Jinzhou

Last updated
Jinzhou

锦州市

Chinchow
Jinzhoutower.jpg
Location of Jinzhou Prefecture within Liaoning (China).png
Location of Jinzhou City jurisdiction in Liaoning
China Liaoning location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Jinzhou
Location of the city center in Liaoning
Coordinates(Liaoshen campaign memorial): 41°07′44″N121°08′53″E / 41.129°N 121.148°E / 41.129; 121.148 Coordinates: 41°07′44″N121°08′53″E / 41.129°N 121.148°E / 41.129; 121.148
Country People's Republic of China
Province Liaoning
Districts and Counties
Government
  CPC Party SecretaryLiu Zhiqiang (刘志强)
  MayorWang Wenquan (王文权)
Area
[1]
   Prefecture-level city 10,111 km2 (3,904 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2017) [2]
436.00 km2 (168.34 sq mi)
Elevation
24 m (78 ft)
Population
 (2010 census) [1]
   Prefecture-level city 3,070,000
  Density300/km2 (790/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2017) [2]
969,000
  Urban density2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postcode
121000
Area code(s) 416
ISO 3166 code CN-LN-07
License plate 辽G
Administrative division code 210700
Website www.jz.gov.cn

Jinzhou ( /ˈɪnˈ/ , [3] simplified Chinese : ; traditional Chinese :錦州; pinyin :Jǐnzhōu), formerly Chinchow, is a coastal prefecture-level city in central-west Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the Liaoxi Corridor, which connects most of the land transports between North China and Northeast China, and is the economic center of western Liaoning. Located on the northern shore of Liaodong Bay, Jinzhou encompasses a coastline of 97.7 km (60.7 mi), with the Port of Jinzhou being China's northernmost seaport.

Contents

It is the fourth-most populous city in Liaoning, with a population of 3,126,463 (2010 census), of whom 1,091,799 reside in the urbanized area consisting of 3 urban districts. [4] The total area under the jurisdiction of Jinzhou is 10,111 square kilometers (3,904 sq mi), most of which is rural.

History

Map including Jinzhou (labeled as CHIN-HSIEN Jin Xian 
) (AMS, 1950) Txu-oclc-6614368-nk51-7.jpg
Map including Jinzhou (labeled as CHIN-HSIEN 錦縣) (AMS, 1950)

Jinzhou is an ancient city with over a thousand years of history. Originally known as Tuhe ( 徒河 ), it was part of Yan in the Warring States period. Under the Qin dynasty, the majority of what is now Jinzhou became part of Liaodong Commandery. It was part of Changli Commandery in the province of Youzhou during the Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms periods, but fell under the jurisdiction of Yingzhou in the Beiwei, Dongwei, and Beiqi periods, before becoming part of Liucheng Commandery and then Yan Prefecture during the Sui Dynasty and Tang dynasty. During the Tang, it was the seat of the Andong Protectorate.

The name "Jinzhou" came into use in the Liao dynasty, when it belonged to Zhongjing prefecture. In the Jin dynasty, it was part of Dongjing Prefecture and Beijing Prefecture. It belonged to Liaoyang Xingzhongshu in the Mongol Empire/Yuan dynasty and to Liaodong township in the Ming dynasty. It was ruled by Tianfu during the Qing dynasty, when its name was changed from Jinzhou to Jinxian. It is also known in English as Chinhsien and Chinchow.

People's Liberation Army launches final strike on Jinzhou Final Attack on Jinzhou.jpg
People's Liberation Army launches final strike on Jinzhou

During the Republican period, Jinzhou was attached to Liaoning Province. When the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1945, Jinzhou was the site of a major battle between the Communist and Nationalist forces, since it is where the main route from Manchuria through Shanhai Pass enters central China. Its capture on November 22, 1945 by Nationalist forces under Du Yuming forced the Communists to agree to a temporary ceasefire that lasted several months. [5]

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoxi Province was founded and Jinzhou became its provincial capital. Jinzhou came back under the administration of Liaoning Province in 1954, when Liaoxi and Liaodong provinces re-merged.

Geography

Jinzhou is located in the southwestern portion of Liaoning, and borders Panjin, Anshan, and Shenyang to the east, and Huludao on the west. The city's southern coast is the Liaodong Bay. On the north are Chaoyang and Fuxin.

Jinzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with four distinct seasons; winters are cold but very dry while summers are hot and humid. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −7.9 °C (17.8 °F) to 24.3 °C (75.7 °F) in July, with the annual mean being 9.50 °C (49.1 °F). The annual average precipitation is between 540 and 640 millimeters (21 and 25 in), the majority of which usually occurs in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 45% in July to 68% in three months, the city receives 2,682 hours of bright sunshine annually, with autumn and winter being especially sunny.

