Job (biblical figure)

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Job
Leon Bonnat - Job.jpg
Job by Léon Bonnat (1880)
Prophet, Righteous
Venerated in Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Druze
Major shrine Tomb of Job
Feast
Attributes Often depicted as a man tested by God
Patronage
Major works Book of Job

Job ( /b/ JOHB; Hebrew : אִיּוֹב 'Iyyōḇ; Greek : ἸώβIṓb) is the central figure of the Book of Job in the Bible. In rabbinical literature, Job is called one of the prophets of the Gentiles. [1] In Islam, Job (Arabic : أيوب, romanized:  Ayyūb ) is also considered a prophet.

Contents

Job is presented as a good and prosperous family man who is beset by Satan with God's permission with horrendous disasters that take away all that he holds dear, including his children, his health, and his property. He struggles to understand his situation and begins a search for the answers to his difficulties. [2]

In the Hebrew Book of Job

Job and His Friends by Ilya Repin (1869) Job and his friends.jpg
Job and His Friends by Ilya Repin (1869)

The Hebrew Book of Job is part of Ketuvim ("Writings") of the Jewish Bible. Not much is known about Job based on the Masoretic text of the Jewish Bible.

The characters in the Book of Job consist of Job, his wife, his three friends (Bildad, Eliphaz, and Zophar), a man named Elihu, God, and angels (one of whom is named Satan).

It begins with an introduction to Job's character—he is described as a blessed man who lives righteously in the Land of Uz. The Lord's praise of Job prompts an angel with the title of "satan" ("accuser") to suggest that Job served God simply because God protected him. God removes Job's protection and gives permission to the angel to take his wealth, his children, and his physical health (but not his life). Despite his difficult circumstances, he does not curse God, but rather curses the day of his birth. And although he anguishes over his plight, he stops short of accusing God of injustice. Job's miserable earthly condition is simply God's will.

In the following, Job debates with three friends concerning his condition. They argue whether it was justified, and they debate solutions to his problems. Job ultimately condemns all their counsel, beliefs, and critiques of him as false. God then appears to Job and his friends out of a whirlwind, not answering Job's central questions. Job, by staying silent before God, stresses the point that he understands that his affliction is God's will even though he despairs at not knowing why. Job appears faithful without direct knowledge of God and without demands for special attention from God, even for a cause that all others would declare to be just. And the text gives an allusion to Job 28:28 : "And unto man he said, Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding".

God rebukes the three friends and gives them instruction for the remission of sin, followed by Job being restored to an even better condition than his former wealthy state ( Job 42:10–17 ). Job is blessed to have seven sons, and three daughters named Jemimah (which means "dove"), Keziah ("cinnamon"), and Keren-happuch ("horn of eye-makeup"). His daughters were said to be the most beautiful women in the land. [3]

In the Greek Old Testament Book of Job

Job Restored to Prosperity by Laurent de La Hyre (1648) Job-restored-to-prosperity.jpg
Job Restored to Prosperity by Laurent de La Hyre (1648)

The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, has a revised and updated final verse that claims Job's genealogy, asserting him to be a grandson of Esau and a ruler of Edom.

This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausis, on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab; and having taken an Arabian wife, he begot a son whose name was Ennon. And he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and of his mother Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam. And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he also ruled over: first, Balac, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, Jobab, who is called Job, and after him Asom, who was governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab; and the name of his city was Gethaim. And his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites, Baldad sovereign of the Sauchaeans, Sophar king of the Minaeans. [4]

In other religious texts

Judaism
Christianity
Mormonism
Islam
Baháʼí

Job in Judaism

Scroll of Book of Job, in Hebrew Job Scroll.jpg
Scroll of Book of Job, in Hebrew

A clear majority of rabbis saw Job as having in fact existed as a historically factual figure.

According to a minority view, Job never existed. [10] In this view, Job was a literary creation by a prophet who used this form of writing to convey a divine message. On the other hand, the Talmud (in Tractate Baba Batra 15a–16b) goes to great lengths trying to ascertain when Job actually lived, citing many opinions and interpretations by the leading sages.

Job is further mentioned in the Talmud as follows: [11]

Christian views

Christianity accepts the Book of Job as canon in its Old Testament. In addition, Job is mentioned in the New Testament of the Christian Bible: the Epistle of James ( James 5:11 ) paraphrases Job as an example of patience in suffering.

