Location of Jinzhou City jurisdiction in Liaoning
|Coordinates(Liaoshen campaign memorial): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Districts and Counties|
|• CPC Party Secretary||Liu Zhiqiang (刘志强)|
|• Mayor||Wang Wenquan (王文权)|
|• Prefecture-level city||10,111 km2 (3,904 sq mi)|
|• Urban||436.00 km2 (168.34 sq mi)|
|Elevation||24 m (78 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,070,000|
|• Density||300/km2 (790/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-LN-07|
|Administrative division code||210700|
Jinzhou ( // , simplified Chinese : 锦 州 ; traditional Chinese :錦州; pinyin :Jǐnzhōu), formerly Chinchow, is a coastal prefecture-level city in central-west Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the Liaoxi Corridor, which connects most of the land transports between North China and Northeast China, and is the economic center of western Liaoning. Located on the northern shore of Liaodong Bay, Jinzhou encompasses a coastline of 97.7 km (60.7 mi), with the Port of Jinzhou being China's northernmost seaport.
It is the fourth-most populous city in Liaoning, with a population of 3,126,463 (2010 census), of whom 1,091,799 reside in the urbanized area consisting of 3 urban districts. 10,111 square kilometers (3,904 sq mi), most of which is rural.The total area under the jurisdiction of Jinzhou is
Jinzhou is an ancient city with over a thousand years of history. Originally known as Tuhe ( 徒河 ), it was part of Yan in the Warring States period. Under the Qin dynasty, the majority of what is now Jinzhou became part of Liaodong Commandery. It was part of Changli Commandery in the province of Youzhou during the Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms periods, but fell under the jurisdiction of Yingzhou in the Beiwei, Dongwei, and Beiqi periods, before becoming part of Liucheng Commandery and then Yan Prefecture during the Sui Dynasty and Tang dynasty. During the Tang, it was the seat of the Andong Protectorate.
The name "Jinzhou" came into use in the Liao dynasty, when it belonged to Zhongjing prefecture. In the Jin dynasty, it was part of Dongjing Prefecture and Beijing Prefecture. It belonged to Liaoyang Xingzhongshu in the Mongol Empire/Yuan dynasty and to Liaodong township in the Ming dynasty. It was ruled by Tianfu during the Qing dynasty, when its name was changed from Jinzhou to Jinxian. It is also known in English as Chinhsien and Chinchow.
During the Republican period, Jinzhou was attached to Liaoning Province. When the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1945, Jinzhou was the site of a major battle between the Communist and Nationalist forces, since it is where the main route from Manchuria through Shanhai Pass enters central China. Its capture on November 22, 1945 by Nationalist forces under Du Yuming forced the Communists to agree to a temporary ceasefire that lasted several months.
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoxi Province was founded and Jinzhou became its provincial capital. Jinzhou came back under the administration of Liaoning Province in 1954, when Liaoxi and Liaodong provinces re-merged.
Jinzhou is located in the southwestern portion of Liaoning, and borders Panjin, Anshan, and Shenyang to the east, and Huludao on the west. The city's southern coast is the Liaodong Bay. On the north are Chaoyang and Fuxin.
Jinzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with four distinct seasons; winters are cold but very dry while summers are hot and humid. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −7.9 °C (17.8 °F) to 24.3 °C (75.7 °F) in July, with the annual mean being 9.50 °C (49.1 °F). The annual average precipitation is between 540 and 640 millimeters (21 and 25 in), the majority of which usually occurs in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 45% in July to 68% in three months, the city receives 2,682 hours of bright sunshine annually, with autumn and winter being especially sunny.
