Jesús González Ortega (Valparaíso, Zacatecas, January 20, 1822 - Saltillo, Coahuila, February 28, 1881) was a military man and Mexican politician; governor of Zacatecas and actively participated next to Benito Juárez in the War of Reform and during the French intervention in Mexico. He is notable for defending the city of Puebla from the French army March 16, 1863 to May 16, 1863. .
Valparaíso is a town in the north central Mexican state of Zacatecas.
Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital is the city of Puebla.
Ortega was born on January 20, 1822 in San Mateo, in Valparaíso, Zacatecas, he moved his residence to the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, where he began his law studies, same as for family reasons could not conclude. While still very young, he came to the town of San Juan Bautista of Teúl (today Teúl Gonzalez Ortega), where he served as a clerk at City Hall. Since his youth he was a fervent supporter of the Liberal Party.
Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas City.
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital city is Guadalajara. Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the characteristic traits of Mexican culture, particularly outside Mexico City, are originally from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, birria, tequila, jaripeo, etc., hence the state's motto: "Jalisco es México." Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The state is home to two significant indigenous populations, the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is also a significant foreign population, mostly retirees from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala and Puerto Vallarta areas.
Although González Ortega was not a career soldier, he was head of the army of President Juarez in 1860. In March 1861, he was appointed Minister of War, but due to differences with some cabinet members, he resigned but remained in command of the division of Zacatecas. In August 8, 1861 the Battle of San Felipe del Obraje took place under his command. Following the 1861 murders of Melchor Ocampo, Santos Degollado and Leandro Valle, he returned to Mexico City and was appointed president of the Supreme Court of the Nation, a position that placed the holder as successor to the president of the republic.
The Battle of San Felipe del Obraje took place on August 8, 1861 in Loma de Jalpa near the town of San Felipe del Obraje in the State of Mexico, Mexico, between elements of the liberal army, under the command of General Jesús González Ortega and elements of the conservative army during the Reform War. Although technically the war had ended with the victory of the Liberals and the entry of Benito Juárez to the capital, conservatives were trying to form strength to somehow beat the Liberals. The victory corresponded to the liberal side, so that conservatives were dispersed in Xalatlaco.
Melchor Ocampo was a mestizo by birth, a radical liberal Mexican lawyer, scientist, and politician. He was fiercely anticlerical, perhaps an atheist, and his early writings against Roman Catholic Church in Mexico gained him a reputation as an articulate liberal ideologue. Ocampo has been considered the heir to José María Luis Mora, the premier liberal intellectual of the early republic. He served in the administration of Benito Juárez and negotiated a controversial agreement with the United States, the McLane-Ocampo Treaty. His home state was much later renamed Michoacán de Ocampo in his honor.
José Santos Degollado Sánchez was a Mexican Liberal politician and military leader. During his service in the Mexican Army, Degollado fought against López de Santa Anna and later alongside Benito Juárez. He was deputy, and later governor of the state of Michoacán. During Benito Juárez's presidency he served as Secretary of War and Navy and as Secretary of External Affairs. Degollado was a colleague of Melchor Ocampo and fought by his side in many battles. His remains were interred at the Panteón de Dolores in Mexico City, in the Rotunda of Illustrious Persons on November 26, 1936.
When the French army invaded Mexico, the Eastern Army was in charge of General Ignacio Zaragoza, who defended the city of Puebla on May 5, 1862, González Ortega arrived in the city a day later. On the death of General Zaragoza, Jesús González Ortega was appointed by President Benito Juarez chief of the Eastern Army and instructed to defend the city of Puebla from the French army commanded by General Élie-Frédéric Forey again. The March 16, 1863, the French expeditionary army besieged the city, took place a battle that also generated heavy losses for both sides, the battle lasted two months, was on May 16 of that year when the French army had no weapons or ammunition and their strength was sharply reduced by the harsh battle,They surrendered to Ortega and his men of valor.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín was a Mexican general and politician. He led the Mexican army that defeated invading French forces at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862.
In early 1881, he received a letter of recognition from President Manuel González Flores, shortly after he died at his residence on January 28. His remains were transferred in April of that year to Mexico City, and deposited in the Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres.
Manuel del Refugio González Flores, commonly known as Manuel González, was a Mexican military general and liberal politician who served as the 31st President of Mexico from 1880 to 1884. Before initiating his presidential career, González played important roles in the Mexican–American War as a lieutenant, and later in the Reform War as general on the conservative side. In the French intervention in Mexico, González fought for the Mexican Republic under the command of General Porfirio Díaz. He supported Díaz's attempts to gain the presidency of Mexico, which succeeded in 1876. He served as Mexican Secretary of War in the Díaz administration from 1878 to 1879. Díaz could not be re-elected to the presidency in 1880, since the basis of his coup against Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada was the principle of no-reelection, so Díaz worked for the election of his political client González, who would be weak rival should Díaz run again. His presidency from 1880 to 1884 is marked by a number of major diplomatic and domestic achievements, which historian Friedrich Katz considers to be no less than "the profound transformation" of Mexico. Although the González presidency has been considered corrupt, that assessment is colored by the difficult financial circumstances in 1884 and by Díaz's campaign to discredit his successor, paving the way for his own re-election in 1884.