Fossil-bearing rocks are exposed in the city's vicinity, including the Yixian Formation. A genus of Early Cretaceous birds has been named Jinzhouornis in honor of the locality, but it appears to be a junior synonym of Confuciusornis which was found in the same formation some years earlier.

Climate data for Jinzhou (1971–2000)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−2.4
(27.7)
1.1
(34.0)
8.0
(46.4)
16.6
(61.9)
22.9
(73.2)
26.8
(80.2)
28.6
(83.5)
28.4
(83.1)
24.6
(76.3)
17.2
(63.0)
7.5
(45.5)
0.3
(32.5)
15.0
(58.9)
Average low °C (°F)−12.5
(9.5)
−9.3
(15.3)
−2.8
(27.0)
5.2
(41.4)
11.8
(53.2)
17.2
(63.0)
20.8
(69.4)
19.7
(67.5)
13.5
(56.3)
5.9
(42.6)
−2.7
(27.1)
−9.6
(14.7)
4.8
(40.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)2.7
(0.11)
3.2
(0.13)
7.3
(0.29)
24.9
(0.98)
46.3
(1.82)
81.3
(3.20)
165.3
(6.51)
136.8
(5.39)
58.6
(2.31)
27.4
(1.08)
10.1
(0.40)
3.9
(0.15)
567.8
(22.37)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.72.12.64.87.110.411.99.96.54.62.81.565.9
Average relative humidity (%)52494849536779776557555359
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.7202.6239.0247.1260.5234.9205.1228.4249.9233.0196.5186.72,682.4
Percent possible sunshine 68686562585245546768666561
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Administration

Jinzhou has eight immediate sub-municipal divisions:

Map
#Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2003 est.)
Area (km²)Density
(/km²)
1 Taihe District 太和区Tàihé Qū210,000459458
2 Guta District 古塔区Gǔtǎ Qū240,000288,571
3 Linghe District 凌河区Línghé Qū420,000488,750
4 Linghai City 凌海市Línghǎi Shì600,0002,862210
5 Beizhen City 北镇市Běizhèn Shì530,0001,782297
6 Heishan County 黑山县Hēishān Xiàn630,0002,436259
7 Yi County 义县Yì Xiàn440,0002,496176
8Jinzhou Economic and
Technical Development Zone
锦州经济
技术开发区
Jǐnzhōu Jīngjì
Jìshù Kāifā Qū

The above eight are subdivided into 43 towns, 69 townships, and 1680 villages.

Economy

Jinzhou has a wide range of industries. Major traditional industries include petrochemistry, metallurgy, textiles, pharmacy and building materials.

Jinzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone : The Jinzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone was established in 1992. It is among the first province-level development zones approved by Liaoning Province. The development zone enjoys convenient transportation with easy access to Jinzhou Seaport, Jinzhou airport and several state highways.

Shopping and Services : Within the city, some western franchises have set up shop, most notably KFC, which has a long established foothold in Chinese markets. RT-Mart, New-Mart and Do-Do Express are major food and sundries retailers. Bank of Jinzhou (Jinzhou Yinhang) is the only bank in Jinzhou upon this writing with native English speaking staff, while Western Union, Bank of China and many other banking service are also present in the city. Visa and MasterCard are not accepted in Jinzhou, aside from a few large bank branches with access to these networks.

Photograph of a shopping mall in Jinzhou city. Jinzhou City Shopping Mall.JPG
Photograph of a shopping mall in Jinzhou city.

Transport

Jinzhou Airport provides air transport to major airports in China. There are two railway stations in the city, one designated for long trips and one for shorter routes. The most popular way to get around Jinzhou is on foot or by bicycle. Taxis crowd the streets and start at 6 RMB per trip. Bus routes also blanket the city and provide the most economical means of transportation, but are not always reliable.

Military

Jinzhou is headquarters of the 40th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Shenyang Military Region responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia and North Korea.

Tourism

The Liaoshen Campaign Memorial (traditional Chinese :遼沈戰役紀念館; simplified Chinese :辽沈战役纪念馆) commemorates the Liaoshen Campaign of 1948. It is a large museum that holds and displays over 16,000 pieces of equipment used during the campaign, including rifles, machine guns, mortars, cannons, and tanks. It also holds thousands of pictures and documents. The best known exhibit inside the museum is the Panoramic Picture Hall, which reproduces the complete Battle of Jinzhou on a rotating circular screen.