Fossil-bearing rocks are exposed in the city's vicinity, including the Yixian Formation. A genus of Early Cretaceous birds has been named Jinzhouornis in honor of the locality, but it appears to be a junior synonym of Confuciusornis which was found in the same formation some years earlier.
|Climate data for Jinzhou (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||−12.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||2.7|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.7||2.1||2.6||4.8||7.1||10.4||11.9||9.9||6.5||4.6||2.8||1.5||65.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||52||49||48||49||53||67||79||77||65||57||55||53||59|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||198.7||202.6||239.0||247.1||260.5||234.9||205.1||228.4||249.9||233.0||196.5||186.7||2,682.4|
|Percent possible sunshine||68||68||65||62||58||52||45||54||67||68||66||65||61|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
Jinzhou has eight immediate sub-municipal divisions:
|1||Taihe District||太和区||Tàihé Qū||210,000||459||458|
|2||Guta District||古塔区||Gǔtǎ Qū||240,000||28||8,571|
|3||Linghe District||凌河区||Línghé Qū||420,000||48||8,750|
|4||Linghai City||凌海市||Línghǎi Shì||600,000||2,862||210|
|5||Beizhen City||北镇市||Běizhèn Shì||530,000||1,782||297|
|6||Heishan County||黑山县||Hēishān Xiàn||630,000||2,436||259|
|7||Yi County||义县||Yì Xiàn||440,000||2,496||176|
|8||Jinzhou Economic and|
Technical Development Zone
Jìshù Kāifā Qū
The above eight are subdivided into 43 towns, 69 townships, and 1680 villages.
Jinzhou has a wide range of industries. Major traditional industries include petrochemistry, metallurgy, textiles, pharmacy and building materials.
Jinzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone : The Jinzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone was established in 1992. It is among the first province-level development zones approved by Liaoning Province. The development zone enjoys convenient transportation with easy access to Jinzhou Seaport, Jinzhou airport and several state highways.
Shopping and Services : Within the city, some western franchises have set up shop, most notably KFC, which has a long established foothold in Chinese markets. RT-Mart, New-Mart and Do-Do Express are major food and sundries retailers. Bank of Jinzhou (Jinzhou Yinhang) is the only bank in Jinzhou upon this writing with native English speaking staff, while Western Union, Bank of China and many other banking service are also present in the city. Visa and MasterCard are not accepted in Jinzhou, aside from a few large bank branches with access to these networks.
Jinzhou Airport provides air transport to major airports in China. There are two railway stations in the city, one designated for long trips and one for shorter routes. The most popular way to get around Jinzhou is on foot or by bicycle. Taxis crowd the streets and start at 6 RMB per trip. Bus routes also blanket the city and provide the most economical means of transportation, but are not always reliable.
Jinzhou is headquarters of the 40th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Shenyang Military Region responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia and North Korea.
The Liaoshen Campaign Memorial (traditional Chinese :遼沈戰役紀念館; simplified Chinese :辽沈战役纪念馆) commemorates the Liaoshen Campaign of 1948. It is a large museum that holds and displays over 16,000 pieces of equipment used during the campaign, including rifles, machine guns, mortars, cannons, and tanks. It also holds thousands of pictures and documents. The best known exhibit inside the museum is the Panoramic Picture Hall, which reproduces the complete Battle of Jinzhou on a rotating circular screen.
Yiwulü Mountain is located in the west of Beizhen City of Jinzhou. It is one of the three sacred mountains in Northeast China. Wanghai Mountain is the main peak, with a height of 867 meters above the sea level, and tourist spots such as Beizhen Temple, Shenshui Bridge, Fish Pool, Guanyin Pavilion, Sijiao Pavilion, Kuangguang Pavilion, Lotus Stone, Cloud Pass and Wanghai Temple are scattered throughout the mountain range.
Mount Bijia is an island in the Bohai Sea south of Jinzhou on which is located a Buddhist temple. During most of the day, Mount Bijia can only be accessed by boat, but when the tide wanes, a natural causeway connects Mount Bijia to the mainland. People can walk to Mount Bijia from the seafront on foot and local people have named this natural wonder Tian Qiao, (lit: Sky Bridge). On the top of the mountain there is a tall stone pavilion, which resembles a gigantic pen resting on a pen holder, hence the name "Bijiashan", meaning the "Pen Holder Mountain".
