Governor James A. Rhodes in 1981
|61st and 63rd Governor of Ohio|
January 13, 1975 –January 10, 1983
|Lieutenant||Dick Celeste (1975–1979)|
George Voinovich (1979)
|Preceded by||John J. Gilligan|
|Succeeded by||Dick Celeste|
January 14, 1963 –January 11, 1971
|Lieutenant||John W. Brown|
|Preceded by||Michael DiSalle|
|Succeeded by||John J. Gilligan|
|21st Ohio State Auditor|
|Governor|| Frank J. Lausche |
John William Brown
C. William O'Neill
|Preceded by||Joseph T. Ferguson|
|Succeeded by||Roger W. Tracy, Jr.|
|44th Mayor of Columbus|
|Preceded by||Floyd F. Green|
|Succeeded by||Robert T. Oestreicher|
James Allen Rhodes
September 13, 1909
Coalton, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||March 4, 2001 91) (aged|
Columbus, Ohio, U.S.
|Resting place|| Green Lawn Cemetery |
|Education||Springfield High School|
|Alma mater||Ohio State University|
James Allen Rhodes (September 13, 1909 – March 4, 2001) was an American Republican politician from Ohio, a key figure in the 1970 Kent State shootings and as of 2019 [update] one of only seven governors to serve four four-year terms in office. (The other six being Edwin Edwards, George Wallace, Jim Hunt, Bill Janklow, Jerry Brown, and Terry Branstad.) Rhodes is tied for the fourth longest gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U.S. history at 5,840 days.
On May 3, 1970, Rhodes sent National Guard troops onto the Kent State University campus at the request of Kent, Ohio mayor LeRoy Satrom after the ROTC building was burned down by unknown arsonists the previous night. On May 4, Guardsmen gunned down unarmed students Allison Beth Krause, 19, Jeffrey Glenn Miller, 20, Sandra Lee Scheuer, 20, and William Knox Schroeder, 19, and wounded nine others, including Dean Kahler, who suffered permanent paralysis.
Rhodes was born in Coalton, Jackson County, Ohio, to James and Susan Howe Rhodes, who were of Welsh descent.Rhodes has commented that the reason he and his family were Republicans was because of the respect his father, a mine superintendent, had for John L. Lewis, a prominent Republican union activist. When Rhodes was nine his father died and the family moved to north Springfield where Rhodes graduated from Springfield High School where he played on the football team. Subsequently, the family moved again, this time to Columbus, because Rhodes earned a modest basketball scholarship to The Ohio State University. Although Rhodes dropped out after his first quarter he is often described as a "student" or "alumnus" of Ohio State. After dropping out of college, Rhodes opened a business called Jim's Place across from the university on North High Street. Jim's Place has been described as a place where one could buy anything, from doughnuts and hamburgers, to Stag film, or place bets on numbers games.
In 1934, Rhodes began to use his position as a local businessman to climb up the Columbus political ladder, and became a ward committeeman, a member of the Columbus school board, the city auditor, and eventually the mayor of Columbus (1944–1952). It was during this time that he married Helen Rawlins. Rhodes's time as mayor is primarily marked by two achievements, with the first being his convincing of 67% of Columbus voters to approve the city's first income tax, and the second being his successful use of water gun diplomacy to annex much of the surrounding suburbs to Columbus. As surrounding communities grew or were constructed, they came to require access to waterlines, which was under the sole control of the municipal water system. Rhodes told these communities that if they wanted water, they would have to submit to assimilation into Columbus. As a result of this, Columbus, Ohio, currently has the largest land area of any Ohio city.
With an eye on the governorship, Rhodes was elected State Auditor in 1952, and took office in early 1953. In 1954, Rhodes ran against the popular incumbent, Democratic governor Frank Lausche, and lost by a 54% to 46% margin. In 1962, Rhodes ran again for governor – this time against Democratic incumbent Mike DiSalle. Rhodes's campaign centered on "jobs and progress," and in speeches Rhodes routinely claimed that an increase in jobs would lead to a decrease in everything from crime and divorce, to mental illness.Rhodes also made DiSalle's tax increases, such as the gas tax, a prominent part of his campaign. Rhodes also weathered a minor scandal when Democratic State Chairman alleged that Rhodes diverted and borrowed a total of $54,000 from his campaign funds. During a debate, both Rhodes and DiSalle agreed that this was, "the most vicious campaign [of] the Ohio governorship." On November 6, 1962, Ohioans voted Rhodes into the governorship with 59% of the vote.
Rhodes served two terms as governor, and he also was a "favorite son" Presidential candidate who controlled the Ohio delegation to the Republican National Conventions in 1964 and 1968, before retiring in 1971. He ran for the U.S. Senate in 1970 and narrowly lost, to U.S. Representative Robert Taft, Jr., in the primary election, which was two days after the events at Kent State.
Rhodes oversaw the last two (by electrocution) pre-Furman executions in Ohio,which were both in early 1963, before Ohio resumed executions in 1999. In 1983 Rhodes pardoned boxing promoter Don King for a 1967 non‐negligent manslaughter conviction of stomping one of his employees to death.
