Joan of England, Queen of Scotland

Last updated
Joan of England
JoanEngland.jpg
Queen consort of Scotland
Tenure21 June 1221 – 4 March 1238
Born22 July 1210
Died4 March 1238 (aged 27)
Havering-atte-Bower, England
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1221)
House Plantagenet
Father John, King of England
Mother Isabella of Angoulême

Joan of England (22 July 1210 – 4 March 1238), was Queen consort of Scotland from 1221 until her death. [1] [2] She was the third child of John, King of England [3] and Isabella of Angoulême.

Contents

Life

Joan was sought as a bride by Philip II of France for his son. In 1214, however, her father King John promised her in marriage to Hugh X of Lusignan, as compensation for his being jilted by her mother Isabella. She was promised Saintes, Saintonge and the Isle of Oléron as dowry, and was sent to her future spouse in that year to be brought up at his court until marriage. Hugh X laid claim on her dowry already prior to their marriage, but when this did not succeed, he reportedly became less eager to marry her.

On the death of John of England in 1216, queen dowager Isabella decided she should marry Hugh X herself. Hugh X kept Joan with him in an attempt to keep her dowry as well as having the dowry of her mother Isabella released from the English. On 15 May 1220, after an intervention from the Pope and an agreement of the dowry, Joan was sent back to England where negotiations for her hand with Alexander II of Scotland were taking place. Alexander had been in England in 1212, where he had been knighted by her father. It is alleged that King John had promised to give him Joan as a bride and Northumberland as her dowry.

On 18 June 1221, Alexander officially settled the lands Jedburgh, Hassendean, Kinghorn and Crail to Joan as her personal income. She and Alexander married on 21 June 1221, at York Minster. [4] Alexander was twenty-three. Joan was almost eleven. They had no children. This fact was a matter of concern, but an annulment of the marriage was regarded as risky as it could provoke war with England. Queen Joan did not have a strong position at the Scottish court, which was dominated by her mother-in-law, queen dowager Ermengarde. Her English connections nevertheless made her important regardless of her personal qualities. Joan accompanied Alexander to England in September 1236 at Newcastle, and in September 1237 at York, during the negotiations with her brother King Henry III over disputed northern territories. At this point, chronicler Matthew Paris suggests that Joan and Alexander had become estranged and that Joan wished to spend more time in England, and her brother King Henry granted her manors in Driffield, Yorkshire and Fen Stanton in Huntingdonshire to reside if needed. In York, Joan and her sister-in-law Eleanor of Provence agreed to make a pilgrimage to Thomas Becket's shrine in Canterbury.

Joan died in the arms of her brothers King Henry and Richard of Cornwall at Havering-atte-Bower in 1238, and was buried at Tarrant Crawford Abbey in Dorset in accordance with her wishes. [5] [6]

Homages

Henry III continued to honour Joan's memory for the rest of his life. Most dramatically, in late 1252, almost fourteen years after her death, Henry ordered the production of the image of a queen in marble for Joan's tomb, at the cost of 100s. This was one of the first funerary effigies of a queen in England; the tradition developed in the early thirteenth century, but the tombs of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Berengaria of Navarre were in France. Nothing now remains of this church; the last mention of it is before the Reformation. It is said that she is now buried in a golden coffin in the graveyard.

Notes

  1. Annales de Dunstaplia
  2. Annales de Theokesberia
  3. The Annals of Worcester
  4. Agnes Mure Mackenzie, The Foundations of Scotland (1957), p. 251.
  5. Mackenzie, p. 260.
  6. A Medieval Chronicle of Scotland: The Chronicle of Melrose

Related Research Articles

Alexander II of Scotland King of Scotland

Alexander II was King of Scotland from 1214 until his death. He concluded the Treaty of York (1237) which defined the boundary between England and Scotland, virtually unchanged today.

Isabella of France 14th-century French princess and queen of England

Isabella of France, sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward II, and regent of England from 1327 until 1330. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Isabella was notable in her lifetime for her diplomatic skills, intelligence, and beauty. She became a "femme fatale" figure in plays and literature over the years, usually portrayed as a beautiful but cruel and manipulative figure.

Isabella of Angoulême 12th- and 13th-century French noblewoman and queen consort of England

Isabella of Angoulême was Queen of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also suo jure Countess of Angoulême from 1202 until 1246.

