Jeremiah

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Jeremiah
Michelangelo Buonarroti 027.jpg
Jeremiah, as depicted by Michelangelo from the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Bornc. 650 BC
Diedc. 570 BC
Occupation Prophet
Parent(s) Hilkiah

Jeremiah [lower-alpha 1] (c. 650 – c. 570 BC), [2] also called the "weeping prophet", [3] was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. According to Jewish tradition, Jeremiah authored the Book of Jeremiah, the Books of Kings and the Book of Lamentations, [4] with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple.

Contents

In addition to proclaiming many prophecies of Yahweh, the God of Israel, the Book of Jeremiah goes into detail regarding the prophet's private life, his experiences, and his imprisonment. [5]

Judaism considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its canon, and regards Jeremiah as the second of the major prophets. Christianity and Islam also regard Jeremiah as a prophet. His words are quoted in the New Testament [6] and his narrative is recounted in Islamic tradition. [7]

Biblical narrative

Chronology

Jeremiah by Enrico Glicenstein Jeremiah by Enrico Glicenstein.jpg
Jeremiah by Enrico Glicenstein

Jeremiah was active as a prophet from the thirteenth year of Josiah, king of Judah (626 BC [8] ), until after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in 587 BC. [9] This period spanned the reigns of five kings of Judah: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah. [8] The prophetess Huldah was a relative and contemporary of Jeremiah while the prophet Zephaniah was his mentor. [10]

Lineage and early life

Jeremiah was the son of Hilkiah, a kohen (Jewish priest) from the Benjamite village of Anathoth. [11] The difficulties he encountered, as described in the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations, have prompted scholars to refer to him as "the weeping prophet". [12]

Jeremiah was called to prophecy c. 626 BC [13] by God to proclaim Jerusalem's coming destruction [14] by invaders from the north. [15] This was because Israel had forsaken God by worshiping the idols of Baal [16] and burning their children as offerings to Baal. [17] The nation had deviated so far from God's laws that they had broken the covenant, causing God to withdraw his blessings. Jeremiah was guided by God to proclaim that the nation of Judah would suffer famine, foreign conquest, plunder, and captivity in a land of strangers. [18]

Calling

Horace Vernet, Jeremiah on the ruins of Jerusalem (1844) SA 160-Jeremia op de puinhopen van Jeruzalem.jpg
Horace Vernet, Jeremiah on the ruins of Jerusalem (1844)

According to Jeremiah 1:2–3, the LORD called Jeremiah to prophecy in about 626 BC, [13] about five years before Josiah king of Judah turned the nation toward repentance from idolatrous practices. [19] According to the Books of Kings and Jeremiah, Josiah's reforms were insufficient to save Judah and Jerusalem from destruction, because of the sins of Manasseh, Josiah's grandfather, [20] and Judah's lustful return to the idolatry of foreign gods after Josiah's death. [21] Jeremiah was said to have been appointed to reveal the sins of the people and the punishment to come. [22] [23]

Jeremiah resisted the call by complaining that he was only a child and did not know how to speak, [24] but the Lord placed the word in Jeremiah's mouth, [25] commanding "Get yourself ready!" [26] The qualities of a prophet listed in Jeremiah 1 include not being afraid, standing up to speak, speaking as told, and going where sent. [27] Since Jeremiah is described as emerging well trained and fully literate from his earliest preaching, his relationship with the Shaphan family has been used to suggest that he may have trained at the scribal school in Jerusalem over which Shaphan presided. [28] [29]

In his early years of being a prophet, Jeremiah was primarily a preaching prophet, [30] preaching throughout Israel. [29] He condemned idolatry, the greed of priests, and false prophets. [31] Many years later, God instructed Jeremiah to write down these early oracles and his other messages. [32]

Persecution

Rembrandt van Rijn, Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem, c. 1630 Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn - Jeremia treurend over de verwoesting van Jeruzalem - Google Art Project.jpg
Rembrandt van Rijn, Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem, c. 1630

