Jia Chunwang

Last updated

Jia Chunwang
贾春旺
Procurator–General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate
In office
2003–2008
Preceded by Han Zhubin
Succeeded by Cao Jianming
Minister of Public Security
In office
1998–2002
Preceded by Tao Siju
Succeeded by Zhou Yongkang
Minister of State Security
In office
September 1985 March 1998
Preceded by Ling Yun
Succeeded by Xu Yongyue
Personal details
BornMay 1938 (age 83)
Beijing, Republic of China
Political party Communist Party of China
Alma mater Tsinghua University

Jia Chunwang (simplified Chinese :贾春旺; traditional Chinese :賈春旺; pinyin :Jiǎ Chūnwàng; born May 1938) is a high-ranking official of the Communist Party of China who held top positions in both the security apparatus and the judiciary of the People's Republic of China. [1] He served as Minister of State Security for 13 consecutive years (1985–1998), as Minister of Public Security (1998–2002) and finally as Procurator–General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate (2003–2008), a post roughly equivalent to Attorney General in the United States and Prosecutor General in Russia.

Contents

The longest-serving Minister of State Security so far, he is also regarded as the most influential, greatly expanding the size, budget and capabilities of the MSS during a pivotal time, which saw tactical collaboration with the American CIA in arming, training and funding Afghan guerrillas against the Soviets, the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown, the end of the Cold War and the subsequent establishment of good relations with Russia, and the handover of Hong Kong from British to Chinese control. [2] [3]

Biography

Jia, a native of Beijing, was born in May 1938 and studied at Tsinghua University, graduating with a degree in nuclear physics. [1] He joined the Communist Party of China in 1962, and in 1964 he began teaching physics at Tsinghua University, while at the same time being active in the Communist Party branch within the university. [1] In some foreign newspaper articles during the 1980s and 1990s, he was incorrectly referred to as an engineer; for example, in 1991 the New York Times described him thus: "the nation's spymaster, Jia Chunwang, who is Minister of State Security, is a 53-year-old English-speaking engineer". [4] This confusion derived from the fact that the Tsinghua faculty from which Jia graduated was called the "Department of Engineering Physics", although Jia actually completed the nuclear physics program.

In 1966, at the start of the Cultural Revolution, he was attacked and beaten up by Red Guards, dismissed from the university, and sent to work in rural farms. [1] In 1972 he returned to Tsinghua and became a professor of physics, as well as Director of the university's Political Department. He steadily rose within the Communist Party and was eventually named Party Secretary of Beijing's Haidian District. In 1984, he became Secretary of the Beijing branch of the powerful Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (the Party's internal watchdog). [1]

In 1985 he was appointed Minister of State Security, thus overseeing China's most important intelligence and security agency, responsible for foreign intelligence, counter-intelligence and regime protection. He remained on this post for 13 years, until 1998, the longest tenure in the Ministry's history so far. [1] In 1998 he was moved to the Ministry of Public Security (supervising regular police and security forces) where he remained until 2002, while also being named Political Commissar of the People's Armed Police. [1]

Finally, he served as Deputy Procurator–General (2002–2003) and Procurator–General (2003–2008) of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, thus being China's highest-ranked prosecutor. [1] In 2006, he was elected President of the International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. [1]

Jia was described as low-key and self-effacing; his wife, Yu Jingzhi, is also a professor at Tsinghua University. [1]

Jia Chunwang was a member of the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th Communist Party Central Committees, from 1987 to 2007.

