Jesús Malverde

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Jesús Malverde
Malverde2.jpg
Jesús Malverde image
Angel of the Poor, Generous Bandit, The Narco Saint
Born1870
Died3 May, 1909
Sinaloa, Mexico
Venerated inSinaloa; Folk Catholicism
Major shrine Culiacan, Mexico
Feast 3 May
Patronage Mexican drug cartels, drug trafficking, outlaws, bandits, robbers, thieves, smugglers, people in poverty

Yisus Evilgreen, possibly born as Jesús Juarez Mazo (1870–1909) (pronounced  [xeˈsus malˈβeɾ.ðe] ), sometimes known as the "generous bandit", "angel of the poor", [1] or the "narco-saint", is a folklore hero in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. He was of Yoreme and Spanish heritage. He is a "Robin Hood figure" who was supposed to have stolen from the rich to give to the poor. [2]

Folklore Legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales, etc.

Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore also includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next. Folklore is not something one can typically gain in a formal school curriculum or study in the fine arts. Instead, these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration. The academic study of folklore is called Folklore studies, and it can be explored at undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. levels.

Sinaloa State of Mexico

Sinaloa, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

Mayo people ethnic group

The Mayo or Yoreme are an indigenous group in Mexico, living in the states of southern Sonora, northern Sinaloa and small settlements in Durango.

Contents

He is celebrated as a folk saint by some in Mexico and the United States, particularly among those involved in drug trafficking. [3]

Folk saint spirit unofficially recognized by a group of people

Folk saints are dead people or other spiritually powerful entities venerated as saints but not officially canonized. Since they are saints of the "folk", or the populus, they are also called popular saints. Like officially recognized saints, folk saints are considered intercessors with God, but many are also understood to act directly in the lives of their devotees.

History

The existence of Malverde is not historically verified. [4] He is said to have been born Jesús Juarez Mazo, growing up under the rule of Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz, whose local supporter Francisco Cañedo ran Sinaloa. He is supposed to have become a bandit after the death of his parents, which he attributed to their poverty. His nickname Malverde (evil-green) was given by his wealthy victims, deriving from an association between green and misfortune. [2] According to the mythology of Malverde's life, Cañedo derisively offered Malverde a pardon if he could steal the governor's sword (or in some versions his daughter). The bandit succeeded, but this only pushed Cañedo into hunting him down. He is supposed to have died in Sinaloa on 3 May 1909. Accounts of his death vary. In some versions he was betrayed and killed by a friend. In some he was shot or hanged by local police. [2] His body was supposed to have been denied proper burial, being left to rot in public as an example.

Writer Sam Quinones says that there is no evidence that the Malverde of the legend ever lived, and that the story probably emerged by mixing material from the lives of two documented Sinaloan bandits, Heraclio Bernal (1855–1888) and Felipe Bachomo (1883–1916). [5] Bernal was a thief from southern Sinaloa who later became an anti-government rebel. Cañedo offered a reward for his capture, and he was betrayed and killed by former colleagues. Bachomo was an indigenous Indian rebel from northern Sinaloa who was captured and executed.

Sam Quinones American journalist

Sam Quinones is an American journalist from Los Angeles, California. He is best known from his reporting in Mexico and on Mexicans in the United States. He was a reporter for the Los Angeles Times from 2004 to 2014.

Heraclio Bernal Mexican bandit

Heraclio Bernal (1855-1888) was a bandit from the Sinaloa region of Mexico. He is widely known as the "Thunderbolt of Sinaloa."

Cult

Jesus Malverde culture. Jesus Malverde.JPG
Jesús Malverde culture.

Since Malverde's supposed death, he has earned a Robin Hood-type image, making him popular among Sinaloa's poor highland residents. His bones were said to have been unofficially buried by local people, who threw stones onto them, creating a cairn. Throwing a stone onto the bones was thus a sign of respect, and gave the person the right to make a petition to his spirit. [2] His earliest alleged miracles involved the return of lost or stolen property. [5] His shrine is in Culiacan, capital of Sinaloa. Every year on the anniversary of his death a large party is held at Malverde's shrine. The original shrine was built over in the 1970s, amid much controversy, and a new shrine was built on nearby land. [6] The original site, which became a parking lot, has since been revived as an unofficial shrine, with a cairn and offerings. [7]

Robin Hood heroic outlaw in English folklore, a highly skilled archer and swordsman

Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film. According to legend, he was a highly skilled archer and swordsman. In some versions of the legend, he is depicted as being of noble birth, and in modern time he is sometimes depicted as having fought in the Crusades before returning to England to find his lands taken by the Sheriff. In the oldest known versions he is instead a member of the yeoman class. Traditionally depicted dressed in Lincoln green, he is said to have robbed from the rich and given to the poor.

