Location of Jiamusi City (yellow) in Heilongjiang (light grey)
|Coordinates(Jiamusi government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Type||Prefecture-level city|
|• Mayor||Shao Guoqiang (邵国强)|
|• Municipal Committee Secretary||Xu Jianguo (徐建国)|
|• Prefecture-level city||31,528 km2 (12,173 sq mi)|
|• Urban||882.5 km2 (340.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||83 m (271 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||2,333,311|
|• Density||74/km2 (190/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HL-08|
|- Total||CNY 101.2 Billion |
(14.6 Billion USD)
|- Per capita||CNY 43,372 |
"Jiamusi", as written in Chinese
Jiamusi (Chinese :佳木斯 [ˌtɕiá.mû.sí] ; formerly Kiamusze) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. Located along the middle and lower reaches of the Songhua River, it faces Russia's Khabarovsk Krai across the Ussuri River and the Heilongjiang. In 2018, Jiamusi had a GDP of RMB 101.2 billion with a 4.3% growth rate. Jiamusi had a total population of 2.333 million at the 2018 census, of which 1.24 million lived in the urban area and 1.09 million lived in the rural area.
In 1720, Jiamusi was first named Giyamusi (甲母克寺噶珊，嘉木寺) during the Kangxi period by the Nanai people. The word Giyamusi originally means Inn in the Manchu language. Because of the harsh climate and short growing season, the region of today's Jiamusi City was largely uncultivated .
Since the Qing government opened Manchuria for farming in order to prevent the conquest of the area by Russia, Jiamusi developed as a small trading post under the name Dongxing (東興鎮) since 1888. When Han Chinese and Manchu settlers began to move into the area, Jiamusi became the seat of a county administration, under the name Huachuan in 1910. However,the county seat was moved to Haoli (Hegang), which is about 30 miles to the north, after several destructive floods. After Xinhai Revolution, as the Han Chinese went on moving in, the population of Jiamusi rose very rapidly. Jiamusi continued to grow as a commercial center. As Jiamusi has become the largest harbor along the lower reaches of Songhua River, a road system was constructed in order to provide convenient transport linking Jiamusi to several other important strongholds in Northeastern China including Harbin and Nancha.
As the Japanese invasion of Manchuria began, Jiamusi was established as an administrative centre of the puppet Manchukuo government. Going by the name Kiamusze, Jiamusi was also the capital of Sanjiang province. Jiamusi was regarded as an important military strongpoint to defend the Soviet Red Army's possible invasion. In 1937, the City of Jiamusi was established. It also became a major military base. Many settlers came into the area, not only from China but also from Korea and Japan, including the Development Group of Manchuria and Mongolia. After the construction of and Tumen-Jiamusi and Suihua-Jiamusi Railway continuously completed in 1937 and 1940, Jiamusi has become an agricultural products distribution center in Heilongjiang.
After 1949, as Jiamusi was still the transport and communications center of this region, the rapid development of Jiamusi continued. Industries including manufacturing agricultural equipment, mining machinery, fertilizers, plastics, and chemicals were developed. Since one of the biggest paper mills in China was built in 1957, Jiamusi has been a major producer of wood pulp and newsprint. Because of being conveniently connected by air and water to Khabarovsk in the Russian Far East, Jiamusi is also an important harbour for international trade in northeastern China.
Jiamusi is located in eastern Heilongjiang province. Located at latitude 45° 56′−48° 28′ N and longitude 129° 29′−135° 05' E, containing China' easternmost point, although the urban area of Shuangyashan lies further to the east of Jiamusi. Neighbouring prefectures are:
It also borders Russia's Khabarovsk Krai to the east. The average elevation in the prefecture is 85 metres (279 ft), with the terrain primarily consisting of plains. The total area of the prefecture is 31,258 square kilometres (12,069 sq mi). The confluence of the Amur, Songhua and Ussuri River meet in the east of the city. The Sanjiang Plain came into being because of the alluvion of these three large rivers.
Jiamusi has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with long, bitter, but dry winters, and humid and very warm summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −18.5 °C (−1.3 °F) in January to 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 3.62 °C (38.5 °F), and more than 60% of the year's precipitation occurs from June to August. The frost-free period is about 130 days per year, while mean annual precipitation is about 517 mm (20.4 in). Typically, the ground freezes to a depth of 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in), beginning to freeze in late November and beginning to thaw in late March. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −41.1 °C to 38.1 °C.