Yiwulü Mountain is located in the west of Beizhen City of Jinzhou. It is one of the three sacred mountains in Northeast China. Wanghai Mountain is the main peak, with a height of 867 meters above the sea level, and tourist spots such as Beizhen Temple, Shenshui Bridge, Fish Pool, Guanyin Pavilion, Sijiao Pavilion, Kuangguang Pavilion, Lotus Stone, Cloud Pass and Wanghai Temple are scattered throughout the mountain range.

Mount Bijia is an island in the Bohai Sea south of Jinzhou on which is located a Buddhist temple. During most of the day, Mount Bijia can only be accessed by boat, but when the tide wanes, a natural causeway connects Mount Bijia to the mainland. People can walk to Mount Bijia from the seafront on foot and local people have named this natural wonder Tian Qiao, (lit: Sky Bridge). On the top of the mountain there is a tall stone pavilion, which resembles a gigantic pen resting on a pen holder, hence the name "Bijiashan", meaning the "Pen Holder Mountain".

Photograph of Mount Bijia at high tide. Bi jia shan at high tide.JPG
Photograph of Mount Bijia at high tide.

Guangji Pagoda (traditional Chinese :廣濟寺塔; simplified Chinese :广济寺塔): The Guangji Pagoda is located in Guta Park situated at the heart of Jinzhou. The 72-meter-tall tower is an example of beautiful Liao-style architecture, with thirteen levels in an octagonal shape. A quiet temple beneath completes the ancient Chinese setting. Visitors will see locals gather for early morning rituals, exercise and various other activities. There is no fee for admission to the temple grounds.

Culture

One of the bestselling nonfiction novels of the 1990s, "Wild Swans:Three Daughters of China", provides some detailed descriptions of Jinzhou both before and after the "1949 Liberation of China".

Notable people

Colleges and Universities

Sister cities

Jinzhou has one sister city, as designated by Sister Cities International.

Related Research Articles

Liaoning Province of China

Liaoning, is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. Located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, it is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

Liaodong Peninsula Peninsula in Liaoning, China

The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River in the west and the Yalu River in the east, and encompasses the territories of the whole sub-provincial city of Dalian and parts of prefectural cities of Yingkou, Anshan and Dandong.

The Protectorate-General to Pacify the East was a protectorate established by the Tang dynasty in the northeast after defeating the kingdom of Goguryeo. In the place of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang created the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, Ungjin Commandery and Gyerim Territory Area Command.

Luzhou Prefecture-level city in Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China

Luzhou (simplified Chinese: 泸州; traditional Chinese: 瀘州; pinyin: Lúzhōu; Sichuanese Pinyin: Nu2zou1; Luzhou dialect: [nu˨˩tsəu˥]), formerly transliterated as Lu-chou or Luchow, is a prefecture-level city located in the southeast of Sichuan Province, China. The city, named Jiangyang until the Southern and Northern Dynasties, is known as the "Liquor City" (酒城). Situated at the confluence of the Tuo River and the Yangtze River, Luzhou is not only an important port on the Yangtze river, but also the largest port in both size and output in Sichuan province since Chongqing seceded from Sichuan province in 1997. As of 12 31 2017 estimation, its population was 4,317,200 inhabitants whom 998,900 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Jiangyang and Longmatan districts, as Naxi district is not conurbated yet. Luzhou, which borders Yunnan, Guizhou and Chongqing, is the only geographic junction of the four provinces, and was therefore the logical place for a port in ancient China. After the PRC was founded in 1949, Luzhou became the capital of southern Sichuan province. In 1983, Luzhou was approved as a prefecture-level city administratively.

Liaodong Bay

Liaodong Bay is largest and longest of the three main bays of the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea.

Panjin Prefecture-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Panjin is a coastal prefecture-level city in central Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, situated on the northern shore of the Liaodong Bay. It borders Anshan to the east, Yingkou to the southeast, and Jinzhou to the west and north. It is the smallest city in both Liaoning and the entire Northeast China with an administrative area of 4,071 square kilometres (1,572 sq mi), and Liaoning's least populous city with a population of 1.39 million people.

Huludao Prefecture-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Huludao, formerly known as Jinxi (锦西) until 1994, is a coastal prefecture-level city in southwestern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Its name literally means "Gourd Island", referring to the fiddle-shaped contour of the peninsula, which resembles a bottle gourd, at the city's Longgang District. It has a total area of 10,415 km2 (4,021 sq mi) and a population of 2.87 million, of whom some 531,000 live in the city proper.