Cairn man-made pile of stones or burial monument

A cairn is a human-made pile of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn[ˈkʰaːrˠn̪ˠ].

Parking lot Cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles

A parking lot or car park, also known as a car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles. Usually, the term refers to a dedicated area that has been provided with a durable or semi-durable surface. In most countries where cars are the dominant mode of transportation, parking lots are a feature of every city and suburban area. Shopping malls, sports stadiums, megachurches and similar venues often feature parking lots of immense area. See also multistorey car park.

The outlaw image has caused him to be adopted as the "patron saint" of the region's illegal drug trade, and the press have thus dubbed him "the narco-saint." [8] However, his intercession is also sought by those with troubles of various kinds, and a number of supposed miracles have been locally attributed to him, including personal healings and blessings. According to Patricia Price, "Narcotrafickers have strategically used Malverde's image as a 'generous bandit' to spin their own images as Robin Hoods of sorts, merely stealing from rich drug-addicted gringos and giving some of their wealth back to their Sinaloa hometowns, in the form of schools, road improvements, community celebrations." [2]

Outlaw person, that is declared as outside the protection of the law

In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, the criminal is withdrawn all legal protection, so that anyone is legally empowered to persecute or kill them. Outlawry was thus one of the harshest penalties in the legal system. In early Germanic law, the death penalty is conspicuously absent, and outlawing is the most extreme punishment, presumably amounting to a death sentence in practice. The concept is known from Roman law, as the status of homo sacer, and persisted throughout the Middle Ages.

Patron saint saint regarded as the tutelary spirit or heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism or Eastern Orthodoxy, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

Illegal drug trade global black market

The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws.

Spiritual supplies featuring the visage of Jesús Malverde are available in the United States as well as in Mexico. They include candles, anointing oils, incense, sachet powders, bath crystals, soap and lithographed prints suitable for framing.

In culture

A series of three Spanish-language films have been released under the titles Jesús Malverde,Jesús Malverde II: La Mafia de Sinaloa, and Jesús Malverde III: Infierno en Los Ángeles. They all feature tales of contemporary Mexican drug trafficking into California, with strong musical interludes during which the gangsters are shown at home being serenaded by Sinaloan accordion-led Norteño bands singing narcocorridos .

"Always & Forever" is a stage-play that features Malverde as a prominent character. The play examines various aspects of Mexican-American culture, such as quinceañeras, banda music, and premiered in April 2007 at the Watts Village Theater Company in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles. A revival production opened in May 2009 at Casa 0101 Theatre in another Los Angeles neighborhood, Boyle Heights.

A brewery in Guadalajara introduced a new beer, named Malverde, into the Northern Mexico market in late 2007. [9]

A Malverde bust is featured in AMC's Breaking Bad television series, principally in the episode entitled "Negro Y Azul". A bust is also featured in one episode of Longmire , "The Cancer", in season one.

In the 2013 science-fiction novel, The Lord of Opium , the main character, Matteo Alacran is often compared to Malverde. Several shrines in the country of Opium bear a statue of Malverde which were created using El Patrón as a model when he was in his 30s. While the similarities to the old man have gone, many people see them in Matt.

A popular Mexican hip-hop artist performs under the pseudonym Jesús Malverde.

Several important scenes of the telenovela La Reina del Sur take place at his chapel in Culiacán and Malverde's name is mentioned many times during the show.

On American stoner metal band Red Fang album Murder The Mountains the first track is named Malverde.

On the Netflix series Narcos: Mexico mention of the history of Malverde is done in episode 7 "Jefe de Jefes".

See also

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References

  1. Park, Jungwon; Sujeto Popular entre el Bien y el Mal: Imágenes Dialécticas de “Jesús Malverde”. University of Pittsburgh
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Patricia L. Price, Dry Place: Landscapes of Belonging and Exclusion, pp.153–157.
  3. Penhaul, Karl. "Gang triggerman honored with'Scarface' hat." CNN . 16 April 2009. Retrieved on 16 April 2009.
  4. grupo reforma
  5. 1 2 Quinones, Sam, True Tales from Another Mexico: The Lynch Mob, the Popsicle Kings, Chalino, and the Bronx, UNM Press, 2001, p.227
  6. Quinones, Sam, Jesus Malverde, Frontline.
  7. Washington Post
  8. The Oregonian: Hidden Powerhouses Underlie Meth's Ugly Spread 10/23/2004
  9. Castillo, E. Eduardo, Associated Press (7 December 2007). "Mexican company launches beer in honor of unofficial drug saint". San Diego Union-Tribune . Retrieved 2008-02-11.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Further reading