Guangji Pagoda (traditional Chinese :廣濟寺塔; simplified Chinese :广济寺塔): The Guangji Pagoda is located in Guta Park situated at the heart of Jinzhou. The 72-meter-tall tower is an example of beautiful Liao-style architecture, with thirteen levels in an octagonal shape. A quiet temple beneath completes the ancient Chinese setting. Visitors will see locals gather for early morning rituals, exercise and various other activities. There is no fee for admission to the temple grounds.
One of the bestselling nonfiction novels of the 1990s, "Wild Swans:Three Daughters of China", provides some detailed descriptions of Jinzhou both before and after the "1949 Liberation of China".
Jinzhou has one sister city, as designated by Sister Cities International.
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The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River in the west and the Yalu River in the east, and encompasses the territories of the whole sub-provincial city of Dalian and parts of prefectural cities of Yingkou, Anshan and Dandong.
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Luzhou (simplified Chinese: 泸州; traditional Chinese: 瀘州; pinyin: Lúzhōu; Sichuanese Pinyin: Nu2zou1; Luzhou dialect: [nu˨˩tsəu˥]), formerly transliterated as Lu-chou or Luchow, is a prefecture-level city located in the southeast of Sichuan Province, China. The city, named Jiangyang until the Southern and Northern Dynasties, is known as the "Liquor City" (酒城). Situated at the confluence of the Tuo River and the Yangtze River, Luzhou is not only an important port on the Yangtze river, but also the largest port in both size and output in Sichuan province since Chongqing seceded from Sichuan province in 1997. As of 12 31 2017 estimation, its population was 4,317,200 inhabitants whom 998,900 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Jiangyang and Longmatan districts, as Naxi district is not conurbated yet. Luzhou, which borders Yunnan, Guizhou and Chongqing, is the only geographic junction of the four provinces, and was therefore the logical place for a port in ancient China. After the PRC was founded in 1949, Luzhou became the capital of southern Sichuan province. In 1983, Luzhou was approved as a prefecture-level city administratively.
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Panjin is a coastal prefecture-level city in central Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, situated on the northern shore of the Liaodong Bay. It borders Anshan to the east, Yingkou to the southeast, and Jinzhou to the west and north. It is the smallest city in both Liaoning and the entire Northeast China with an administrative area of 4,071 square kilometres (1,572 sq mi), and Liaoning's least populous city with a population of 1.39 million people.
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Yiwulü Mountain or simply Lü Mountain is located in the western part of Beizhen City, in Jinzhou City, Liaoning Province. It is one of the Three Greatest Mountains of Northeast China, together with Qianshan and Mount Changbai.
Beizhen is a city in west-central Liaoning province of Northeast China. It is under the administration of Jinzhou City.
Guta District is a district of the city of Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.
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Jinzhou Bay Airport is an airport serving the city of Jinzhou in western Liaoning province of Northeast China. It is located in Jianye Township, Linghai city. The airport received approval from the State Council of China in November 2012. The projected total investment is 762 million yuan.
The Jinzhou Museum is a museum located in Jinzhou District, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China. This museum and the Lüshun Museum are the two historically important museums in Dalian.
Liaoxi Commandery was a commandery in imperial China from the Warring States period to Tang dynasty. It was located in modern eastern Hebei and western Liaoning, to the west of the Liao River.
The Liaoxi Corridor, also known as the Yu Guan Corridor, is an important historical region located within the modern eastern Hebei and western Liaoning provinces, encompassing territories from the prefectural cities of Qinhuangdao, Huludao and Jinzhou. The region is an elongated coastal fluvial plain 185 km (115 mi) long and 8–15 km (5.0–9.3 mi) wide between branching ranges of the Yan Mountains to its northwest and the Liaodong Bay to its southeast, stretching southwest-to-northeast from the banks of the Dai River west of Qinhuangdao to the Daling River east of Jinzhou.
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