Job's declaration, "I know that my redeemer liveth" ( Job 19:25 ), is considered by some Christians to be a proto-Christian reference to Christ as the Redeemer, and is the basis of several Christian hymns, as well as the opening scene of Part III of Handel's Messiah. However, Jewish bible commentators and scholars point out that Job "insists on a divine hearing in his lifetime" (cf. Job 16:19–22). [19]

He is commemorated by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in their Calendar of Saints on May 9, by the Roman Catholic Church on May 10, and by the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches on May 6.

He is also commemorated by the Armenian Apostolic Church on May 6 and December 26, and by the Coptic Orthodox Church on April 27 and August 29.

Islamic views and Quranic account

In the Qur'an, Job (Arabic : أيّوب, romanized: Ayyūb) is considered a prophet in Islam. [20] The narrative frame of Job's story in Islam is similar to the Hebrew Bible story but, in Islam, the emphasis is paid to Job remaining steadfast to God and there is no record of his bitterness or defiance, [21] or mention of lengthy discussions with friends. Some Muslim commentators also spoke of Job as being the ancestor of the Romans. [22] Muslim literature also comments on Job's time and place of prophecy, saying that he came after Joseph in the prophetic series and that he preached to his own people rather than being sent to a specified community. Tradition further recounts that Job will be the leader of the group of "those who patiently endured" in Heaven. [23] Philip K. Hitti asserted that the subject was an Arab and the setting was Northern Arabia. [24]

The Qur'an mentions Job's narrative in a concise manner. Similar to the Hebrew Bible narrative, Islamic tradition mentions that Satan heard the angels of God speak of Job as being the most faithful man of his generation. [25] Job, being a chosen prophet of God, would remain committed in daily prayer and would frequently call to God, thanking God for blessing him with abundant wealth and a large family. But Satan planned to turn the God-fearing Job away from God and wanted Job to fall into disbelief and corruption. [25] Therefore, God allowed Satan to afflict Job with distress and intense illness and suffering, [25] as God knew that Job would never turn away from his Lord.

The Qur'an describes Job as a righteous servant of Allah (God), who was afflicted by suffering for a lengthy period of time. However, it clearly states that Job never lost faith in God and forever called to God in prayer, asking him to remove his affliction:

And Job, when he cried unto his Lord, (saying): Lo! Adversity afflicteth me, and Thou art Most Merciful of all who show mercy.

Qur'an, sura 21 ( The Prophets ), ayah 83 [26]

The narrative goes on to state that after many years of suffering, God ordered Job to "Strike with thy foot!". [27] At once, Job struck the ground with his foot and God caused a cool spring of water to gush forth from the Earth, from which Job could replenish himself. The Qur'an says that it was then that God removed his pain and suffering and He returned Job's family to him, blessed him with many generations of descendants and granted him great wealth. In addition to the brief descriptions of Job's narrative, the Qur'an further mentions Job twice in the lists of those whom God had given special guidance, wisdom and inspiration (IV: 163) and as one of the men who received authority, the Book and the gift of prophethood (VI:84).

Local traditions regarding Job

An outer view of the Druze shrine of Prophet Job in Lebanon Prophet Job Shrine.jpg
An outer view of the Druze shrine of Prophet Job in Lebanon
The tomb of Job, outside Salalah, Oman Job's Tomb2.jpg
The tomb of Job, outside Salalah, Oman

There are at least two locations that claim to be the place of Job's ordeal, and at least three that claim to have his tomb.

The Eyüp Sultan Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, holds the tomb of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, a companion of Muhammad, not the Biblical/Qur'anic Job (Ayyub in Arabic, Eyüp in Turkish), though some locals tend to conflate the two.[ citation needed ]

Israel and Palestine

In Palestinian folk tradition[ citation needed ], Job's place of trial is Al-Jura, or Al-Joura, a village outside the town of Al-Majdal (today's Ashkelon, Israel). It was there God rewarded him with a fountain of youth that removed whatever illnesses he had, and gave him back his youth.