Bijia Mountain

Bijia Mountain is an island located in the Liaodong Bay of China's Bohai Sea, south of the coast of the Jinzhou region of the Liaoning province, coastal China. During most times of the day, Bijiashan can only be accessed by boat. But when the sea recedes, a natural zigzagging cobblestone causeway, over 10 metres wide, links the island to the mainland.

You Prefecture Ancient Chinese province

You Prefecture or Province, also known by its Chinese name Youzhou, was a prefecture (zhou) in northern China during its imperial era.

Guangji Bridge (Chaozhou)

Guangji Bridge, also known as Xiangzi Bridge, is an ancient bridge that crosses the Han River east of Chaozhou, Guangdong province, China. A key cultural relic under national protection, the bridge is renowned as one of China's four famous ancient bridges, the other three being Zhaozhou Bridge, Lugou Bridge, and Luoyang Bridge.

Jinzhou District District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Jinzhou District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city centre and facing the Bohai Sea to the west as well as the Korea Bay to the east and has a longer history than Dalian itself, and used to be a thriving walled city where the officials of this area were dispatched from the central government. Recently, it is again a thriving town, having Dalian Development Area within its area as well as becoming a bedroom community to downtown Dalian. Its area is 1,352.54 square kilometres (522.22 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 1,102,773.

Yiwulü Mountain

Yiwulü Mountain or simply Lü Mountain is located in the western part of Beizhen City, in Jinzhou City, Liaoning Province. It is one of the Three Greatest Mountains of Northeast China, together with Qianshan and Mount Changbai.

Beizhen County-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Beizhen is a city in west-central Liaoning province of Northeast China. It is under the administration of Jinzhou City.

Guta District District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Guta District is a district of the city of Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Ji or Jicheng was an ancient city in northern China, which has become the longest continuously inhabited section of modern Beijing. Historical mention of Ji dates to the founding of the Zhou dynasty in about 1045 BC. Archaeological finds in southwestern Beijing where Ji was believed to be located date to the Spring and Autumn period. The city of Ji served as the capital of the ancient states of Ji and Yan until the unification of China by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC. Thereafter, the city was a prefectural capital for Youzhou through the Han dynasty, Three Kingdoms, Western Jin dynasty, Sixteen Kingdoms, Northern Dynasties, and Sui dynasty. With the creation of a Jizhou (蓟州) during the Tang dynasty in what is now Tianjin Municipality, the city of Ji took on the name Youzhou. Youzhou was one of the Sixteen Prefectures ceded to the Khitans during the Five Dynasties. The city then became the southern capital of the Liao dynasty and then main capital of the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). In the 13th century, Kublai Khan built a new capital city for the Yuan dynasty adjacent to Ji to the north. The old city of Ji became a suburb to Dadu. In the Ming dynasty, the old and new cities were merged by Beijing's Ming-era city wall.

Jinzhou Bay Airport

Jinzhou Bay Airport is an airport serving the city of Jinzhou in western Liaoning province of Northeast China. It is located in Jianye Township, Linghai city. The airport received approval from the State Council of China in November 2012. The projected total investment is 762 million yuan.

Jinzhou Museum (Dalian)

The Jinzhou Museum is a museum located in Jinzhou District, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China. This museum and the Lüshun Museum are the two historically important museums in Dalian.

Liaoxi Commandery was a commandery in imperial China from the Warring States period to Tang dynasty. It was located in modern eastern Hebei and western Liaoning, to the west of the Liao River.

The Liaoxi Corridor, also known as the Yu Guan Corridor, is an important historical region located within the modern eastern Hebei and western Liaoning provinces, encompassing territories from the prefectural cities of Qinhuangdao, Huludao and Jinzhou. The region is an elongated coastal fluvial plain 185 km (115 mi) long and 8–15 km (5.0–9.3 mi) wide between branching ranges of the Yan Mountains to its northwest and the Liaodong Bay to its southeast, stretching southwest-to-northeast from the banks of the Dai River west of Qinhuangdao to the Daling River east of Jinzhou.

References

  1. 1 2 "Jinzhou". XZQH. Archived from the original on 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
  2. 1 2 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 50. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  3. "Jinzhou pronunciation". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  4. China, Liaoning population statistics Archived 2012-05-22 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Lew, Christopher R. The Third Chinese Revolutionary War, 1945-1949: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership. The USA and Canada: Routelage. 2009. ISBN   0-415-77730-5. pp.28-30
  6. Chan, Minnie; "Chongqing Party boss defends his crackdown", South China Morning Post, 2009 Oct 18 The Xia's made famous by the publication of the book, Wild Swans by Jung Chang.
  7. http://www.lnit.edu.cn
  8. http://www.bhu.edu.cn/
  9. http://www.jzmu.edu.cn/