Jeremiah's prophecies prompted plots against him. [Jeremiah 11:21–23] Unhappy with Jeremiah's message, possibly from concern that it would shut down the Anathoth sanctuary, his priestly kin and the men of Anathoth conspired to kill him. However, the Lord revealed the conspiracy to Jeremiah, protected his life, and declared disaster for the men of Anathoth. [29] [Jeremiah 11:18–2:6] When Jeremiah complains to the Lord about this persecution, he is told that the attacks on him will become worse. [33]

A priest, Pashur the son of ben Immer, a temple official in Jerusalem, had Jeremiah beaten and put in the stocks at the Upper Gate of Benjamin for a day. After this, Jeremiah laments the travails and mockery that speaking God's word have caused him. [Jeremiah 20:7] He recounts how, if he tries to shut God's word inside, it burns in his heart and he is unable to hold it in. [Jeremiah 20:9]

Conflict with false prophets

While Jeremiah was prophesying the coming destruction, he denounced a number of other prophets who were prophesying peace. [Jeremiah 6:13–15] [14:14–16] [23:9–40] [27:1–28:17] [2:14]

According to the book of Jeremiah, during the reign of King Zedekiah, the Lord instructed Jeremiah to make a yoke with the message that the nation would be subject to the king of Babylon. The prophet Hananiah took the yoke off Jeremiah's neck and broke it, prophesying that within two years the Lord would break the yoke of the king of Babylon, but Jeremiah prophesied in return: "You have broken the yoke of wood, but you have made instead a yoke of iron." [Jeremiah 28:13]

Relationship with the Northern Kingdom (Samaria)

Jeremiah was sympathetic to, as well as descended from, the northern Kingdom of Israel. Many of his first reported oracles are about, and addressed to, the Israelites at Samaria. He resembles the northern prophet Hosea in his use of language and examples of God's relationship to Israel. Hosea seems to have been the first prophet to describe the desired relationship as an example of ancient Israelite marriage, where a man might be polygamous, while a woman was only permitted one husband. Jeremiah often repeats Hosea's marital imagery. [34] [35]

Babylon

The biblical narrative portrays Jeremiah as being subject to additional persecutions. After Jeremiah prophesied that Jerusalem would be handed over to the Babylonian army, the king's officials, including Pashur the priest, tried to convince King Zedekiah that Jeremiah should be put to death for disheartening the soldiers and the people. Zedekiah allowed them, and they cast Jeremiah into a cistern, where he sank down into the mud. The intent seemed to be to kill Jeremiah by starvation, while allowing the officials to claim to be innocent of his blood. [36] A Cushite rescued Jeremiah by pulling him out of the cistern, but Jeremiah remained imprisoned until Jerusalem fell to the Babylonian army in 587 BC. [Jeremiah 38]

The Babylonians released Jeremiah, and showed him great kindness, allowing him to choose the place of his residence, according to a Babylonian edict. Jeremiah accordingly went to Mizpah in Benjamin with Gedaliah, who had been made governor of Judea. [Jeremiah 40:5–6]

Egypt

Johanan succeeded Gedaliah, who had been assassinated by an Israelite prince in the pay of Ammon "for working with the Babylonians." Refusing to listen to Jeremiah's counsel, Johanan fled to Egypt, taking with him Jeremiah and Baruch, Jeremiah's faithful scribe and servant, and the king's daughters. [Jeremiah 43:1–13] There, the prophet probably spent the remainder of his life, still seeking in vain to turn the people back to God. [Jeremiah 43:1–13] There is no authentic record of his death.