Richard of Cornwall 13th-century English King of the Romans and Earl of Cornwall

Richard, second son of John, King of England, was the nominal Count of Poitou (1225–1243), Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans. He was one of the wealthiest men in Europe and joined the Barons' Crusade, where he achieved success as a negotiator for the release of prisoners and assisted with the building of the citadel in Ascalon.

Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile 12th-century English princess and queen consort of Castile and Toledo

Eleanor of England, was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was the sixth child and second daughter of Henry II, King of England, and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Eleanor of Provence 13th-century French noblewoman and Queen of England

Eleanor of Provence was a French noblewoman who became Queen consort of England as the wife of King Henry III from 1236 until his death in 1272. She served as regent of England during the absence of her spouse in 1253.

A queen dowager or dowager queen is a title or status generally held by the widow of a king. In the case of the widow of an emperor, the title of empress dowager is used. Its full meaning is clear from the two words from which it is composed: queen indicates someone who served as queen consort, while dowager indicates a woman who holds the title from her deceased husband. A queen mother is a former queen, often a dowager queen, who is the mother of the reigning monarch.

Eleanor of Austria Queen consort of Portugal

Eleanor of Austria, also called Eleanor of Castile, was born an Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile from the House of Habsburg, and subsequently became Queen consort of Portugal (1518–1521) and of France (1530–1547). She also held the Duchy of Touraine (1547–1558) in dower. She is called "Leonor" in Spanish and Portuguese and "Eléonore" or "Aliénor" in French.

Blanche of Artois Queen consort of Navarre

Blanche of Artois was a member of the Capetian House of Artois who, as queen dowager, held regency over the Kingdom of Navarre and the County of Champagne. She was queen of Navarre and countess of Champagne and Brie during her marriage to Henry I of Navarre. After his death she became regent in the name of their infant daughter, Joan I. She passed on the regency of Navarre to Philip III of France, her cousin and her daughter's prospective father-in-law, but retained the administration of Champagne. She later shared the government of Champagne with her second husband, Edmund Crouchback, until her daughter reached the age of majority.

Eleanor of Castile 13th-century Spanish princess and queen of England

Eleanor of Castile was Queen of England as the first wife of Edward I, whom she married as part of a political deal to affirm English sovereignty over Gascony.

Isabella of England 13th century empress of the Holy Roman Empire

Isabella of England was a princess of the House of Plantagenet and Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Sicily and Germany from 1235 until her death as the third wife of Emperor Frederick II.

Joan of the Tower 14th-century English princess and queen of Scotland

Joan of the Tower, daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France, was the queen of Scotland from 1329 to her death as the first wife of David II of Scotland.

Mary of Guelders Queen consort of Scotland

Mary of Guelders was the queen of Scotland by marriage to King James II of Scotland. She ruled as regent of Scotland from 1460 to 1463.

Joan of England, Queen of Sicily 12th-century queen consort of Sicily

Joan of England was a queen consort of Sicily and countess consort of Toulouse. She was the seventh child of Henry II, King of England, and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine. From her birth, she was destined to make a political and royal marriage. She married William II of Sicily and later Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse, two very important and powerful figures in the political landscape of Medieval Europe.

Marie de Coucy was queen of Scotland by marriage to King Alexander II. She was a member of the royal council during the two last years of the minority of her son, King Alexander III, in 1260-1262.

Yolande of Dreux, Queen of Scotland Countess of Montfort

Yolande of Dreux was a sovereign Countess of Montfort from 1311 until 1322. Through her first marriage to Alexander III of Scotland, Yolande became Queen consort of the Kingdom of Scotland. Through her second marriage to Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, she became Duchess Consort of Brittany.

Margaret of England 13th-century English princess and Queen of Scotland

Margaret of England was Queen of Scots by marriage to King Alexander III.

Ermengarde de Beaumont was Queen of Scotland as the wife of King William I. She is reported to have exerted influence over the affairs of state as queen, though the information of her is lacking in detail.

Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves (1482–1517)

Maria of Aragon was a Spanish infanta, and queen consort of Portugal as the second spouse of Portuguese King Manuel I.

Agnes Howard, Duchess of Norfolk

Agnes Howard was the second wife of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. Two of King Henry VIII's queens were her step-granddaughters, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. Catherine Howard was placed in the Dowager Duchess's care after her mother's death.

References

Preceded by
Queen consort of Scotland
1221–1238
Succeeded by