fan of Seberg's performance in Breathless, purchased the film rights to Played Out: The Jean Seberg Story, the David Richards' biography about Seberg. [62] Foster was set to produce and star in the film, but the project was cancelled two years later.[ citation needed ]

In 1995, a documentary of her life was made by Mark Rappaport, titled From the Journals of Jean Seberg . Mary Beth Hurt played Seberg in a voice-over. Hurt was born in Marshalltown, Iowa in 1948, attended the same high school as Seberg, and Seberg had been her babysitter.[ citation needed ]

The 2000 short film Je t'aime John Wayne is a tribute parody of Breathless, with Camilla Rutherford playing Seberg's role.[ citation needed ]

In 2004, the French author Alain Absire published Jean S., a fictionalized biography. Seberg's son, Alexandre Diego Gary, brought a lawsuit, unsuccessfully attempting to stop publication. [63]

Since 2011, Seberg's hometown of Marshalltown, Iowa has held an annual "Jean Seberg International Film Festival". [64]

Against All Enemies will focus on Seberg's battle against the FBI with Kristen Stewart playing Seberg.

Filmography

YearTitleRoleNotes
1957 Saint Joan St. Joan of Arc
1958 Bonjour tristesse Cecile
1959 The Mouse That Roared Helen Kokintz
1960 Breathless Patricia FranchiniAlternate title: À bout de souffle
1960 Let No Man Write My Epitaph Barbara Holloway
1961 Les Grandes Personnes  [ fr ]AnnAlternate title: Time Out for Love
1961 La Récréation  [ fr ]Kate HooverAlternate title: Love Play
1961 Five Day Lover ClaireAlternate title: L'amant de cinq jours
1962 Congo Vivo Annette
1963 In the French Style Christina James
1964 Les plus belles escroqueries du monde Patricia Leacock(segment "Le Grand Escroq")
(scenes deleted) [65]
1964 Backfire Olga CelanAlternate title: Échappement libre
1964 Lilith Lilith Arthur
1965 Un milliard dans un billard Bettina Ralton
1966 Moment to Moment Kay Stanton
1966 A Fine Madness Lydia West
1966 Line of Demarcation Mary, comtesse de DamvilleAlternate title: La Ligne de démarcation
1967 Estouffade à la Caraïbe Colleen O'Hara
1967 Who's Got the Black Box? ShannyAlternate title: The Road to Corinth
1968 Birds in Peru  [ fr ]Adriana
1968The GirlsDocumentary
1969 Pendulum Adele Matthews
1969 Paint Your Wagon Elizabeth
1970 Airport Tanya Livingston
1970 Ondata di calore Joyce GrasseAlternate title: Dead of Summer
1970 Macho Callahan Alexandra Mountford
1972 Kill! Kill! Kill! Kill!  [ fr ]Emily Hamilton
1972 Questa specie d'amore GiovannaAlternate title: This Kind of Love
1972 Gang War in Naples LuisaAlternate title: Camorra
1972 L'Attentat Edith LemoineAlternate titles: Plot, The French Conspiracy
1973 The Corruption of Chris Miller Ruth MillerOriginal title: La corrupción de Chris Miller
1974Les Hautes solitudesSilent film without named characters
1974MouseyLaura Anderson / RichardsonTelevision movie
1974Ballad for the KidLa starDirector, writer, producer
1975 Bianchi cavalli d'Agosto Lea Kingsburg
1975 The Big Delirium EmilyAlternate title: Le Grand Délire
1976 The Wild Duck  [ de ]Gina EkdalAlternate title: Die Wildente
1979Le bleu des originesherself(final film role)