Religious views

Judaism

In Jewish rabbinic literature, especially the aggadah, Jeremiah and Moses are often mentioned together, [37] their life and works being presented in parallel lines. The following ancient midrash is especially interesting, in connection with Deuteronomy 18:18, in which "a prophet like Moses" is promised: "As Moses was a prophet for forty years, so was Jeremiah; as Moses prophesied concerning Judah and Benjamin, so did Jeremiah; as Moses' own tribe [the Levites under Korah] rose up against him, so did Jeremiah's tribe revolt against him; Moses was cast into the water, Jeremiah into a pit; as Moses was saved by a slave (the slave of Pharaoh's daughter); so, Jeremiah was rescued by a slave (Ebed-melech); Moses reprimanded the people in discourses; so did Jeremiah." [38] The prophet Ezekiel was a son of Jeremiah according to rabbinic literature. [39] In 2 Maccabees 2:4ff the subject is credited with hiding the Ark, incense altar, and tabernacle on the mountain of Moses. [40]

Christianity

The Book of Jeremiah plays a foundational role in Christian thought as it presages the inauguration of a new covenant, [Jeremiah 31:31] to which the New Testament testifies. There are about forty direct quotations of the book in the New Testament, most appearing in Revelation in connection with the destruction of Babylon. [41]

Of the Gospel writers, Matthew is especially mindful of how the events in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus fulfill Jeremianic prophecies. [Matthew 2:17] [27:9–10] The letter to the Hebrews also picks up the fulfilment of the prophetic expectation of the new covenant. [Hebrews 8:8-12] [10:16–17] )

Islam

Jeremiah in the wilderness (top left); Jonah and the fish; Uzeyr awakened after the destruction of Jerusalem. Ottoman Turkish miniature, 16th century. Jonah and the fish Jeremiah in wilderness Uzeyr awakened after the destruction of Jerusalem.JPG
Jeremiah in the wilderness (top left); Jonah and the fish; Uzeyr awakened after the destruction of Jerusalem. Ottoman Turkish miniature, 16th century.

As with many other prophets of the Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah is also regarded as a prophet in Islam. Although Jeremiah is not mentioned in the Quran, Muslim exegesis and literature narrates many instances from the life of Jeremiah and fleshes out his narrative, which closely corresponds with the account given in the Hebrew Bible. In Arabic, Jeremiah's name is usually vocalised Irmiyā, Armiyā or Ūrmiyā. [43] Classical historians such as Wahb ibn Munabbih gave accounts of Jeremiah which turned "upon the main points of the Old Testament story of Jeremiah: his call to be a prophet, his mission to the king of Judah, his mission to the people and his reluctance, the announcement of a foreign tyrant who is to rule over Judah." [7] Moreover, some hadiths and tafsirs narrate that the Parable of the Hamlet in Ruins is about Jeremiah. [44] Also, in Sura 17(Al-Isra), Ayah 4–7, that is about the two corruptions of children of Israel on the earth, some hadith and tafsir cite that one of these corruptions is the imprisonment and persecution of Jeremiah.

Muslim literature narrates a detailed account of the destruction of Jerusalem, which parallels the account given in the Book of Jeremiah. [45]

Historicity

The consensus is that there was a historical prophet named Jeremiah and that portions of the book probably were written by Jeremiah and/or his scribe Baruch.

Views range from the belief that the narratives and poetic sections in Jeremiah are contemporary with his life (W. L. Holladay), to the view that the work of the original prophet is beyond identification or recovery (R. P. Carroll). [46] [47]

See the extensive analysis in Albertz 2003 , pp. 302–344. First there were early collections of oracles, including material in ch. 2–6, 8-10, 13, 21–23, etc. Then there was an early Deuteronomistic redaction which Albertz dates to around 550 BC, with the original ending to the book at 25:13. There was a second redaction around 545-540 BC which added much more material, up to about ch. 45. Then there was a third redaction around 525–520 BC, expanding the book up to the ending at 51:64. Then there were further post-exilic redactions adding ch. 52 and editing content throughout the book.

Although Jeremiah was often thought of traditionally as the author of the Book of Lamentations, this is probably a collection of individual and communal laments composed at various times throughout the Babylonian captivity. Albertz considers ch. 2 as the oldest, dating shortly after the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) and ch. 5 after the assassination of Gedaliah, with the other chapters added later (p. 160).

