Joaquim Nabuco at age 53, 1902.
|Died||January 17, 1910 60) (aged|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Alma mater||Universidade Federal de Pernambuco|
|Occupation||Diplomat and politician|
|Spouse(s)||Evelina Torres Soares Ribeiro (m. 1889)|
Joaquim Aurélio Barreto Nabuco de Araújo (August 19, 1849 – January 17, 1910) was a Brazilian writer, statesman, and a leading voice in the abolitionist movement of his country.
Born in Brazil, Joaquim was the son of a major political figure in the Brazilian Empire, Jose Thomas Nabuco (1813–1878), a lifetime senator, counselor of state, and wealthy landowner. Jose made his move from conservativism to liberalism in the 1860s, establishing the Liberal Party in 1868 and supporting the reforms that would lead to the abolition of slavery in 1888.
Joaquim Nabuco spent most of his time from 1873 to 1878 traveling and living abroad. In his youth, Nabuco had a 14-year relationship with financier and philanthropist Eufrásia Teixeira Leite, who held one of the largest fortunes of the world at the time. Eufrásia and her sister, Francisca Bernardina Teixeira Leite (1845-1899) inherited, after their parents' death, in 1872, a fortune equivalent to 5% of all Brazilian exports. In 1873, the two young ladies had decided to live in Paris. The romance with Nabuco begun during a trip by ship to Europe, in 1873, and would last until 1887, when Eufrásia sent her last letter to Joaquim Nabuco. Two years later, at 38 years old, he married Evelina Torres Soares Ribeiro. Eufrásia, however, never got married.
After returning to Brazil in 1878, Nabuco began his public fight against slavery through his political activity and in his writings. He campaigned against slavery in the Chamber of Deputies from 1878, and he founded the Brazilian Anti-Slavery Society. In 1883, he wrote probably the most important work against slavery in the Portuguese language: O Abolicionismo. Although he was largely responsible for the abolition of slavery in 1888, contemporary affirmative action intellectuals believe his reasons for doing so were related to an elitist fear of slavery "Africanizing" Brazil. He is quoted as saying, "Free labor and slave labor cannot coexist, and neither can slavery and immigration".However, it is hard to explain, under this view, why Nabuco would want Africans to become free citizens when slave traffic had already been prohibited.
After the overthrow of the Brazilian monarchy he retired from public life for a period of time.
He later became the first ambassador from Brazil to the United States from 1905–1910, which marked a significant shift in his country's role in the world arena. Nabuco realized the importance for Brazil, and other South American nations, to develop a united relationship with the North American stage. In Washington, he worked with Elihu Root who also supported this idea of Pan-Americanism. He spent many years in both England and France, where he was a strong proponent of Pan-Americanism, presiding over the 1906 Pan-Americanism conference. Following Nabuco's death on January 17, 1910, the Pan-American Building in Washington, D.C. was finally completed. At the dedication ceremony the Secretary of State said the following words about him: “One voice that should have spoken here today is silent, but many of us cannot forget or cease to mourn and to honor our dear and noble friend, Joaquim Nabuco. Ambassador from Brazil, dean of the American diplomatic corps, respected, admired, trusted, loved and followed by all of us, he was a commanding figure in the international movement of which the creation of this building is part…”
His best known work is his autobiography Minha formação, published in 1900. It vividly portrays the slave-holding society in 19th century Brazil.
Of his major works, Minha formação and O abolicionismo have been translated into English, as My Formative Yearsand Abolitionism respectively.
Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. This term can be used both formally and informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free.
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme Velho, was a pioneer Brazilian novelist, poet, playwright and short story writer, widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature. Nevertheless, Assis did not achieve widespread popularity outside Brazil during his lifetime. In 1897 he founded and became the first President of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. He was multilingual, having taught himself French, English, German and Greek in later life.
Bertha Maria Júlia Lutz was a Brazilian zoologist, politician, and diplomat. Lutz became a leading figure in both the Pan American feminist movement and human rights movement. She was instrumental in gaining women's suffrage in Brazil and represented her country at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, signing her name to the United Nations Charter. In addition to her political work, she was a naturalist at the National Museum of Brazil, specializing in poison dart frogs. She has three frog species and two lizard species named after her.
Alfredo Maria Adriano d'Escragnolle Taunay, Viscount of Taunay, was a French Brazilian writer, musician, professor, military engineer, historian, politician, sociologist and nobleman. He is famous for the Regionalist novel Inocência, considered a major forerunner of Naturalism in Brazil, and for A Retirada da Laguna, an account of an episode in the war against Paraguay. The Brazilianist Leslie Bethell has described it as "the one undoubted literary masterpiece produced by the Paraguayan War".