To the northwest of the depopulated Palestinian village of Dayr Ayyub is an area which, according to the village belief, contained the tomb of the prophet Ayyub, the Biblical Job. [28]

In the area of Tabgha (Greek: Heptapegon), on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, a few sites are associated by local tradition with the life of Ayyub. A small grotto near the base of what is known to Christians as the Mount of Beatitudes, or Mount Eremos, is known as Mghraret Ayub ("Job's Cave").[ citation needed ] Two of the towers built in the Byzantine period to collect the water of the Heptapegon springs are named in Arabic Tannur Ayub ("Job's Kiln") and Hammam Ayyub ("Job's Bath"). [29] [30] Hammam Ayyub was initially called "the Leper's Bath", but the leper was later identified with Job; the nearby spring, now a waterfall, is known as Ain Ayub, "Job's Spring". [31] [32]

Hauran, Syria

The town of al-Shaykh Saad in the Hauran region in Syria has been associated with Job since at least the 4th-century AD. Karnein was mentioned in Eusebius' Onomasticon as a town of Bashan that was said to be the location of the house of Job. Egeria the pilgrim relates that a church was built over the place in March or February 384 AD, and that the place was known as the "town of Job", or "civitas Job." According to Egeria's account the body of Job was laid in a stone coffin below the altar. [33] According to tradition, Hammam Ayyub is a fountain in the town where Job washed himself when he was sick, and is reputed to have healing powers. [34] Another holy artifact in the town is the "Rock of Job," known in local folklore as the place where he sat when he was afflicted with the disease. [35]

Adma', Upper Mesopotamia

The city of Urfa (ancient Adma', later Edessa) in the Şanlıurfa Province, or Harran region of southeastern Turkey, also claims to be the location at which Job underwent his ordeal in a cave. The location boasts an Ottoman-style mosque and madrasa that runs as shops today. A well exists within the complex, said to be the one formed when he struck the ground with his foot as described in the Quran. The water is considered to be miraculously curing. The whole complex underwent recent restoration. [36] The tomb of Job is located outside the city of Urfa.[ citation needed ]

Oman

The Tomb of Job is also said to be situated in Jabal Qarah outside the city of Salalah in southern Oman. [37]

El-Chouf mountains, Lebanon

Additionally, the Druze community also maintains a shrine for the Prophet Job in Niha village in the Chouf mountains of Lebanon.[ citation needed ] This shrine is said to be the place where Job was healed from his ailments after his wife carried his frail body up the steep mountain in a basket so he dies up there. Instead, he was healed and given an even larger wealth.

See also

Related Research Articles

Book of Job Book of the Bible

The Book of Job is a book of the Hebrew Bible. It addresses the problem of theodicy, meaning why God permits evil in the world, through the experiences of the eponymous protagonist. Job is a wealthy and God-fearing man with a comfortable life and a large family; God, having asked Satan for his opinion of Job's piety, decides to take away Job's wealth, family and material comforts, following Satan's accusation that if Job were rendered penniless and without his family, he would turn away from God. The book is found in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and is the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Scholars are generally agreed that it was written between the 7th and 4th centuries BCE.

Ezekiel Prophet in the Abrahamic religions

Ezekiel is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.

Hosea Biblical character

In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea, son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel and the nominal primary author of the Book of Hosea. He is the first of the Twelve Minor Prophets, whose collective writings were aggregated and organized into a single book in the Jewish Tanakh by the Second Temple period, forming the last book of the Nevi'im; but which writings are distinguished as individual books in Christianity. Hosea is often seen as a "prophet of doom", but underneath his message of destruction is a promise of restoration. The Talmud claims that he was the greatest prophet of his generation. The period of Hosea's ministry extended to some sixty years, and he was the only prophet of Israel of his time who left any written prophecy.

Habakkuk Prophet of the Hebrew Bible

Habakkuk, who was active around 612 BC, was a prophet whose oracles and prayer are recorded in the Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of the collected twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible. He is revered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

Isaiah Israelite prophet

Isaiah was the 8th-century BC Israelite prophet after whom the Book of Isaiah is named.

Joshua Central figure in the Hebrew Bibles Book of Joshua

Joshua or Jehoshua functioned as Moses' assistant in the books of Exodus and Numbers, and later succeeded Moses as leader of the Israelite tribes in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua. His name was Hoshea the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses called him "Joshua", the name by which he is commonly known in English. According to the Bible he was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus.

Obadiah

Obadiah is a biblical theophorical name, meaning "servant or slave of Yahweh" or "worshiper of Yahweh." The form of Obadiah's name used in the Septuagint is Obdios. In Latin it is translated as Abdias while in Arabic it is either ʿAbdullah, Ubaydah (عبيده), or Ubaidullah (عبیدالله). The Bishops' Bible refers to the prophet as Abdi.

Prophet Person claimed to speak for a divine being

In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy.

Zechariah (New Testament figure) Zechariah (New Testament person)

Zechariah is a figure in the New Testament and the Quran, and venerated in Christianity and Islam. In the Bible he is the father of John the Baptist, a priest of the sons of Aaron in the Gospel of Luke (1:67-79), and the husband of Elizabeth who is a relative of the Virgin Mary.