At a news conference in Kent, Ohio, on Sunday May 3, 1970, the day before the Kent State shootings, he said of campus protesters:
They're worse than the Brownshirts, and the Communist element, and also the Night Riders, and the vigilantes. They're the worst type of people that we harbor in America.
Since the Ohio Constitution limits the governor to two four-year terms, when Rhodes initially filed to run again in 1974, his petitions were refused by the Secretary of State. Rhodes sued, and the Ohio Supreme Court ruled that the limitation was on consecutive terms, thus freeing him to return to office by narrowly defeating incumbent John Gilligan in an upset in the 1974 election. He served two more terms before retiring again in 1983. During the energy crisis of the winter of 1976–77, Rhodes led a 15-minute service, in which he "beseech[ed] God to relieve the storm." inches of snow onto Ohio and killed 60 people in the Northeast, Rhodes called the storm "the greatest disaster in Ohio history."The next year, January 1978, amid a blizzard which dropped 31
On August 16, 1977 Rhodes was hit in the face and shoulder with a banana cream pie thrown by Steve Conliff, as about 25 young people disrupted the opening of the Ohio State Fair. Conliff then ran unsuccessfully against Rhodes for the Republican nomination.
Rhodes sought to run for the governorship again in 1986, seeking a record-breaking fifth term, but soundly lost to the incumbent Dick Celeste, whom Rhodes had narrowly defeated in his last successful gubernatorial bid in 1978.
Rhodes died in Columbus on March 4, 2001, and is interred at Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio.
Rhodes co-authored stories of historical fiction with Dean Jauchius, including The Trial of Mary Todd Lincoln, The Court-Martial of Oliver Hazard Perry and Johnny Shiloh, a novel of the Civil War. [ citation needed ]The last was adapted to a 1963 television movie by Walt Disney, also called Johnny Shiloh , for which Rhodes received writer's credit.
Numerous buildings and sites around the state have been named in Rhodes's honor, including:
Jim Rhodes won the gubernatorial election, defeating sitting Governor Michael DiSalle 58.92% to 41.08%.
Jim Rhodes won a second term, defeating Frazier Reams Jr. 62.18% to 37.82%
Jim Rhodes won a third term, defeating sitting Governor John J. Gilligan 48.62% to 48.25%.
Jim Rhodes won a fourth term, defeating Dick Celeste 49.31% to 47.64%.
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United States gubernatorial elections were held on 3 November 1970, in 35 states and two territories.
United States gubernatorial elections were held on November 5, 2019 in Kentucky and Mississippi, and November 16, 2019 in Louisiana. These elections formed part of the 2019 United States elections. The last regular gubernatorial elections for all three states were in 2015. The Democrats had to defend an incumbent in Louisiana while the Republicans had to defend an incumbent in Kentucky plus an open seat in Mississippi. Despite the fact that all three seats up were in typically Republican states, Kentucky and Louisiana were seen as competitive races and Mississippi was still seen as favorable for Republicans but a closer race than usual. Democrats were able to hold their seat in Louisiana and flip the governor's seat in Kentucky, while Republicans successfully kept the Mississippi governorship by winning the open seat. As a result, the Democrats gained a net of one seat, bringing the total number of Democratic governors to 24, while Republicans were reduced to 26 governors, continuing a streak of governor's seat gains by Democrats under Republican President Donald Trump that began in 2017. This is the first time since 2003 in which a party made a net gain of seats in this cycle of governorships, and the first time since 1991 that Kentucky and Louisiana elected candidates of the same party. Democrats also won the total popular vote for the year's gubernatorial elections for the third year in a row, and for the first time since 1991 in this cycle of governorships. These are the first gubernatorial elections since 2005 in which all of the margins of victory were under ten points.
The 1978 Ohio gubernatorial election was held on November 7, 1978. Incumbent Republican Jim Rhodes defeated Democratic nominee Dick Celeste with 49.31% of the vote.
The 1974 Ohio gubernatorial election was held on November 5, 1974. Republican nominee Jim Rhodes narrowly defeated Democratic incumbent John J. Gilligan with 48.62% of the vote.
The 1966 Ohio gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1966. Incumbent Republican Jim Rhodes defeated Democratic nominee Frazier Reams Jr. with 62.18% of the vote.
The 1962 Ohio gubernatorial election was held on November 6, 1962. Republican nominee Jim Rhodes defeated Democratic incumbent Michael DiSalle with 58.92% of the vote.
The 1958 Ohio gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1958. Democratic nominee Michael DiSalle defeated incumbent Republican C. William O'Neill with 56.92% of the vote.
The 1954 Ohio gubernatorial election was held on November 2, 1954. Incumbent Democrat Frank Lausche defeated Republican nominee Jim Rhodes with 54.10% of the vote.
The 1950 Ohio gubernatorial election was held on November 7, 1950. Incumbent Democrat Frank Lausche defeated Republican nominee Don H. Ebright with 52.62% of the vote.
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