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Against All Enemies is an upcoming American political thriller film directed by Benedict Andrews, from a screenplay by Joe Shrapnel and Anna Waterhouse. It stars Kristen Stewart, Jack O'Connell, Anthony Mackie, Margaret Qualley, Colm Meaney, Zazie Beetz and Vince Vaughn.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Coates-Smith, Michael; McGee, Garry (2012). The Films of Jean Seberg. McFarland. p. 8. Retrieved November 26, 2016. Final cause of death was left as 'probable suicide,' ...
  2. "Say How: Q, R, S, T". National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS).
  3. "Right pronunciation of Jean Seberg ( French )". Rightpronunciation.com. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  4. Sharf, Zack; Sharf, Zack (2018-03-14). "Kristen Stewart to Play 'Breathless' Star and French New Wave Icon Jean Seberg in 'Against All Enemies'". IndieWire. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  5. Tartaglione, Nancy; Tartaglione, Nancy (2018-03-14). "Kristen Stewart To Play Icon Jean Seberg In Political Thriller 'Against All Enemies'; Jack O'Connell, Anthony Mackie Also Star". Deadline. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  6. "The Jean Seberg Affair Revisited". Los Angeles Times. March 22, 2009.
  7. "FBI 'persecution led to suicide' of actress Jean Seberg". The Australian. August 24, 2009.
  8. 1 2 3 "Jean Seberg not reason for novelist's suicide, note says". Lakeland Ledger. 1980-12-04. p. 12D. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  9. "Jean Seberg Found Dead in Paris; Actress Was Missing for 10 Days; A Life of Personal Tragedy". The New York Times. September 9, 1979. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  10. Gussow, Mel (November 30, 1980). "The Seberg Tragedy; Jean Seberg". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  11. 1 2 Lindwall, Bo (August 24, 1998). "Fler kända svenskamerikaner". Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
  12. Millstein, Gilbert (April 7, 1957). "Evolution of a New Saint Joan; Jean Seberg, 18, unknown and barely tried, illustrates how a star is made, if not born". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  13. "Preface to From Rage to Courage". Alice-miller.com. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  14. "Movie Star". Movie Star. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  15. "At the time I was due to audition for Preminger, I was enrolled to study dramatic art at the State University of Iowa, my eventual goal being stardom on Broadway, hopefully."
    Seberg in Films and Filming, p. 13, June 1974.
  16. 1 2 "Seberg: Real-life Cinderella" by Peer J. Oppenheimer, The Palm Beach Post , April 28, 1957, p. 11
  17. "'Saint Joan' Chosen", The Spokesman-Review , October 22, 1956, p. 1
  18. 1 2 3 "Second Chance for Jean", The Age , October 8, 1957, p. 13
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Jean Seberg Failed As Saint On Screen, Scores Success In France As A Sinner" by Bob Thomas, The Blade , August 6, 1961, p. 2
  20. 1 2 Charles Champlin. "Jean Seberg: A Hollywood tragedy", The Modesto Bee , September 16, 1979, pg. F6
  21. Coates-Smith, Michael; McGee, Garry (2014). The Films of Jean Seberg. McFarland. p. 77. ISBN   9780786490226 . Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  22. Coates-Smith, Michael; McGee, Garry (2014). The Films of Jean Seberg. McFarland. ISBN   9780786490226 . Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  23. Coates-Smith, Michael; McGee, Garry (2014). The Films of Jean Seberg. McFarland. p. 107. ISBN   9780786490226 . Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  24. Coates-Smith, Michael; McGee, Garry (2014). The Films of Jean Seberg. McFarland. p. 116. ISBN   9780786490226 . Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  25. Tyler, Don (2008). Music of the Postwar Era. United States of America: Greenwood Press. p. 152. ISBN   978-0-313-34191-5 . Retrieved June 25, 2010. Marvin and Eastwood sang, but Miss Seberg's vocals were dubbed by Anita Gordon.
  26. McGee, Garry (2008). Jean Seberg – Breathless. Albany, GA: BearManor Media. p. 238. ISBN   1-59393-127-1.
  27. "The Wild Duck". IMDb.com. April 28, 1977. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  28. Richards, David (1981). Played Out: The Jean Seberg Story. Random House. p. 204. ISBN   0-394-51132-8.
  29. Allan M. Jallon "A journalistic lapse allowed the FBI to smear actress Jean Seberg", The Los Angeles Times, April 14, 2002.
  30. Janet Maslin,"Star and Victim", The New York Times, July 12, 1981.
  31. Brodeur, Paul (1997). A Writer in the Cold War. Faber and Faber. pp. 159–65. ISBN   978-0-571-19907-5.
  32. 1 2 3 Ronald Ostrow, "Extensive probe of Jean Seberg Revealed", The Times via jfk.hood.edu, January 9, 1980.
  33. Richards 234–38
  34. Munn, p. 90
  35. Richards, p. 239
  36. Richards, p. 247
  37. Richards, p. 253
  38. Friedrich, Otto (1975). Going crazy: An inquiry into madness in our time. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 230. ISBN   0-671-22174-4.
  39. "Seberg awarded $20,000 in Newsweek libel suit". The Telegraph-Herald. 1971-10-26. p. 18. Retrieved 2012-12-02.
  40. 1 2 "The Jean Seberg Enigma: Interview With Garry Mcgee". Film Threat. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
  41. FBI Secrets: An Agent's Expose. by M. Wesley Swearinge
  42. Marie Adam-Affortit (28 February 2011). ""Romain Gary a séduit mon épouse Jean Seberg". Par François Moreuil". Paris Match (in French). Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  43. "Le "oui" secret de jean Seberg et Romain Gary", Le Monde , August 15, 2014.
  44. Ralph Schoolcraft: Romain Gary: The Man Who Sold His Shadow, Chapter 3, p. 69. On-line (retrieved 10 August 2012)
  45. "What makes Jean Seberg Run?", Tri-City Herald , June 21, 1970, p. 8
  46. "Where in the World is Alexandre Diego?". Movie Star. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  47. Richards 234–8
  48. Richards, p. 367
  49. Richards, p. 368
  50. Richards, p.369
  51. "Police Rule Out Violence In Death of Actress Seberg". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 1979-09-10. p. 21. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  52. "Forgive me, Seberg wrote in suicide note to her son". Edmonton Journal. 1979-09-10. p. A2. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  53. Raith, Mark Alan (1981-07-19). "The Life and Death of Jean Seberg". Reading Eagle. p. 36. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  54. 1 2 "Charges filed in Seberg death". The Montreal Gazette. 1979-06-23. p. 41. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  55. Cimetières de France et d'ailleurs
  56. "FBI Admits Spreading Lies About Jean Seberg", Los Angeles Times, September 14, 1979.
  57. "The Jean Seberg Affair Revisited". Los Angeles Times. March 22, 2009.
  58. Nation: The FBI vs. Jean Seberg, time.com, September 24, 1979.
  59. Cointelpro: The FBI's Covert Action Programs Against American Citizens, Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities. United States Senate, April 23, 1976.
  60. 1 2 Bellows, Jim. The Last Editor, Andrews McMeel Publishing (May 2011).
  61. Kevin Roderick, "Bellows, Jean Seberg and the FBI", LA Observed, March 13, 2009.
  62. "Flashes: September 20, 1991". Entertainment Weekly . September 20, 1991. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
  63. https://www.lexpress.fr/culture/livre/jean-s_809633.html.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  64. "Jean Seberg International Film Festival is Nov. 10–13, 2011". iavalley.edu. Archived from the original on July 6, 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  65. This episodic film was originally a collaboration of five directors. Despite being directed by Jean-Luc Godard and shot by Raoul Coutard, Seberg's 20-minute episode was cut from the final release (McGee, p.110). It was resurrected and partly shown in From the Journals of Jean Seberg (1995)

Further reading