Esau Older son of Isaac in the Hebrew Bible

Esau is the elder son of Isaac in the Hebrew Bible. He is mentioned in the Book of Genesis and by the prophets Obadiah and Malachi. The Christian New Testament alludes to him in the Epistle to the Romans and in the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Ishmael Hebrew Prophet of Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Ishmael was the first son of Abraham, the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions, and the Egyptian Hagar, and is venerated by Muslims as a prophet. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137.

Dhu al-Kifl

Dhu al-Kifl, also spelled Zu al-Kifl, pronounced Zu l-Kifl, is an Islamic prophet who has been identified with various Hebrew Bible prophets, most commonly Ezekiel. It is believed that he lived for roughly 75 years and that he preached in what is modern day Iraq. Dhu al-Kifl is believed to have been exalted by Allah to a high station in life and is chronicled in the Quran as a man of the "Company of the Good". Although not much is known of Dhul-Kifl from other historical sources, all the writings from classical commentators, such as Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Kathir, speak of Dhu al-Kifl as a prophetic, saintly man who remained faithful in daily prayer and worship.

Torah in Islam Holy book of Islam given by God to Musa (Moses).

The Tawrat is the Arabic name for the Torah within its context as an Islamic holy book believed by Muslims to be given by God to Prophets among the Children of Israel. When referring to traditions from Tawrat, Muslims did not only identify it with the Pentateuch, but also with the other books of the Hebrew Bible, Talmudic- and Midrashim writings.

Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to God] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of God, and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price [i.e., worldly gain]. And whoever does not judge by what God has revealed - then it is those who are the disbelievers.

David in Islam

The biblical David, who was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, reigning c. 1010–970 BCE, is also venerated in Islam as a prophet and messenger of God, and as a righteous, divinely-anointed monarch of the ancient United Kingdom of Israel, which itself is revered in Islam. Additionally, Muslims also honor David for having received the divine revelation of the Psalms. Mentioned sixteen times in the Quran, David appears in the Islamic scripture as a link in the chain of prophets who preceded Muhammad. Although he is not usually considered one of the "law-giving" prophets, "he is far from a marginal figure" in Islamic thought. In later Islamic traditions, he is praised for his rigor in prayer and fasting. He is also presented as the prototypical just ruler and as a symbol of God's authority on earth, having been at once a king and a prophet. David is particularly important to the religious architecture of Islamic Jerusalem.

This is a table containing prophets, sometimes called messengers, of the Abrahamic religions.

Biblical and Quranic narratives Comparison between the texts of the Bible and the Quran

The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to more than fifty people and events also found in the Bible. While the stories told in each book are generally comparable, there are also some notable differences. Knowing that versions written in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testament predate the Qur'ān's versions, Christians reason the Qurān's versions as being derived directly or indirectly from the earlier materials. Muslims understand the Qur'ān's versions to be knowledge from an omnipotent God. As such, Muslims generally believe that the earlier versions are distorted through flawed processes of transmission and interpretation over time, and consider the Qur'ān's version to be more accurate.

Daniel (biblical figure) Protagonist of the Book of Daniel of the Hebrew Bible

Daniel is the hero of the biblical Book of Daniel. A noble Jewish youth of Jerusalem, he is taken into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and serves the king and his successors with loyalty and ability until the time of the Persian conqueror Cyrus, all the while remaining true to the God of Israel. The consensus of most modern scholars is that Daniel is not an historical figure and that the book is a cryptic allusion to the reign of the 2nd century BCE Hellenistic king Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

There are many Biblical figures which the Qur'an names. Some, however, go unnamed in the Qur'an, but are referenced or referred to in the hadiths, tafsirs, literature or seerah. Other figures are mentioned elsewhere in tradition and in the sunnah and sayings of Muhammad. Such figures which are not mentioned by name in the Qur'an, are included below.

Prophets and messengers in Islam Individuals who Muslims believe were sent by Allah to various villages and towns in order to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread Gods message on Earth

Prophets in Islam are individuals to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread God's message on Earth. Some prophets are categorized as messengers, those who transmit divine revelation, most of them through the interaction of an angel. Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Quran. The Quran states: "There is a Messenger for every community". Belief in the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith.