|Climate data for Jiamusi (1971−2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||1.8|
|Average high °C (°F)||−12.7|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−18.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||−24.0|
|Record low °C (°F)||−39.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||3.7|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.8||5.1||5.7||7.7||11.3||13.4||12.7||13.8||11.1||8.7||5.8||7.2||108.3|
|Source: Weather China|
[ citation needed ]
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010 est.)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Qianjin District||前进区||Qiánjìn Qū||171,530||14||12,252|
|2||Xiangyang District||向阳区||Xiàngyáng Qū||233,855||24||9,744|
|3||Dongfeng District||东风区||Dōngfēng Qū||161,740||53||3,052|
|5||Tongjiang City||同江市||Tóngjiāng Shì||179,791||6,252||29|
|6||Fujin City||富锦市||Fùjǐn Shì||437,165||8,227||53|
|10||Fuyuan City||抚远市||Fǔyuǎn Shì||126,694||6,260||20|
|7||Huanan County||桦南县||Huànán Xiàn||468,698||4,416||106|
|8||Huachuan County||桦川县||Huàchuān Xiàn||202,827||2,260||90|
|9||Tangyuan County||汤原县||Tāngyuán Xiàn||255,211||3,230||79|
Five of the players in the national bandy team at their first World Championships came from Jiamusi. It's one of the cities in which China Bandy Federation explores the potential for further development.
Jiamusi has long been a major transit port and distribution center of goods, and serves as the economic hub of eastern Heilongjiang province. In 2011, Jiamusi's GDP paced up to RMB 62.53 billion representing a steady growth of 14.2% from a year earlier.In 2015, Jiamusi has a GDP of RMB 81.01 billion.
Jiamusi is an agricultural production hub in Heilongjiang Province. Value-added output from the agricultural sector increased 14.2% to RMB 18.92 billion in 2011. Crop production of the city rose 26.8% to 7.3 million tons. In 2011, gross industrial output from enterprises with designated size or above of the city surpassed RMB 39.34 billion, increased 35.5% year on year. Gross output from heavy industry amounted to RMB 22.77 billion, increasing by 38.7% compared with a year ago, while that from light industry reached RMB 16.57 billion, surging 31.4% from the previous year. Heavy industry and light industry made up 64% and 36% of the city's total gross industrial output.
Electricity production and supply, construction materials, chemicals and agricultural products processing are the pillar industries in the city. Major industrial products in the city include cement, edible oils, fertilizer and feed. The industrial sector in Jiamusi is relatively weak compared with other cities in Heilongjiang such as Harbin and Daqing. In 2011, the service sector became the largest contributor of the city, which gained value-added output of RMB 26.99 billion. This contributes 43.2% to Jiamusi's economy. With the consumer market being very active, sales of consumer goods in Jiamusi amounted to RMB 24.55 billion in 2011, rising 18.2% year on year.
Foreign trade value increased 19.6% to RMB 3.65 billion in 2011. Export value was US$3.01 billion, representing a rise of 6.1% over the previous year. while import value stood at US$640 million, increased 197.5% year on year. Russia is Jiamusi's largest foreign trade partner. In 2011, foreign trade with Russia amounted to US$900 million, increased 24.5% over the previous year, accounting for 24.66% of the city's foreign trade. The utilized FDI in Jiamusi hit US$150 million in 2011, increased 33.5% over the previous year.
Jiamusi is a transportation hub in northeast Heilongjiang. Suijia(Suihua-Jiamusi) Railway and Tujia(Tumen-Jiamusi) Railway meet here. Trains from Jiamusi Railway Station connect the city with Beijing, Jinan, Dalian, Harbin, Tianjin and several other cities in China. On September 30, 2018, the Harbin–Jiamusi intercity railway was opened to passenger traffic, which shortened the travel time between Jiamusi and Harbin from six hours to two and half hours.
Jiamusi is served by the G1011 Harbin-Tongjiang Expressway, the G11 Hegang-Dalian Expressway, as well as six other highways, forming a comprehensive highway network.
Jiamusi Dongjiao Airport is 9 km (5.6 mi) east of the city center, which offers flights to a number of domestic destinations and international destinations such as Khabarovsk and Seoul.
First built in 1919, Jiamusi Port is a major port along the downstream of Songhua River. The port was expanded in 1937 and became a Steel-structured-port. However, The annual throughput of the port was less than 120 thousand tons per year until PRC's foundation in 1949. Now the annual throuput was about 1 million tons per year.Available from mid-April until the beginning of November, passenger ships sail from Jiamusi up the Songhua River to Qiqihar, Harbin or downstream to Tongjiang and Khabarovsk in Russia.
Jiamusi is home to Jiamusi University.
Harbin is a sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China, as well as the second largest city by urban population and largest city by metropolitan population in Northeast China. Harbin has direct jurisdiction over nine metropolitan districts, two county-level cities and seven counties, and is the eighth most populous Chinese city according to the 2010 census, the built-up area had 5,282,093 inhabitants, while the total metropolitan population was up to 10,635,971. Harbin serves as a key political, economic, scientific, cultural and communications hub in Northeast China, as well as an important industrial base of the nation.
Heilongjiang is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.
The Songhua River is one of the primary rivers of China, and the largest tributary of the Amur. It flows about 1,434 kilometres (891 mi) from the Changbai Mountains on the China–North Korea border through China's northeastern Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces.
