Jeong Seung-hwa

Last updated

Jeong Seung-hwa
Birth nameJeing Seung-hwa
Born(1929-02-27)27 February 1929
Gimcheon, South Korea
Died12 June 2002(2002-06-12) (aged 73)
Seoul
AllegianceFlag of Korea (1899).svg  Korea
Service/branch Republic of Korea Army
Years of service1947–1979
Rank Daejang General
Commands held Republic of Korea Army
II Corps
Capital Mechanized Infantry Division
3rd Infantry Division
10th Infantry Brigade(Mechanized)
26th Infantry Regiment
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization Jeong Seunghwa
McCune–Reischauer Chŏng Sŭnghwa

Jeong Seung-hwa (정승화, 鄭昇和; 27 February 1929 – 12 June 2002) was a South Korean general officer, and the 22nd Republic of Korea Army Chief of Staff. He was present at the Blue House presidential compound, site of the assassination of President Park Chung-hee, when it took place on 26 October 1979.

South Korea Republic in East Asia

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea lies in the north temperate zone and has a predominantly mountainous terrain. It comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2 (38,750 sq mi). Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million.

A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

Republic of Korea Army Land warfare branch of South Koreas military

The Republic of Korea Army, also known as the ROK Army, is the army of South Korea, responsible for ground-based warfare. It is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces with 464,000 members as of 2018. This size is maintained through conscription; South Korean men must complete 21 months of military service between the age of 18 and 35.

Contents

Biography

Born on 27 February 1929 in Gimcheon, [1] Jeong Seung-hwa joined the Korean Army as a conscript in the 17th Regiment and fought at the Battle of Busan Perimeter. He later went to the Korea Military Academy and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the 26th Infantry Regiment in 1950, where he later commanded in the early 1960s. He then commanded a Mechanized Brigade and an Infantry Division, before being appointed as Commander of II Corps in 1976.

Gimcheon Municipal City in Yeongnam, South Korea

Gimcheon is a city in North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. It is situated on the major land transportation routes between Seoul and Busan, namely the Gyeongbu Expressway and Gyeongbu Line railway.

Korea Military Academy military academy

Korea Military Academy (KMA) is the leading South Korean institution for the education and training of officer cadets for the Republic of Korea Army. Along with the Korea Army Academy (Yeongcheon), it produces the largest number of senior officers in the Korean army. Commonly referred to as Hwarangdae ) as a reference to the Hwarang, an elite organization of youth leaders which existed in Korean history, it is located in Nowon-gu, a northeast district of Seoul, South Korea.

A lieutenant is the junior most commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.

In 1978, Jeong was appointed Army Chief of Staff, the most dominant role in the South Korean military. On the evening of 26 October 1979, while Jeong was dining at the Blue House presidential compound, South Korean President Park Chung-hee was assassinated at another facility in the compound. The assassin, Kim Jae-gyu, immediately sought out Jeong with a view to having him take over the presidency. [2]

Blue House South Korean presidential residence

The Blue House is the executive office and official residence of the South Korean head of state, the President of the Republic of Korea, and is located in the capital city of Seoul. The Blue House is in fact a complex of buildings, built largely in the traditional Korean architectural style with some modern elements.

Park Chung-hee South Korean army general and the leader of South Korea from 1961 to 1979

Park Chung-hee was a South Korean politician and general who served as the President of South Korea from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, assuming that office after first ruling the country as head of a military dictatorship installed by the May 16 coup in 1961. Before his presidency, he was the chairman of the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction from 1961 to 1963 after a career as a military leader in the South Korean army.

Park Chung-hee, President of South Korea, was assassinated on October 26, 1979 during a dinner at a Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) safehouse inside the Blue House presidential compound, in Gangjeong-dong, Seoul. Kim Jae-gyu, then the director of KCIA and the president's security chief, was responsible for the assassination. Park was shot in the chest and head, and died almost immediately. Four bodyguards and a presidential chauffeur were also killed. The incident is often referred to as "10.26" or the "10.26 incident" in South Korea.

Instead, an emergency cabinet meeting was convened at which Choi Kyu-hah, the prime minister, was declared acting president with Jeong implementing martial law. He plotted to exclude political soldiers such as the Hanahoe, an influential group of South Korean military officers. The group later instigated the Coup d'état of December Twelfth. As a result, key members of the Hanahoe, such as Chun Doo-hwan and Roh Tae-woo, arrested Jeong on suspicion of involvement in the assassination of Park. [3] [4]

Choi Kyu-hah 4th President of South Korea

Choi Kyu-hah, also spelled Choi Kyu-ha or Choi Gyu-ha, was President of South Korea between 1979 and 1980.

Hanahoe was an unofficial private group of military officers in South Korea headed by Chun Doo-hwan, who later became the South Korean president. The members were mostly graduates of the eleventh class of the Korean Military Academy in 1955. Hanahoe formed the core of the group that eventually took control of the presidency and government from Choe Gyuha, ending the Fourth Republic.

The Coup d'état of December Twelfth or the "12.12 Military Insurrection" was a military coup d'état which took place on December 12, 1979, in South Korea.