Afghanistan

As Minister of State Security, Jia Chunwang continued and expanded the close collaboration with the American CIA and with Pakistan in training Afghan guerrillas against the Soviets. Beginning in February 1980, Chinese intelligence, led at the time by Luo Qingchang, had started offering small arms and financial support to Afghan resistance groups. From 1980 to 1984 the cost of Chinese support totaled approximately $400 million. [3] When Jia Chunwang became head of the MSS, support expanded to include heavy machine guns, mortars, recoilless rifles, rocket launchers and anti-aircraft artillery; the MSS, in collaboration with the Intelligence Bureau of the PLA General Staff, provided these weapons to a number of Afghan resistance groups established by the Chinese themselves, including "Victory", "Guards", "Immortal Flame" and "Paikar". [3] The Afghans were trained in two networks of secret military camps, both in Xinjiang; one network of camps was in the vicinity of Kashgar, the other in the vicinity of Hotan. [3] Hundreds of Chinese advisers also worked in Pakistani training camps, along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. [3]

Tiananmen crackdown and expulsion of George Soros foundations

As Minister of State Security, Jia Chunwang played a major role in expelling from China all foundations and organizations funded by, or collaborating with, Hungarian-American billionaire George Soros. Soros began working in China in spring 1986, by funding research for strengthening China's reform and opening up. Then, in October 1986, Soros collaborated with Li Xianglu of the "Association of Young Chinese Economists" to establish a Beijing office for his foundations, and Zhao Ziyang (then Premier) approved. Soon thereafter Soros sent a message that he was interested in establishing personal relations with senior Communist Party leaders to exchange views on problems of economic reform in China. By May 1989 Soros had spent millions of dollars in China, working in four areas: travel expenses for Chinese scholars to visit the United States, the purchase of Western books on the social sciences for Chinese universities, establishment of political reform associations, and certain cultural activities. [5]

Jia Chunwang and the MSS were closely watching the activities of Soros the whole time, and in fact, the head of the Beijing office that Soros established was actually an MSS agent posing as an economic reformer. [5] On 23 May 1989 (just before the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown) all Soros-related foundations and organizations were forcibly dissolved and shut down, and Soros himself was warned that "he was not welcome" in China anymore. [5] Soros was allowed to visit China again only 12 years later, in 2001. [6]

Jia was also instrumental in the actual crackdown and military suppression of the Tiananmen protests. On 1 June 1989, three days before the massacre, an MSS report written mostly by Jia himself and titled "On ideological and political infiltration into our country from the United States and other international political forces", was delivered to every single member of the Politburo, and to senior Party elders, including Deng Xiaoping, Li Xiannian and Chen Yun, advocating for immediate military action and placing responsibility for the protests and the turmoil on foreign, hostile Western forces: [7]

"The great socialist country of China has always been a major target for the peaceful evolution methods of the Western capitalist countries headed by the United States. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China and after the failure of U.S. armed intervention, each American administration has pursued the same goal of peaceful evolution and has done a great deal of mischief aimed at overthrowing the Communist Party and sabotaging the socialist system. Carter preached "peace diplomacy"; Reagan promoted "democratic movements"; and Bush emphasizes "human rights diplomacy". The phraseology may vary, but the essence remains the same: to cultivate so-called democratic forces within socialist countries and to stimulate and organize political opposition using catchwords like "democracy", "liberty", and "human rights". These people also try to win over or split off wavering elements within the Party in hopes of fomenting peaceful evolution inside the Party, thereby causing, or forcing, changes in the nature of political power in our Socialist State.

...

Every night for four weeks, a ranking official of the U.S. Embassy in China, who said that "the American government is extremely concerned about this significant movement", met with participants in the student movement. The Director of the Beijing office of the U.S.-based Committee on Scholarly Communication with the PRC invited students from Peking University, People's University, and the Beijing Foreign Languages Institute to his residence many times for discussions, thereby exerting influence on them. American students studying at Peking University, People's University, Beijing Language Institute, and nine other universities went everywhere fanning the flames. American journalists in Beijing maintained close contact with the leaders of the AFS. Journalists from the Associated Press and Newsweek told Wuerkaixi and others that the United States would, if necessary, provide asylum for them or help them go to the United States to study. And not only all this, they also tried to build counterrevolutionary armed forces in China. The China Study Group of the U.S. State Department submitted a report in May claiming that the democracy movement in China was part of the world democracy movement.

...

