Jihlava

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Jihlava
Iglau-Jesuitenkirche-Rathaus2.jpg
Masarykovo Square with the Saint Ignatius Church and the city hall
Flag of Jihlava CZ.svg
Flag
Jihlava CoA CZ.svg
Coat of arms
Relief Map of Czech Republic.png
Red pog.svg
Jihlava
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 49°24′1″N15°35′26″E / 49.40028°N 15.59056°E / 49.40028; 15.59056 Coordinates: 49°24′1″N15°35′26″E / 49.40028°N 15.59056°E / 49.40028; 15.59056
Country Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Region Vysočina
District Jihlava
First documented1233
Government
  MayorKarolína Koubová (Fórum Jihlava)
Area
  Total87.86 km2 (33.92 sq mi)
Elevation
525 m (1,722 ft)
Population
 (2021-01-01) [1]
  Total51,125
  Density580/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
586 01
Website www.jihlava.cz

Jihlava (Czech pronunciation: [ˈjɪɦlava] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); German : Iglau, German pronunciation: [ˈiːɡlaʊ̯] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in the Czech Republic. It has about 51,000 inhabitants. Jihlava is the capital of the Vysočina Region, situated on the Jihlava river on the historical border between Moravia and Bohemia, and is the oldest mining town in the Czech Republic, approximately 50 years older than Kutná Hora. The historic centre of Jihlava is well preserved and historically significant and is protected by law as urban monument reservation.

Contents

Administrative division

Jihlava is made up of 17 administrative parts:

Etymology

The origin of the city's name (Iglau in German) is unclear. Most common theory has it derived from the German word Igel, meaning hedgehog, usually in reference to the city's coat of arms. However, the name was in use since before the symbol of a hedgehog was. It is more likely the city is named for the river that flows through it, the name of which is also unclear in its origin, either being derived from the German word Igel as the first theory suggests, or from Slavic word jehla, referring to sharp stones in Jihlava river bed. [2]

History

According to legend, silver was mined in Iglau as early as 799. King Ottokar I established a mint, and Iglau was granted extensive privileges already during these early times.

An old Slavic settlement upon a ford was moved to a nearby hill where the mining town was founded (ca. 1240) by King Wenceslaus I. In the Middle Ages the town was inhabited mostly by Germans (mostly from Northern Bavaria and Upper Saxony). Medieval mines surrounded by mining settlements were localized outside the walls of the medieval town (named Staré Hory).

In the era of the Hussite Wars, Jihlava remained a Catholic stronghold and managed to resist a number of sieges. Later at Jihlava, on 5 July 1436, a treaty was made with the Hussites, whereby the emperor Sigismund was acknowledged king of Bohemia. [3] A marble relief near the town marks the spot where Ferdinand I, in 1527, swore fidelity to the Bohemian estates. [3]

During the Thirty Years' War Jihlava was twice captured by the Swedes. In 1742, it fell into the hands of the Prussians, and in December 1805 the Bavarians under Wrede were defeated near the town. [3] In 1860, it became the childhood home of Bohemian-Austrian composer Gustav Mahler, who retained his ties to the town until the death of both of his parents in 1889.

Until World War I the town was an important Austro-Hungarian Army military centre. In 1914, the First, Second and Third Battalions of the Moravian Infantry Regiment No. 81 (Bataillon des Mährischen Infanterie-Regiments Nummer. 81) and the Second Battalion of the Landwehr infantry regiment number 14 (II. Bataillon des Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 14) were the garrison troops.

After World War I the town constituted a German language island within Slavic speaking Moravia. This affected local politics, as it remained the centre of the second largest German-speaking enclave in the republic of Czechoslovakia (after Schönhengstgau/Hřebečsko). After the Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed on 28 October 1918, the indigenous Germans of Bohemia and Moravia, claiming the right to self-determination according to the 10th of President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, demanded that their homeland areas remain with the new Austrian State. The Volksdeutsche of Iglau relied on peaceful opposition to the Czech military occupation of their region, a process that started on 31 October 1918 and was completed on 28 January 1919. Unsuccessful in getting their right to self-determination recognized and incorporated into the new Czechoslovakian state, many of the indigenous Germans instead took to more nationalistic politics. Thereafter extremist political figures like Hans Krebs, editor of the Iglauer Volkswehr newspaper, became prominent with the rise of Nazism and the Nazi occupation (1939–1945).