As a punishment, Jeong was reduced in rank to private and sentenced to life imprisonment. In 1997, 17 years after the coup d'état, Jeong was cleared of any involvement in the death of Park by the Seoul District Court. He was restored to his general officer rank and received pay that had been forfeited at the time of his sentencing. [5] He died on 12 June 2002 in Seoul. [1]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Chung Sung-Hwa". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  2. Wickham 1999, p. 12.
  3. Oberdorfer 2007, pp. 114–117.
  4. Chun Sung-woo (28 July 2010). "Ex-general who tried to repress coup in 1979 dies". Korea Herald . Retrieved 31 July 2010.
  5. Wickham 1999, p. 73.

Related Research Articles

Fourth Republic of Korea Fourth republican system of Republic of Korea, established by October Yusin

The Fourth Republic was the government of South Korea between 1972 and 1981, regulated by the Yusin Constitution adopted in October 1972 and confirmed in a referendum on 21 November 1972. From 1972 to 1979, power was monopolized by Park Chung Hee and his Democratic Republican Party under the highly centralized authoritarian "Yusin System". With the assassination of Park on 26 October 1979, the Republic entered a period of tumult and transition under the short-lived nominal presidency of Choi Kyu-hah, controlled under severe escalating martial law and witnessing the coup d'état of December Twelfth, the violent unfolding of the Gwangju Democratization Movement and its armed suppression, the coup d'état of May Seventeenth and presidency of Chun Doo-hwan, and finally the transition to the Fifth Republic under Chun in 1981.

The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) (민주정의당) was the ruling party of South Korea from 1980 to 1988. It was formed in 1980 as the Democratic Republican Party and was the political vehicle for Chun Doo-hwan.

The Republic of Korea Armed Forces's Defense Security Command (DSC) was founded as the "Army Counterintelligence Corps(Special Operation Forces)" on October 21, 1950, and it functioned as the primary organization within the military charged with internal security, preservation of loyalty to the regime, and deterrence and investigation of subversion.

South Korea at the 2006 Asian Games

South Korea participated in the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, Qatar on 1 – 15 December 2006. South Korea ranked 2nd with 58 gold medals in this edition of the Asiad. It marched together with North Korea at the opening ceremony under the Korean Unification Flag, but both countries competed as separate teams at the event.

The June Struggle, also known as the June Democracy Movement and June Democratic Uprising was a nationwide democracy movement in South Korea that generated mass protests from June 10 to June 29, 1987. The demonstrations forced the ruling government to hold elections and institute other democratic reforms which led to the establishment of the Sixth Republic, the present day government of South Korea.

South Korea at the 2010 Asian Games

The Republic of Korea participated in the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China on 12–27 November 2010.

Jang Tae-wan was an army general and politician of South Korea.

The Coup d'état of May Seventeenth was a military coup d'état carried out in South Korea by general Chun Doo-hwan and Hanahoe that followed the Coup d'état of December Twelfth.

<i>5th Republic</i> (TV series) television series

5th Republic is a 2005 South Korean television series that aired on MBC from April 23 to September 1, 2005 on Saturdays and Sundays at 21:40 for 41 episodes. It depicted the Fifth Republic of South Korea, during which Chun Doo-hwan was president from 1981 to 1988, from his rise to power through a military coup to his downfall after a series of democratic movements, such as the Gwangju uprising and the June Democratic Uprising. It was a politically and socially turbulent era in the country's history, which generated controversy for the drama series.

<i>The Kings Doctor</i> 2012 South Korean television series

The King's Doctor is a 2012 South Korean television series depicting Baek Gwang-hyeon (1625–1697), Joseon Dynasty veterinarian, starring Cho Seung-woo and Lee Yo-won. It aired on MBC from October 1, 2012 to March 25, 2013 on Mondays and Tuesdays at 21:55 for 50 episodes. The historical/period epic drama commemorated MBC's 51st anniversary.

Kim Young-sam South Korean politician

Kim Young-sam was a South Korean politician and democratic activist, who served as President of South Korea from 1993 to 1998. From 1961, he spent almost 30 years as one of the leaders of the South Korean opposition, and one of the most powerful rivals to the authoritarian regimes of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan.

Events from the year 1979 in South Korea.

Events from the year 1980 in South Korea.

<i>Quiz of God</i> South Korean television series

Quiz of God is a South Korean television series broadcast on cable channel OCN. It was the first medical/forensic crime investigation drama to air in Korea. The series follows genius but eccentric neurosurgeon and forensic doctor Han Jin-woo and his team as they solve suspicious deaths and unravel mysteries involving rare diseases.

Chun Doo-hwan Korean politician and army general

Chun Doo-hwan is a South Korean politician and former South Korean army general who served as the President of South Korea from 1980 to 1988, ruling as an unelected coup leader from December 1979 to September 1980 and as elected president from 1980 to 1988. Chun was sentenced to death in 1996 for his role in the Gwangju Massacre but was later pardoned by President Kim Young-sam, with the advice of then President-elect Kim Dae-jung, whom Chun's administration had sentenced to death some 20 years earlier.

References