Many facts demonstrate that the international monopoly capitalists and hostile, reactionary foreign forces have not abandoned for a moment their intent to destroy us. It is now clear, that murderous intent has always lurked behind their protestations of peace and friendship. When the opportunity arises they will remove the façade and reveal their true colors. They have only one goal: to annihilate socialism. [7]

Related Research Articles

Li Peng

Li Peng was a Chinese politician who was the fourth Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1987 to 1998, and as the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, China's top legislative body, from 1998 to 2003. For much of the 1990s Li was ranked second in the Communist Party of China (CPC) hierarchy behind then Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin. He retained his seat on the CPC Politburo Standing Committee until his retirement in 2002.

1989 Tiananmen Square protests Chinese pro-democracy movement

The Tiananmen Square protests, known as the June Fourth Incident in China, were student-led demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square, Beijing during 1989. In what is known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, troops armed with assault rifles and accompanied by tanks fired at the demonstrators and those trying to block the military's advance into Tiananmen Square. The protests started on April 15 and were forcibly suppressed on June 4 when the government declared martial law and sent the People's Liberation Army to occupy parts of central Beijing. Estimates of the death toll vary from several hundred to several thousand, with thousands more wounded. The popular national movement inspired by the Beijing protests is sometimes called the '89 Democracy Movement or the Tiananmen Square Incident.

Democracy movements of China series of loosely organized political movements in China

The Chinese democracy movement refers to a series of loosely organized political movements in the People's Republic of China against the continued one-party rule by the Communist Party of China. One such movement began during the Beijing Spring in November 1978 and was taken up again in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

Law enforcement in China Overview of law enforcement in China

Law enforcement in China consists of an extensive public security system and a variety of enforcement procedures used to maintain order in the country. Along with the courts and procuratorates, the country's judicial and public security agencies include the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of State Security, with their descending hierarchy of departments, bureaus(局), subbureaus(副局), and stations (所).

Ministry of Public Security (China) Chinese internal security agency

The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) is the principal police and security authority of the People's Republic of China and the government ministry that exercises oversight over and is ultimately responsible for day-to-day law enforcement. It has 1.9 million officers, controlling the grand majority of the People's Police. It is headed by the Minister of Public Security. Prior to 1954, it was known as the Ministry of Public Security of the Central People's Government. The Ministry operates the system of Public Security Bureaus, which are broadly the equivalent of police forces or police stations in other countries. The candidate for the minister of the MPS is nominated by the Premier of the People's Republic of China and approved by the National People's Congress. As the main domestic security agency in the People's Republic of China, the MPS is the equivalent of the National Police Agency in Japan or national police in other countries.

Ministry of State Security (China)

The Ministry of State Security (MSS), or Guoanbu, is the civilian intelligence, security and secret police agency of the People's Republic of China, responsible for counter-intelligence, foreign intelligence and political security. Its military counterpart is the Intelligence Bureau of the Joint Staff. MSS has been described as one of the most secretive intelligence organizations in the world. It is headquartered in Beijing, with subordinate branches at the provincial, city, municipality and township levels throughout China.

The origin of the current law of the People's Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. In 1931 the first supreme court was established. Though the contemporary legal system and laws have no direct links to traditional Chinese law, their impact and influence of historical norms still exist.

Supreme Peoples Procuratorate Highest national agency responsible for legal prosecution and investigation in the Peoples Republic of China

The Supreme People's Procuratorate, also translated as the "Prosecutor General's Office", is the highest national agency responsible for legal prosecution and investigation in the People's Republic of China. Conceived initially in 1949 as the Supreme People's Prosecutor's Office, the agency was renamed the Supreme People's Procuratorate in 1954. The Procuratorate was abolished during the Cultural Revolution, before being re-instated in 1978. Between the 1990s to 2010s, the agency experienced a host of reforms pertaining to its selection of personnel, internal organisation and role in the management of corruption.

Xu Yongyue is a Chinese Communist Party senior official, who served as Minister of State Security from March 1998 to August 2007. Prior to that, he was private secretary to Party Elder Chen Yun from 1983 to Chen's death in 1994.