Archaeology

Nebo-Sarsekim tablet

In July 2007, Assyrologist Michael Jursa translated a cuneiform tablet dated to 595 BC, as describing a Nabusharrussu-ukin as "the chief eunuch" of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. Jursa hypothesized that this reference might be to the same individual as the Nebo-Sarsekim mentioned in Jeremiah 39:3 . [48] [49]

Seals

A 7th-century BCE seal of Jehucal, son of Shelemiah and another of Gedaliah, son of Pashhur (mentioned together in Jeremiah 38:1; Jehucal also mentioned in Jeremiah 37:3) were found during excavation by Eilat Mazar in the city of David, Jerusalem, in 2005 and 2008, respectively. [50]

Tel Arad ostraca

Pottery shards at Tel Arad were unearthed in the 1970s that mention Pashhur, and this reference may be the same individual mentioned in Jeremiah 20:1 . [51]

Cultural influence

Jeremiah inspired the French noun jérémiade, and subsequently the English jeremiad, meaning "a lamentation; mournful complaint," [52] or further, "a cautionary or angry harangue." [53]

Jeremiah has periodically been a popular first name in the United States, beginning with the early Puritan settlers, who often took the names of biblical prophets and apostles. Jeremiah was substituted for the Irish Diarmuid/Diarmaid (also anglicised as Dermot), with which it has no etymological connection, when Gaelic names were frowned upon in official records. The name Jeremy also derives from Jeremiah.

Related Research Articles

Book of Jeremiah Book of the Bible

The Book of Jeremiah is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. The superscription at chapter Jeremiah 1:1–3 identifies the book as "the words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah". Of all the prophets, Jeremiah comes through most clearly as a person, ruminating to his scribe Baruch about his role as a servant of God with little good news for his audience. His book is intended as a message to the Jews in exile in Babylon, explaining the disaster of exile as God's response to Israel's pagan worship: the people, says Jeremiah, are like an unfaithful wife and rebellious children, their infidelity and rebelliousness made judgment inevitable, although restoration and a new covenant are foreshadowed. Authentic oracles of Jeremiah are probably to be found in the poetic sections of chapters 1 –25, but the book as a whole has been heavily edited and added to by the prophet's followers and later generations of Deuteronomists. It has come down in two distinct though related versions, one in Hebrew, the other known from a Greek translation. The date of the two can be suggested by the fact that the Greek shows concerns typical of the early Persian period, while the Masoretic shows perspectives which, although known in the Persian period, did not reach their realisation until the 2nd century BCE.

Isaiah Israelite prophet

Isaiah was the 8th-century BC Israelite prophet after whom the Book of Isaiah is named.

Zephaniah Person in the bible

Zephaniah is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tanakh; the most prominent one being the prophet who prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah and is attributed a book bearing his name among the Twelve Minor Prophets. His name is commonly transliterated Sophonias in Bibles translated from the Vulgate or Septuagint. The name might mean "YHWH (YH), phonetically (IAH), has concealed", "[he whom] YH has hidden", or "YH lies in wait".

Babylonian captivity Period in Jewish history during which inhabitants of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon under the Neo-Babylonian Empire

The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.

Zedekiah

Zedekiah also known as Tzidkiyahu originally called Mattanyahu or Mattaniah, was the twentieth and last king of Judah before the destruction of the kingdom by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. Zedekiah had been installed as king of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon, after a siege of Jerusalem in 597 BC, to succeed his nephew, Jehoiachin, who was overthrown as king after a reign of only three months and ten days.

Jehoiakim

Jehoiakim, also sometimes spelled Jehoikim was the eighteenth and antepenultimate king of Judah from 609 to 598 BC. He was the second son of king Josiah and Zebidah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. His birth name was Eliakim.