Brana Matky Bozi (picture from 1899, at that time known as Muttergottestor) Jihlava 1899.jpg
Brána Matky Boží (picture from 1899, at that time known as Muttergottestor)

Until the end of World War II, Iglau was the centre of a distinctive regional folk culture reflecting hundreds of years of local customs. The local dialect of German was a unique branch of Mitteldeutsch. Musicians often used homemade instruments and original groups of four fiddles (Vierergruppen Fiedeln) and Ploschperment. Typical folk dances were the Hatschou, Tuschen and Radln. Peasant women wore old "pairische" Scharkaröckchen costumes with shiny dark skirts and big red cloths.

Most of Jihlava's Jewish population was deported and killed due to the Holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia. [4]

After the end of World War II, starting from May 9, 1945, German-speakers were banned from using public transportation and were orderd to carry white armbands identifying them as Germans. [5] Following the Beneš decrees, the German-speakers were evicted from their homeland; it is estimated that hundreds died on the arduous trek to Austria. [6] The town was repopulated with Czech and Moravian settlers favored by the new Communist regime. After 1951, the town was the site of several Communist show trials, which were directed against the influence of the Roman Catholic Church on the rural population. In the processes eleven death sentences were passed and 111 years of prison sentences imposed. All the convicted persons were rehabilitated after the Velvet Revolution.

In protest against the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1969 Evžen Plocek set himself on fire in the town marketplace in emulation of others in Prague. Today there is a memorial plaque to him.

Since the collapse of Communism in the 1990s the share of employment in agriculture has steadily declined. The industrial sector of the town now employs 65 percent of all workers.

Demography

Historical population
YearPop.±%
186924,197    
188026,750+10.6%
189028,577+6.8%
190030,213+5.7%
191032,724+8.3%
YearPop.±%
192132,702−0.1%
193037,076+13.4%
195031,268−15.7%
196136,528+16.8%
197042,538+16.5%
YearPop.±%
198049,770+17.0%
199151,831+4.1%
200150,702−2.2%
201150,075−1.2%
202151,125+2.1%
Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic [7]

Education

In 2004, the Jihlava Polytechnic University was founded. As of 2019, it had more than 2,200 students. [8]

Sport

The city's football club is FC Vysočina Jihlava. The club plays mostly in the Czech National Football League (second tier).

The local ice hockey club, HC Dukla Jihlava, was successful between 1966–1991, however in recent decades it plays mostly in the 1st Czech Republic Hockey League (second tier).

Sights

Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross Jihlava Exaltation of the Cross church front.jpg
Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross

Among the principal buildings are the early Gothic churches of St. Jacob, [3] Friars Minor Church of Our Lady and Dominican Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, the Baroque Church of St. Ignatius of Loyola, the city hall and a number of municipal houses containing Gothic and Renaissance details. There is also a Jewish cemetery, containing some remarkable monuments [3] including the tombstone of the parents of Gustav Mahler.

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

Jihlava is twinned with: [9] [10]

Jihlava also cooperates with Wuhan in China. [9]

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 2021-04-30.
  2. "Jihlavský ježek má stovky podob. Původ však halí tajemství". E15 (in Czech). Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Iglau"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 291–292.
  4. Hampel, Jens (1998). "Das Schicksal der jüdischen Bevölkerung der Stadt Iglau 1938–1942". Theresienstädter Studien und Dokumente (in German) (5): 70–99. CEEOL   64193.
  5. "Iglau lebt weiter". Gemeoinschaft Iglauer Sprachinsel e.V.". 1990. p. 52.
  6. Lumans, Valdis O., “Himmler’s Auxiliaries; The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe, 1933-1945” - 1993. ISBN   0-8078-2066-0 / ISBN   978-0-8078-2066-7
  7. "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Jihlava" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 5–6.
  8. "Výroční zpráva o činnosti VŠPJ pro rok 2019". vspj.cz (in Czech). Vysoká škola polytechnická Jihlava. April 2020. p. 2.
  9. 1 2 "Partnerská města, Memoranda" (in Czech). Statutární město Jihlava. Retrieved 2020-06-18.
  10. "Polský Zgierz se stal partnerským městem Jihlavy" (in Czech). Statutární město Jihlava. 2018-08-22. Retrieved 2020-06-18.

Literature