Joseph Harold Baum (August 17, 1920 – October 5, 1998) was an American restaurateur and innovator responsible for creating the country's first themed restaurants, including masterpieces such as The Four Seasons Restaurant, Windows on the World, and the restored Rainbow Room. He was the first restaurateur to bring the finest contemporary architects, artists and designers into his restaurant designs.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
The Four Seasons is a New American cuisine restaurant in New York City located at 42 East 49th Street in Midtown Manhattan. Until 2016, it was located at 99 East 52nd Street, in the Seagram Building in Midtown Manhattan. The restaurant is owned by the Bronfman family, Alex von Bidder, and Julian Niccolini.
Windows on the World was a complex of venues on the top floors of the North Tower of the original World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. It included a restaurant called Windows on the World, a smaller restaurant called Wild Blue, a bar called The Greatest Bar on Earth, and rooms for private functions. Developed by restaurateur Joe Baum and designed initially by Warren Platner, Windows on the World occupied 50,000 square feet of space in the North Tower. The restaurants operated from April 19, 1976 until September 11, 2001 when they were destroyed in the September 11 attacks.
Joseph Harold Baum was born to Leo and Anna Baum in Saratoga Springs, New York, where his parents ran the Gross & Baum hotel. He graduated from high school in Lakewood Township, New Jersey in 1938 and went on to earn a degree from Cornell University in hotel management in 1943. After college, he served in the United States Navy aboard a destroyer-minelayer in the South Pacific.
Saratoga Springs is a city in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 26,586 at the 2010 census. The name reflects the presence of mineral springs in the area, which has made Saratoga a popular resort destination for over 200 years.
Lakewood Township is a township in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."
In 1946, he went to work for Harris, Kerr, Foster & Company in Manhattan and took over the management of one of its hotels, the Monte Carlo, in 1947. In 1949, he was hired by the Schine hotel chain in Florida. Several years later, he was hired by Rikers Restaurant Associates (later shortened to Restaurant Associates) to open and manage a restaurant at Newark Airport called the Newarker, which became famous for its elegant dining, grandiose portions, and over-the-top flambée.
After Baum's success at the Newarker, he took over the specialty restaurant division of Restaurant Associates in 1955, attracting talented individuals such as Stuart Levin, George Lang, Alan Lewis, Tom Margittai, and Paul Kovi to run the company's themed restaurants. Baum spared no expense, hiring top architects, designers, and consultants such as James Beard and Julia Child. He went on to become president of the company. The portfolio of restaurants grew to over 130 by 1965 and included La Fonda Del Sol, Zum Zum, the Hawaiian Room, Quo Vadis, the Trattoria, the Brasserie, the Forum of the Twelve Caesars,Tavern on the Green, and The Four Seasons Restaurant.
James Andrews Beard was an American cook, cookbook author, teacher and television personality. Beard was a champion of American cuisine who taught and mentored generations of professional chefs and food enthusiasts. His legacy lives on in twenty books, other writings and his foundation's annual James Beard awards in a number of culinary genres.
Julia Carolyn Child was an American chef, author and television personality. She is recognized for bringing French cuisine to the American public with her debut cookbook, Mastering the Art of French Cooking, and her subsequent television programs, the most notable of which was The French Chef, which premiered in 1963.
Tavern on the Green is an American cuisine restaurant located in Central Park in Manhattan, New York City, near the intersection of Central Park West at West 66th Street on the Upper West Side. The restaurant has been open under current operators Jim Caiola and David Salama since 2014. From its grand opening in 1934 to its closure in 2009, the iconic restaurant changed ownership several times. From 2010 until 2012, the building was used as a public visitors center and gift shop run by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. After a multimillion-dollar renovation, Caiola and Salama's Tavern on the Green reopened to the public on April 24, 2014.
Baum left Restaurant Associates to consult on his own, often working with Arthur Emil. His projects included developing the 22 restaurants in the World Trade Center, including Windows on the World at the top of the North Tower. His other projects included development of restaurants in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, the Hallmark Cards Crown Center in Kansas City, and Place Bonaventure in Montréal. In 1986, he opened his own restaurant in New York City called Aurora. It remained open for five years.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973 and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m) — were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.
Place Bonaventure is an office, exhibition, and hotel complex in Downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, adjacent to the city's Central Station. At 288,000 m2 (3,100,000 sq ft) in size, Place Bonaventure was the second largest commercial building in the world at the time of its completion in 1967.
In 1987, after a two-year $25 million renovation backed by David Rockefeller, Baum reopened the Rainbow Room in New York's Rockefeller Center. Baum also redesigned Windows on the World in 1996, a destination restaurant on the 107th Floor of the World Trade Center. During Baum's tenure, Windows on the World became the highest grossing restaurant in the world until its destruction on September 11, 2001.
David Rockefeller was an American banker who was chairman and chief executive of Chase Manhattan Corporation. He was the oldest living member of third generation of the Rockefeller family and family patriarch from August 2004 until his death in March 2017. Rockefeller was the youngest child of John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, and a grandson of John D. Rockefeller and Laura Spelman Rockefeller.
The Rainbow Room is a private event space on the 65th floor of 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Rockefeller Center, Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Run by Tishman Speyer, it is among the highest venues in New York City. The Rainbow Room serves classic and contemporary American cuisine.