Daqing is a prefecture-level city in the west of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. The name literally means "Great Celebration". Daqing is known as the "Oil Capital of China" and has experienced a phenomenal boom since oil was discovered at the Daqing Oil Field in 1959.
Shuangyashan is a coal mining prefecture-level city located in the eastern part Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, bordering Russia's Khabarovsk and Primorsky krais to the east. The city's name means a pair-of-ducks mountains and refers to two peaks northeast of the city. In 2007 it had a GDP of RMB 20.6 billion with a 14.2% growth rate.
Heihe is a prefecture-level city of northern Heilongjiang province, China, located on the Russian border, on the south bank of the Amur (Heilong) River, across the river from Blagoveshchensk. Heihe has an urban population of about 211,313, while the total population of the prefecture-level city is 1,673,893. In 2015, Heihe had a GDP of RMB 44.78 billion.
Hegang, is a prefecture-level city in Heilongjiang province of the People's Republic of China, situated in the southeastern section of the Lesser Khingan Range, facing Jiamusi across the Songhua River to the south and Russia's Jewish Autonomous Oblast across the Amur River to the north. Hegang is one of the principal coal-producing cities in China. Hegang covers an administrative area of 14,679.88 km2 (5,667.93 sq mi) and according to the 2010 Census, has a population of 1,058,665 inhabitants. Its built-up area is home to 664,471 inhabitants spread out over 5 urban districts including Dongshan being urbanized, even though still largely rural.
Mudanjiang, alternately romanized as Mutankiang, is a prefecture-level city in the southeast part of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. It was called Botankou under Japanese occupation. It serves as a regional transport hub with a railway junction and an international airport connecting with several major Chinese cities as well as Incheon International Airport serving Seoul. Mudanjiang is located 248 km (154 mi) from Vladivostok, Russia. In 2011 Mudanjiang had a GDP of RMB 93.48 billion with a 15.1% growth rate. In 2015 Mudanjiang had a GDP of RMB 118.63 billion.
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Suihua is a prefecture-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, adjacent to Yichun to the east, Harbin, the provincial capital, to the south, Daqing to the west and Heihe to the north. It has 5,418,453 inhabitants at the 2010 census, of whom 877,114 lived in the built-up area made of Beilin District.
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The Jilin chemical plant explosions were a series of explosions which occurred on November 13, 2005, in the No.101 Petrochemical Plant in Jilin City, Jilin Province, China, over the period of an hour. The explosions killed six, injured dozens, and caused the evacuation of tens of thousands of residents.
Harbin Taiping International Airport is the international airport serving Harbin, Heilongjiang province. The airport handled 20,431,432 passengers in 2018, making it the 20th busiest airport in mainland China.
Daxing'anling Prefecture, also known as Da Hinggan Ling Prefecture, is the northernmost Chinese prefecture-level division, located in Heilongjiang Province. Its area is 46,755 square kilometres (18,052 sq mi) and has a population of 520,000, as of 2004. It is named after the Greater Khingan Range Mountains. In 2007 it had a GDP of RMB 6.1 billion and a growth rate of 11.1%. In 2015 Daxing'anling Prefecture had a GDP of RMB 13.49 billion, while a GDP of RMB 15.39 billion in the year 2014.
Jiamusi University is a multi-disciplinary university situated in the city of Jiamusi, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.
Fuyuan is a county-level city of the province of Heilongjiang, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Jiamusi.
Harbin–Jiamusi intercity railway is a high-speed railway with in Heilongjiang province of China, connecting the capital Harbin to Jiamusi. It has a total length of 343 km and it is being built as a 200 kilometres per hour, double tracked electrified express railway. With an expected journey time of two and a half hours from Harbin to Jiamusi. Total cost of the project is budgeted to be 34.714 billion yuan. The project started construction on June 30, 2014, and opened to traffic by September 30, 2018.
The K7006/7007 Harbin-Jiamusi Through Train is Chinese railway running between Harbin to Jiamusi express passenger trains by the Harbin Railway Bureau, Harbin passenger segment responsible for passenger transport task, Habin originating on the Jiamusi train. 25B Type Passenger trains running along the Binbei Railway and Suijia Railway across Heilongjiang provinces, the entire 507 km. Harbin Railway Station to Jiamusi Railway Station running 5 hours and 13 minutes, use trips for K7007; Jiamusi Railway Station to Binjiang Railway Station to run 5 hours and 13 minutes, use trips for K7006.
The K7203/7204 Harbin-Jiamusi Through Train is Chinese railway running between Harbin to Jiamusi express passenger trains by the Harbin Railway Bureau, Harbin passenger segment responsible for passenger transport task, Habin originating on the Jiamusi train. 25G Type Passenger trains running along the Binbei Railway and Suijia Railway across Heilongjiang provinces, the entire 507 km. Harbin East Railway Station to Jiamusi Railway Station running 7 hours and 35 minutes, use trips for K7203; Jiamusi Railway Station to Harbin East Railway Station to run 8 hours and 16 minutes, use trips for K7204.