The Battle of Puebla took place on 5 May 1862, near Puebla City during the Second French intervention in Mexico. The battle ended in a victory for the Mexican Army over the occupying French soldiers. The French eventually overran the Mexicans in subsequent battles, but the Mexican victory at Puebla against a much better equipped and larger French army provided a significant morale boost to the Mexican army and also helped slow the French army's advance towards Mexico City.
The Second French Intervention in Mexico was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70). Initially supported by Britain and Spain, the French intervention in Mexico was a consequence of President Benito Juárez's two-year moratorium, on 17 July 1861, of loan-interest payments to French, British and Spanish creditors.
Huitzila is a small town in Mexico, located in the Sierra Madre Occidental in the far south of Zacatecas state, at 21°13'21.8" N, 103°36'26.5" W and at an elevation of some 1900 metres. It is part of the Municipality of Teul de González Ortega. It is often grouped with its close neighbour, Milpillas de Allende. The two towns are connected by road to Zacatecas, Guadalajara and Benito Juárez.
Benito Juárez Municipality is a Mexican municipality located in the southern extreme of the state of Zacatecas on the edge of the Canyon of Tlaltenango.
Juan Nepomuceno Méndez was a Mexican general, a Liberal politician and confidante of Porfirio Díaz, and interim president of the Republic for a few months during the Porfiriato. He served from 6 December 1876 until 17 February 1877.
Teúl de González Ortega Municipality is a town and municipality located in the south of the Mexican state of Zacatecas, between the state capital of Zacatecas and the city of Guadalajara. Unlike most of the rest of the state, its economy has been based on agriculture and livestock, rather than mining, and it is noted for its production of agave and mezcal. The town has been named a Pueblo Mágico to promote a tourism industry.
Felipe Berriozábal was a Mexican politician, engineer and military leader. He participated in the Reform War and in the fight against French Intervention in Mexico. He was a member of president Benito Juárez's cabinet, serving as Secretary of War and Secretary of Marine, Berriozábal also served during Porfirio Díaz's government. He was a commander of the Mexican Army and member of the Chamber of Deputies. His remains were buried at the Panteón de Dolores in Mexico City, in the Rotunda of Illustrious Persons on January 12, 1900; shortly after his death.
Luis Pérez Figueroa was a Mexican general who fought in the war of independence that followed the French intervention in Mexico.
The Battle of 2 de Abril was fought on April 2, 1867, in and around the city of Puebla, Puebla. It was one of the major military actions in the Franco-Mexican War between elements of the Mexican Army of the Republic commanded by General Porfirio Díaz and troops in the service of the Mexican Empire composed of Mexican imperialist soldiers.
Pedro Hinojosa de la Garza Falcón was a Mexican politician and military general who combated in the Mexican–American War, the Reform War, and in the French intervention in Mexico. In addition, Hinojosa was governor of Durango, Nuevo Leon, and Chihuahua, and served as Secretary of War and Navy.
The Battle of Barranca Seca was a battle of the Second French intervention in Mexico and took place right after the Battle of Puebla on 18 May 1862. Contrary to the latter it was won by the unified reactionist Mexican-French forces. The battle was preceded by a coup de chef of the reactionist forces, which was heated by the intrigue of the Spanish high command against Almonte and Márquez and French pressure towards the replacement of Zuloaga. After the battle Almonte remained the only contender for the Commander-in-Chief office within the reactionist party and Márquez as acting General; both of them serving French interests.
Events in the year 1862 in Mexico.
The Battle of Peñuelas took place on June 15, 1860 in the vicinity of Penuelas in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico, between elements of the liberal army, under the command of Gen. Jesus Gonzalez Ortega and elements of the conservative army commanded by General Silverio Ramirez during the War of Reform. The battle ended as liberal victory, leaving in a very compromising situation Miramon because this was amagado the south with the forces of Ignacio Zaragoza, in the north by Jesus González Ortega and from the east by Santos Degollado.
The Battle of Calpulalpan took place on December 22, 1860 during the War of Reform in the vicinity of the community of San Miguel de la Victoria in the municipality of Jilotepec de Abasolo in the State of Mexico, Mexico. It would be the last battle of the War of Reform (1858-1860).
The Regency of the Mexican Empire was a period of transition in the history of the Mexican monarchy in the absence of the Emperor of Mexico and presided by a president of the same during the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823) and the Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867). The regency is the government of a State during the minor age, absence or incapacity of its legitimate prince.