Josiah Sixteenth king of Judah

Josiah or Yoshiyahu was the sixteenth king of Judah who, according to the Hebrew Bible, instituted major religious reforms. Josiah is credited by most biblical scholars with having established or compiled important Hebrew scriptures during the "Deuteronomic reform" which probably occurred during his rule. Josiah became king of the Kingdom of Judah at the age of eight, after the assassination of his father, King Amon. Josiah reigned for thirty-one years, from 641/640 to 610/609 BCE.

The Deuteronomist, abbreviated as either Dtr or simply D, may refer either to the source document underlying the core chapters (12–26) of the Book of Deuteronomy, or to the broader "school" that produced all of Deuteronomy as well as the Deuteronomistic history of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings and also the book of Jeremiah. The adjectives "Deuteronomic" and "Deuteronomistic" are sometimes used interchangeably; if they are distinguished, then the first refers to the core of Deuteronomy and the second to all of Deuteronomy and the history.

Micah (prophet) Prophet in Judaism

According to the Hebrew Bible, Micah was a prophet in Judaism and is the author of the Book of Micah. He is considered one of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Hebrew Bible and was a contemporary of the prophets Isaiah, Amos and Hosea. Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah.

Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) Siege of Jerusalem in 587 or 586 BC

In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II laid siege to Jerusalem, culminating in the destruction of the city and its temple in the summer of 587 according to Albright, or 586 BC according to Thiele. In 2004, Rodger Young published an analysis in which he identified 587 BC for the end of the siege, based on details from the Bible and neo-Babylonian sources for related events. Whereas the Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle provides information about the siege of Jerusalem in 597 BC, the only known records of the siege that culminated in Jerusalem's destruction are found in the Hebrew Bible.

Jeremiah 1

Jeremiah 1 is the first chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book, one of the Nevi'im or Books of the Prophets, contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah. This chapter serves as an introduction to the Book of Jeremiah and relates Jeremiah's calling as a prophet.

Jeremiah 39

Jeremiah 39 is the thirty-ninth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 46 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is part of a narrative section consisting of chapters 37 to 44. Chapter 39 records the fall of Jerusalem, verses 1-10, and Jeremiah's fate, verses 11–18.

2 Kings 25

2 Kings 25 is the twenty-fifth chapter of the second part of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter records the events during the reign of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, the fall of Jerusalem, the governorship of Gedaliah and the release of Jehoiachin from prison in Babylon.

Ezekiel 19

Ezekiel 19 is the nineteenth chapter of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet/priest Ezekiel, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter contains a kinah or lamentation for the rulers of Israel. Two princes are lamented, one captured and carried to Egypt, i.e. Jehoahaz, son and successor of Josiah, and another carried to Babylon, who must be Jehoiachin.

Jeremiah 25

Jeremiah 25 is the twenty-fifth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. Chapter 25 is the final chapter in the first section of the Book of Jeremiah, which deals with the earliest and main core of Jeremiah's message. In this chapter, Jeremiah identified the length of the time of exile as seventy years.

Jeremiah 26

Jeremiah 26 is the twenty-sixth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 33 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter contains an exhortation to repentance, causing Jeremiah to be apprehended and arraigned ; he gives his apology, resulting the princes to clear him by the example of Micah and of Urijah, and by the care of Ahikam.

Jeremiah 28

Jeremiah 28 is the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The material found in Jeremiah 28 of the Hebrew Bible appears in Jeremiah 35 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter contains a confrontation between prophets Jeremiah and Hananiah: Hananiah's false prophecy is responded by Jeremiah's answer, Jeremiah 28:1-9. Hananiah breaks Jeremiah's yoke, Jeremiah foretells an iron yoke, and Hananiah's death, Jeremiah 28:10-17.

Jeremiah 34

Jeremiah 34 is the thirty-fourth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 41 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter anticipates the final moments in the assault of the Babylonian army against Jerusalem, when Jeremiah foretold the destruction of the city and the captivity of King Zedekiah, and sharply criticized the treacherous dealings of the princes and people with the slaves that provoked the punishment from God.