Job in Islam One of the prophets in Islam

Job is known as a prophet in Islam and is mentioned in the Quran. Job's story in Islam is parallel to the Hebrew Bible's story, although the main emphasis is on Job remaining steadfast to God; there is no mention of Job's discussions with friends in the Qur'anic text, but later Muslim literature states that Job had brothers, who argued with the man about the cause of his affliction. Some Muslim commentators also spoke of Job as being the ancestor of the Romans. Islamic literature also comments on Job's time and place of prophetic ministry, saying that he came after Joseph in the prophetic series and that he preached to his own people rather than being sent to a specified community. Tradition further recounts that Job will be the leader in Heaven of the group of "those who patiently endured".

References

  1. "JOB – In Rabbinical Literature". The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  2. Job 42
  3. Coogan, Michael B. (2009). Job's Wife and Daughters. Oxford University Press. p. 388.
  4. Last chapter of the Greek version of the Book of Job
  5. Ezekiel 14:14–18
  6. Sirach 49:9
  7. James 5:11
  8. Doctrine and Covenants 121:10
  9. "Tablet of Patience, or Tablet of Job". bahai-library.com. Retrieved 2018-06-24.
  10. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra 15a
  11. "Iyyov – Job WEBSHAS Index to the Talmud". Aishdas.org. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  12. Pesachim 2b
  13. Pesachim 112a
  14. Megillah 28a
  15. Eruvin 21a
  16. Sotah 11a
  17. "Rabbi Yehudah Prero "The Passover Hagadah Maggid – Relating the Chain of Events Part 2"". Torah.org. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  18. Ezekiel 14:14
  19. Cf. "But I know that my Vindicator lives; In the end He will testify on earth – this, after my skin will have been peeled off." (Job, 19:25 Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi (2014). The Jewish Study Bible. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press. p. 1523. ISBN   978-0-19-997846-5 . Retrieved 2 January 2017.Vindicator, Hebrew "go'el", a person, usually a relative, who stood up for his kinsman's rights; also used of God in his relationship with Israel.
  20. Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary , note 2739: "Job (Ayub) was a prosperous man, with faith in Allah, living somewhere in the north-east corner of Arabia. He suffers from a number of calamities: his cattle are destroyed, his servants slain by the sword, and his family crushed under his roof. But he holds fast to his faith in Allah. As a further calamity he is covered with loathsome sores from head to foot. He loses his peace of mind, and he curses the day he was born. His false friends come and attribute his afflictions to sin. These "Job's comforters" are no comforters at all, and he further loses his balance of mind, but Allah recalls to him all His mercies, and he resumes his humility and gives up self-justification. He is restored to prosperity, with twice as much as he had before; his brethren and friends come back to him; he had a new family of seven sons and three fair daughters. He lived to a good old age, and saw four generations of descendants. All this is recorded in the Book of Job in the Old Testament. Of all the Hebrew writings, the Hebrew of this Book comes nearest to Arabic."
  21. "Story of Job in Bible and Quran - Gohar Mukhtar's Weblog". goharmukhtar.wordpress.com.
  22. Brandon M. Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Job, p. 171
  23. Encyclopedia of Islam, A. Jefferey, Ayyub
  24. Hitti, Philip K. (1970). History of the Arabs: From the earliest time to the present. London: Macmillan Education LTD, 10th edition. pp. 42-43. ISBN 0-333-06152-7 Internet Archives website
  25. 1 2 3 Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, The Story of the Prophet Job
  26. Quran   21:83
  27. Quran   38:41
  28. W. Khalidi, 1992, "All that remains", p. 376
  29. [Stefano De Luca, Capernaum, paragraph on Tabgha, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology, vol. 1, p. 179, New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2013]
  30. The Archeology of the New Testament: The Life of Jesus and the Beginning of the Early Church (Revised edition (1609) ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1992. p. 87. ISBN   0-691-00220-7 . Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  31. Bargil Pixner OSB, [www.hagia-maria-sion.net/gemeinschaft/rundbr/rundbr21/rb21barg.html Archäologie: Das Bad des Aussätzigen in Tabgha] (Archaeology: the Leper's Bath in Tabgha), Dormition Abbey, 21st newsletter, January 2002 (in German)
  32. Eretz Magazine, Sermon Valley, accessed 10 December 2018
  33. Pringle, 1998, p. 239.
  34. Schumacher; Oliphant; le Strange, 1886, p. 194.
  35. Schumacher; Oliphant; le Strange, 1886, p.191.
  36. Eyyüb Nebi Çevre Düzenleme Projesi(Turkish)
  37. "Tomb of Job near Salalah". www.usna.edu. Retrieved 2018-12-24.