Raul d'Ávila Pompeia was a Brazilian novelist, short story writer and chronicler. He is famous for the Impressionist romance O Ateneu.
André Pinto Rebouças was a Brazilian military engineer, abolitionist and inventor, son of Antônio Pereira Rebouças (1798–1880) and Carolina Pinto Rebouças. Lawyer, member of Parliament and an adviser to Pedro II of Brazil, his father was the son of a manumitted slave and a Portuguese tailor. His brothers Antônio Pereira Rebouças Filho and José Rebouças were also engineers.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day. However, the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves have differed vastly in different systems of slavery in different times and places.
Minha formação is the autobiography of Joaquim Nabuco, a Brazilian writer, diplomat and abolitionist. First published in 1900, it is often cited as a classic of Brazilian literature.
José Maria da Silva Paranhos, the Viscount of Rio Branco was a politician, monarchist, diplomat, teacher and journalist of the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889). Rio Branco was born in Salvador, in what was then the Captaincy of Bahia, to a wealthy family, but most of the fortune was lost after his parents' deaths early in his childhood.
José Carlos do Patrocínio was a Brazilian writer, journalist, activist, orator and pharmacist. He was among the most well-known proponents of the abolition of slavery in Brazil, and known as "O Tigre da Abolição". He founded and occupied the 21st chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1897 until his death in 1905.
Luís Gonzaga Pinto da Gama was a Brazilian Romantic poet, journalist, lawyer, Republican and a prominent abolitionist.
Ruy Barbosa de Oliveira was a Brazilian polymath, diplomat, writer, jurist, and politician.
Today, there are more than 75 million people of African descent living in Brazil, which currently gives it, based on the one drop rule, the second largest black population in the world. However, despite its large black population it was also, officially, the last country in the western hemisphere to abolish slavery, in 1888. Brazil proudly refers to itself as a "Racial Democracy," originally coined by Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre in his work Casa-Grande & Senzala, published in 1933. Additionally, racism has been made illegal under Brazil's anti-discrimination laws, which were passed in the 1950s after Katherine Dunham, an African-American dancer touring Brazil, was barred from a hotel. Nonetheless, race has been the subject of multiple intense debates over the years within the country.
The Ministry of Justice and Public Security, previously known as Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Justice and Citizenship, is a cabinet-level federal ministry in Brazil. The current minister is André Luiz de Almeida Mendonça.
The ABC of Castro Alves is a biography of a famous Brazilian poet, written by Jorge Amado and first published in 1941. There is no English version.
Eufrásia Teixeira Leite was an heiress, financial investor and Brazilian philanthropist. She left in testament a fortune that could buy 1,850 kg of gold, at the prices of the time, having been one of the richest people in the world that time, and whose greater part was bequeathed to assisting educational institutions of the city of Vassouras. Alone, Eufrásia multiplied the family fortune several times and would be a billionaire by today's standards.
Afonso Celso de Assis Figueiredo Júnior, titled Count of Afonso Celso by the Holy See, better known as Afonso Celso, was a teacher, poet, historian and Brazilian politician. He is one of the founders of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, where he occupied the chair number 36.
The Black Guard of the Redemptress was a paramilitary secret society in Rio de Janeiro composed of Brazilian former slaves freed on May 13, 1888. by the signature of the Golden Law by Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil. The group was led by José do Patrocínio, a former republican, and its ostensible purpose was to protect the well-being of the Brazilian Imperial Family and to ensure the Princess Imperial's accession to the throne, in opposition to the rising threat of a republican coup. The group began its activities soon after the abolition of slavery and lasted until shortly around the Proclamation of the Republic in Brazil on November 15, 1889.
Teixeira de Melo was a Brazilian doctor, journalist, historian and poet. He was born in Campos, Rio de Janeiro, on August 28, 1833, and died in Rio de Janeiro on April 10, 1907. He was the founder of Chair 6 of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, choosing as a patron the poet Casimiro de Abreu, who was his friend. He was replaced by Admiral Jaceguai.
Antônio Peregrino Maciel Monteiro (patron)
Brazilian Academy of Letters – Occupant of the 27th chair
Alfredo de Moraes Gomes Ferreira
| Ambassador of Brazil to the United States |
Domício da Gama