Rockefeller Center is a large complex consisting of 19 commercial buildings covering 22 acres (89,000 m2) between 48th and 51st Streets, facing Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The 14 original Art Deco buildings, commissioned by the Rockefeller family, span the area between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, split by a large sunken square and a private street called Rockefeller Plaza. Five International Style buildings, built later, are located on the west side of Sixth Avenue and at the north end of Rockefeller Plaza.
Baum died on October 5, 1998, at the age of 78 due to prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, some grow relatively quickly. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other areas of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. It may initially cause no symptoms. In later stages, it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine or pain in the pelvis, back, or when urinating. A disease known as benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms. Other late symptoms may include feeling tired due to low levels of red blood cells.
Baum was inducted into the Culinary Institute of America Hall of Fame in 1995.
Louis Rasminsky, was the third Governor of the Bank of Canada from 1961 to 1973, succeeding James Coyne. He was succeeded by Gerald Bouey.
Robert A. Savage is an ex-president and chief executive of American Express Bank, becoming chairman in 1991. He joined American Express in 1965 from Barclays Bank, where he was deputy chief trader of foreign currency. He was born in London, and he was among the "Blitz Babies" evacuated from London during The Blitz. He received an MBA from Harvard Business School in 1975.
John Schmidt was United States Associate Attorney General from 1994 to 1997 under President Bill Clinton. His responsibilities included oversight of the Civil, Antitrust, Civil Rights, Environment and Tax Divisions. He was also responsible for all aspects of the 1994 Federal Crime Law including its program to put 100,000 more police into community policing across the United States.
Prince Polo is a Polish chocolate bar. It is sold in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Ukraine under the name Siesta, and is also sold in Iceland, where it is colloquially known as “Prins Póló”. According to measurements shown by Nielsen, the bar has been the most sold chocolate bar for decades in Iceland and was for many years one of the few chocolate bars available in the country. It has long been Poland's top-selling candy brand.
Edward Tripp was a children's literature author. He is best known for his books The Tin Fiddle (1954) and The New Tuba (1955). He lived in Hamden, Connecticut and died in 1999 at the age of 79.
Morris "Marty" Silverman (1912–2006) was an American philanthropist and businessman who donated millions of dollars to causes worldwide, mainly in health and science sectors.
Lizzie Borden is an opera composed by Jack Beeson. It is based on the real-life case of Lizzie Borden and was commissioned by the Ford Foundation.
Synergos is a non-profit organization which aims to reduce global poverty through partnerships between government, business, civil society and local communities.
The Idaho Sneakers were a professional tennis team in the city of Boise. They entered the World TeamTennis League in 1994, and the franchise moved to St. Louis, Missouri as the St. Louis Aces after the 2000 season. The Sneakers played their home matches at the Bank of America Centre in Boise.
John Swallen is a retired American soccer player who played professionally with the Minnesota Thunder for twelve seasons. Swallen, a goalkeeper, was named to the Thunder Hall of Fame in 2002, following the conclusion of his Thunder career. Swallen was named the USL First Division MVP and goalkeeper of the year for the 1999 season.
Jim Fiala is a chef who owns two restaurants in the St. Louis, Missouri area. His restaurants are The Crossing in Clayton, Missouri and Acero in Maplewood, Missouri.
Insideschools.org was founded in 2002 to provide independent insight into New York City public schools and information about the New York City Department of Education. The site includes reviews of the more than 1,400 public schools in the city, information on how to navigate the Department of Education bureaucracy, advice columns that address readers' questions, forums for parents and students to talk with each other, and a blog that is updated daily with school news and commentary. The school reviews are written by journalists who visit each school to interview educators, students and parents and observe what’s happening in the classrooms, cafeterias, hallways and even the bathrooms.
Robert Riger was a celebrated sports illustrator, photographer, award-winning television director, and cinematographer. John Szarkowski, former director of the photography department at the Museum of Modern Art, said, "His photographs are documents, and the best of them are also pictures that now have a life of their own, and that would have given intense pleasure to George Stubbs and Winslow Homer and Thomas Eakins." David Halberstam, said "Robert Riger was the preeminent artist of a golden age of American sports in the years after World War II."
Anthony J. Rampino, also known as "Tony Roach", was a Gambino crime family mobster who was involved in truck hijacking and drug trafficking.
James Guarantano is a former American football wide receiver for the NFL's San Diego Chargers and the CFL's Baltimore Stallions. He was also a former standout wide receiver while playing college football at Rutgers University.
Hilary Easton is a contemporary dance choreographer, director, dancer and educator. A native New Yorker, she holds both a BFA and MFA from New York University Tisch School of the Arts. She founded Hilary Easton + Company in 1992, which has been presented at venues including American Dance Festival, Danspace Project and Dance Theater Workshop. She is on the faculty of The Juilliard School, where she teaches dance composition.
Gormgal of Ardoileán, Irish cleric, died 1017.
Michael J. Whiteman, considered the "dean of restaurant consultants" is president of Baum+Whiteman, a New York-based international food, restaurant and hotel consulting company, responsible for creating high-profile food projects around the world. He is best known as the founding editor of Nation's Restaurant News, established in 1968, and as the business partner of restaurateur, Joe Baum for almost thirty years.
David Emil is an American restaurateur and New York State government official. At the time of the September 11, 2001 attacks, David Emil was the president of the company that owned and operated the restaurant Windows on the World on the 106th and 107th floors of One World Trade Center, New York, New York. All the employees and guests at the restaurant during the attacks lost their lives, 79 of whom were Windows on the World employees.