Joaquín Rodrigo

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Joaquín Rodrigo
Joaquin Rodrigo en Rosario.JPG
Monument in Rosario, Argentina
Born22 November 1901
Sagunto (Valencia), Spain
Died6 July 1999(1999-07-06) (aged 97)
Madrid, Spain
NationalitySpanish
Spouse(s) Victoria Kamhi

Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre, 1st Marquess of the Gardens of Aranjuez (Spanish:  [xoaˈkin roˈðɾiɣo] ; 22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999), was a Spanish composer and a virtuoso pianist. He is best known for composing the Concierto de Aranjuez , a cornerstone of the classical guitar repertoire.

Contents

Life

Rodrigo was born in Sagunto (Valencia), and completely lost his sight at the age of three after contracting diphtheria. He began to study solfège, piano and violin at the age of eight; harmony and composition from the age of 16. Although distinguished by having raised the Spanish guitar to dignity as a universal concert instrument and best known for his guitar music, he never mastered the instrument himself. He wrote his compositions in Braille, and they were transcribed for publication.

Rodrigo studied music under Francisco Antich in Valencia and under Paul Dukas at the École Normale de Musique in Paris. After briefly returning to Spain, he went to Paris again to study musicology, first under Maurice Emmanuel and then under André Pirro. His first published compositions [1] date from 1923. In 1943 he received Spain's National Prize for Orchestra for Cinco piezas infantiles ("Five Children's Pieces"), based on his earlier composition of the same piece for two pianos, premiered by Ricardo Viñes. From 1947 Rodrigo was a professor of music history, holding the Manuel de Falla Chair of Music in the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, at Complutense University of Madrid. Notable students include Yüksel Koptagel, Turkish composer and pianist.

His most famous work, Concierto de Aranjuez , was composed in 1939 in Paris for the guitarist Regino Sainz de la Maza. In later life he and his wife declared that it was written as a response to the miscarriage of their first child. [2] It is a concerto for guitar and orchestra. The central adagio movement is one of the most recognizable in 20th-century classical music, featuring the interplay of guitar with cor anglais [ citation needed ]. This movement was later adapted by the jazz arranger Gil Evans for Miles Davis' 1960 album "Sketches of Spain". The Concerto was adapted by the composer himself for Harp and Orchestra at the request of Nicanor Zabaleta and dedicated to Zabaleta.

The success of this concerto led to commissions from a number of prominent soloists, including Nicanor Zabaleta, for whom Rodrigo dedicated his Concierto serenata for Harp and Orchestra, Julian Lloyd Webber, for whom Rodrigo composed his Concierto como un divertimento for cello and orchestra, and James Galway, for whom Rodrigo composed his Concierto pastoral for flute and orchestra. In 1954 Rodrigo composed Fantasía para un gentilhombre at the request of Andrés Segovia. His Concierto Andaluz, for four guitars and orchestra, was commissioned by Celedonio Romero for himself and his three sons.

Monument in Aranjuez, Spain Aranjuez MonumentoJoaquinRodrigo1.jpg
Monument in Aranjuez, Spain
Arms of the 1st Marquess of the Gardens of Aranjuez Coat of Arms of the 1st Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez.svg
Arms of the 1st Marquess of the Gardens of Aranjuez

None of Rodrigo's works, however, achieved the popular and critical success of the Concierto de Aranjuez and the Fantasia para un gentilhombre. These two works are very often paired in recordings.

He was awarded Spain's highest award for composition, the Premio Nacional de Música, in 1983. On 30 December 1991 Rodrigo was raised into the Spanish nobility by King Juan Carlos I with the hereditary title of Marqués de los Jardines de Aranjuez [3] [4] (English: Marquess of the Gardens of Aranjuez). He received the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award—Spain's highest civilian honor—in 1996. He was named Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French government in 1998.

He married Victoria Kamhi, a Turkish-born pianist whom he had met in Paris, on 19 January 1933, in Valencia. Their daughter, Cecilia, was born on 27 January 1941. Rodrigo died in 1999 in Madrid at the age of 97, and his daughter succeeded him as Marquesa de los Jardines de Aranjuez. Joaquín Rodrigo and his wife Victoria are buried at the cemetery at Aranjuez.

Works

Orchestral

Concertante

Instrumental

Vocal/choral

Guitar and voice

Related Research Articles

<i>Concierto de Aranjuez</i>

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References

  1. A suite for piano, and "Dos esbozos", suite for piano and violín and Siciliana, for cello
  2. The Sound of Magnolias, BBC Radio 4, 20 October 2009. Irma Kurtz investigates Spanish composer Rodrigo's Concerto de Aranjuez. (Downloadable audio documentary)
  3. "Marquess of the Gardens of Aranjuez"; since 1999, his daughter Cecilia Rodrigo Camhi, has been 2nd Marquesa de los Jardines de Aranjuez.
  4. "boe.es" (PDF).
  5. Victoria Kamhi de Rodrigo, Hand in Hand With Joaquin Rodrigo: My Life at the Maestro's Side, trans. Ellen Wilkerson (Pittsburgh: Latin American Literary Review Press, 1992), 231.
  6. Graham Wade, Joaquín Rodrigo: A Life in Music: Travelling to Aranjuez, 2006, p. 156: " ... He has also completed for voice, Tres canciones, with classical texts".

Bibliography

Articles

Recordings

Videos

DVD containing: Shadows and Light documentary, Concierto de Aranjuez
Spanish nobility
New title Marquess of the Gardens of Aranjuez
30 December 1991 – 6 July 1999
Succeeded by
Cecilia Rodrigo Kamhi