Jeremiah 35

Jeremiah 35 is the thirty-fifth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 42 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter records the meeting of Jeremiah with the Rechabites, a nomadic clan, in which the prophet "contrast[s] their faithfulness to the commands of a dead ancestor with the faithlessness of the people of Judah to the commands of a living God".

Jeremiah 37

Jeremiah 37 is the thirty-seventh chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 44 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is the start of a narrative section consisting of chapters 37 to 44. Chapter 37 records King Zedekiah's request for prayer, Jeremiah's reply to the king, and Jeremiah's arrest and imprisonment.

References

Notes

  1. /ˌɛrɪˈm.ə/ ; [1] Hebrew: יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern: Yīrməyahū  [jiʁmiˈjahu] , Tiberian: Yīrəməyāhū; Greek: Ἰερεμίας, romanized: Ieremíās; meaning "Yah Exalts"

Citations

  1. Wells 1990, p. 383.
  2. "Jeremiah". Encyclopedia Britannica .
  3. Hillers 1993, p. 419.
  4. Hillers 1972, pp. xix–xxiv.
  5. Jeremiah 32:6–25, Jeremiah 37:15–18, Jeremiah 38:6
  6. Matthew 2:18 , Hebrews 8:8–12 , Hebrews 10:16–17
  7. 1 2 Wensinck 1913–1936.
  8. 1 2 Douglas 1987, p. 559–560.
  9. Sweeney 2004, p. 917.
  10. Singer 1926, p. 100,130.
  11. Jeremiah 1:1
  12. Henderson 2002, pp. 191–206.
  13. 1 2 Longman 2008, p. 6.
  14. Jeremiah 1:14–16
  15. Jeremiah 4
  16. Jeremiah 2, Jeremiah 3, Jeremiah 5, Jeremiah 9
  17. Jeremiah 19:4–5
  18. Jeremiah 10,Jeremiah 11
  19. 2 Kings 22:3–13
  20. 2 Kings 23:26–27
  21. Jeremiah 11:10, 2 Kings 23:32
  22. Jeremiah 1:1–2:37
  23. Ryken 2001, p. 19-36.
  24. Freedman 1992, p. 686.
  25. Jeremiah 1:6–9
  26. Jeremiah 1:17
  27. Jeremiah 1:4–10, Jeremiah 1:17–19
  28. {{bibleverse|2 Kings|22:8–10|HE}
  29. 1 2 3 Freedman 1992, p. 687.
  30. Jeremiah 1:7
  31. Jeremiah 3:12–23,Jeremiah 4:1–4, Jeremiah 6:13–14
  32. Jeremiah 36:1–10
  33. Sweeney 2004, p. 950.
  34. Jeremiah 2:2, Jeremiah 2:3, Jeremiah 3:1–5,Jeremiah 3:19–25, Jeremiah 4:1–2
  35. Anon. 1971, p. 126.
  36. Barker, Youngblood & Stek 1995, p. 1544.
  37. This article incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia , a publication now in the public domain.
  38. Pesiqta, ed. Buber, xiii. 112a.
  39. "EZEKIEL – JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com.
  40. Collins 1972, pp. 101–.
  41. Dillard & Longman 1994, p. 339.
  42. Renda 1978.
  43. see Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, x. 157.
  44. Tafsir al-Qurtubi, vol. 3, p. 188; Tafsir al-Qummi, vol. 1, p. 117.
  45. Tabari, i, 646ff.
  46. Anon. 1971, p. 125.
  47. Marsh 2018.
  48. Reynolds 2007.
  49. Hobbins 2007.
  50. Kantrowitz 2012.
  51. "Arad-Canaanite city and Israelite citadel in the Negev – Site No. 6". Israeli Foreign Ministry. 20 Nov 2000. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  52. Anon. 1989, p. 766.
  53. "jeremiad". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-23.

Works cited

Further reading