Hu Jia (activist)

Hu Jia is a Chinese civil rights activist and noted critic of Communist Party of China. His work has focused on the Chinese democracy movement, Chinese environmentalist movement, and HIV/AIDS in the People's Republic of China. Hu is the director of June Fourth Heritage & Culture Association, and he has been involved with AIDS advocacy as the executive director of the Beijing Aizhixing Institute of Health Education and as one of the founders of the non-governmental organization Loving Source. He has also been involved in work to protect the endangered Tibetan antelope. For his activism, Hu has received awards from several European bodies, such as the Paris City Council and the European Parliament, which awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought to him in December 2008.

Liu Fuzhi was a politician of the People's Republic of China. He served as the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, Minister of Public Security, and Minister of Justice.

Ling Yun, born as Wu Peilin (吴沛霖), was a politician of the People's Republic of China, who served as the first Minister of State Security, from June 1983 to September 1985.

Yang Baibing was a senior general and political commissar in the Chinese People's Liberation Army and the younger half-brother of Yang Shangkun. Together, the two brothers effectively controlled the PLA from the early 1980s until the early 1990s.

Li Ximing was the Communist Party boss in Beijing during the 1989 crackdown on pro-democracy protests in the capital and across the country.

Liu Xianbin, from Suining, Sichuan province, People's Republic of China, is a human rights activist, China Democracy Party organizer, writer and signer of Charter 08.

The events at Tiananmen were the first of their type shown in detail on Western television. The Chinese government's response was denounced, particularly by Western governments and media. Criticism came from both Western and Eastern Europe, North America, Australia and some east Asian and Latin American countries. Notably, many Asian countries remained silent throughout the protests; the government of India responded to the massacre by ordering the state television to pare down the coverage to the barest minimum, so as not to jeopardize a thawing in relations with China, and to offer political empathy for the events. North Korea, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, among others, supported the Chinese government and denounced the protests. Overseas Chinese students demonstrated in many cities in Europe, America, the Middle East, and Asia against the Chinese government.

The 1st Session of the 10th National People's Congress was held from March 5 to March 18 in Beijing, China, in conjunction with the 2003 session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Zhang Jun is a Chinese politician and former judge, serving currently as the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, and the Minister of Justice. He formerly served as Vice Minister of the Ministry of Justice of the People's Republic of China and Vice President of the Supreme People's Court. He is also a regular contributor for Project Syndicate.

Meng Yongshan is a former Chinese procurator. As of June 2021 he was under investigation by China's top anti-corruption agency. Previously he served as chief prosecutor and party branch secretary of Qinghai People's Procuratorate.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Jia Chunwang Career, news.sina.com, 6 March 2008
  2. Mattis, Peter; Brazil, Matthew (15 November 2019). Chinese Communist Espionage: An Intelligence Primer. Naval Institute Press. ISBN   978-1-68247-304-7. OCLC 1117319580.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Nicholas Eftimiades, Chinese Intelligence Operations, pp. 17, 99–102, Naval Institute Press/Frank Cass, Annapolis/London, 1994)
  4. Beijing Journal; For Chinese Spies, the Enemies Are Everywhere, Nicholas D. Kristof, The New York Times, 18 October 1991
  5. 1 2 3 The Tiananmen Papers Compiled by Zhang Liang, edited by Andrew J. Nathan and Perry Link, pp. 451-452, Abacus, 2002
  6. Described in Chuck Sudetic, The Philanthropy of George Soros: Building Open Societies, Public Affairs
  7. 1 2 The Tiananmen Papers Compiled by Zhang Liang, edited by Andrew J. Nathan and Perry Link, pp. 446-451 and 455-462, Abacus, 2002
Legal offices
Preceded by
Han Zhubin
Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate
2003–2008
Succeeded by
Cao Jianming
Government offices
Preceded by
Tao Siju
Minister of Public Security
1998–2002
Succeeded by
Zhou Yongkang
Preceded by
Ling Yun
Minister of State Security
1985–1998
Succeeded by
Xu Yongyue