Joe Hewitt (RAAF officer)

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Joseph Eric (Joe) Hewitt
012247Hewitt1942.jpg
Air Commodore Joe Hewitt, 1942
Born13 April 1901
Tylden, Victoria
Died1 November 1985(1985-11-01) (aged 84)
Melbourne
AllegianceAustralia
Service/branch Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Air Force
Years of service1915–1956
Rank Air Vice-Marshal
Commands held No. 101 Flight (1931–1933)
No. 104 Squadron RAF (1936–1938)
No. 9 Operational Group (1943)
Battles/warsWorld War II
Awards Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Other workBusinessman
Author

Air Vice-Marshal Joseph Eric Hewitt, CBE (13 April 1901 – 1 November 1985) was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). A Royal Australian Navy officer who transferred permanently to the Air Force in 1928, he commanded No. 101 (Fleet Cooperation) Flight in the early 1930s, and No. 104 (Bomber) Squadron RAF on exchange in Britain shortly before World War II. Hewitt was appointed the RAAF's Assistant Chief of the Air Staff in 1941. The following year he was posted to Allied Air Forces Headquarters, South West Pacific Area, as Director of Intelligence. In 1943, he took command of No. 9 Operational Group, the RAAF's main mobile strike force, but was controversially sacked by the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Vice Marshal George Jones, less than a year later over alleged morale and disciplinary issues.

Air vice-marshal is the third highest active rank of the Royal Australian Air Force and was created as a direct equivalent of the British Royal Air Force rank of air vice-marshal. It is also considered a two-star rank. The Australian Air Corps adopted the RAF rank system on 9 November 1920 and this usage was continued by its successor, the Royal Australian Air Force.

Order of the British Empire order of chivalry of British constitutional monarchy

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order.

Royal Australian Air Force Air warfare branch of Australias armed forces

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force (ADF). It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy also operate aircraft in various roles. It directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps (AFC), formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, and humanitarian support.

Contents

Described as a "small, dapper man", [1] who was "outspoken, even 'cocky'", [2] Hewitt overcame the setback to his career during the war and made his most significant contributions afterwards, as Air Member for Personnel from 1945 to 1948. Directly responsible for the demobilisation of thousands of wartime staff and the consolidation of what was then the world's fourth largest air force into a much smaller peacetime service, he also helped modernise education and training within the RAAF. Hewitt was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1951, the same year he became Air Member for Supply and Equipment. Retiring from the military in 1956, he went into business and later managed his own publishing house. He wrote two books including Adversity in Success, a first-hand account of the South West Pacific air war, before his death in 1985 aged 84.

Early career

Born on 13 April 1901 in Tylden, Victoria, Joseph Eric Hewitt was the son of Joseph Henry Hewitt and his wife Rose Alice, née Harkness. [3] [4] He attended Scotch College, Melbourne, before entering the Royal Australian Naval College at Jervis Bay in 1915, aged 13. [1] After graduating in 1918, Hewitt was posted to Britain as a midshipmen to serve with the Royal Navy. [3] He rose to lieutenant in the RAN before volunteering for secondment to the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) as a flight lieutenant in January 1923. [1] [5] Hewitt undertook the pilots' course at No. 1 Flying Training School, Point Cook, and graduated at the end of the year. [6] He was further seconded to the Royal Air Force in May 1925, [7] holding a temporary commission as a flying officer until September. [8] He married Lorna Bishop in Sydney on 10 November; they had three daughters. [3]

Tylden, Victoria Town in Victoria, Australia

Tylden is a small country town in central Victoria, Australia in the Shire of Macedon Ranges local government area, 83 kilometres (52 mi) north-west of the state capital, Melbourne. At the 2016 census, Tylden has a population of 535.

Scotch College, Melbourne school in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Scotch College is an independent Presbyterian day and boarding school for boys, located in Hawthorn, an inner-eastern suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Jervis Bay bay in New South Wales, Australia

Jervis Bay is a 102-square-kilometre (39 sq mi) oceanic bay and village on the south coast of New South Wales, Australia, said to possess the whitest sand in the world.

Seagull III of No. 101 Flight being hoisted aboard the seaplane carrier HMAS Albatross Seagull III HMAS Albatross AWM P01817.007.jpeg
Seagull III of No. 101 Flight being hoisted aboard the seaplane carrier HMAS Albatross

In August 1926, Hewitt joined the newly formed No. 101 (Fleet Cooperation) Flight, operating Seagull III amphibians. Prior to the unit deploying to Queensland to survey the Great Barrier Reef with HMAS Moresby, he practiced manoeuvres around the centre of Melbourne, landing in the Yarra River near Flinders Street station. Media criticism of the escapade led to him being brought before the Chief of the Air Staff, Group Captain Richard Williams, who rather than upbraiding Hewitt expressed himself "reservedly pleased about the publicity". After completing its survey work in November 1928, the unit served aboard the seaplane carrier HMAS Albatross. [9]

No. 101 Flight RAAF

No. 101 Flight RAAF was a Royal Australian Air Force fleet co-operation flight equipped with amphibian aircraft. The flight was formed on 1 July 1925, and operated from the Royal Australian Navy seaplane tender HMAS Albatross between 1929 and 1933. After Albatross paid off the flight's aircraft operated from the RAN's heavy cruisers HMAS Australia and HMAS Canberra. No. 101 Flight was expanded to form No. 5 Squadron on 20 April 1936.

Supermarine Seagull (1921)

The Supermarine Seagull was a British amphibian biplane flying boat developed from the Supermarine Seal by the Supermarine company. The Seagull was constructed of wood. The lower wing was set in the shoulder position and had two bays. The engine was mounted in a nacelle slung from the upper wing and powered a four-blade propeller in tractor configuration. The fuselage had an oval cross-section and had a planing bottom with two steps.

Amphibious aircraft aircraft that can routinely both operate in water and in land

An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an aircraft that can take off and land on both land and water. Fixed-wing amphibious aircraft are seaplanes that are equipped with retractable wheels, at the expense of extra weight and complexity, plus diminished range and fuel economy compared to planes designed for land or water only. Some amphibians are fitted with reinforced keels which act as skis, allowing them to land on snow or ice with their wheels up.

Hewitt's transfer to the Air Force was made permanent in April 1928. [3] Promoted to squadron leader, he became commanding officer of No. 101 Flight in February 1931, [3] [10] and supervised embarkation of the Seagull aboard the cruiser HMAS Australia in September–October 1932. [11] Hewitt finished his tour with No. 101 Flight the following year, and was posted to Britain in 1934. He attended RAF Staff College, Andover, in his first year abroad, and served as Assistant Liaison Officer at Australia House, London, in 1935. [4] Although a specialist seaplane pilot, he converted to bombers in England, flying Hawker Hinds and Bristol Blenheims as commanding officer of No. 104 Squadron RAF from 1936. [1] [12]

Squadron leader OF-3 rank in the Royal Air Force and other air forces

Squadron leader is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence. It is also sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure.

HMAS <i>Australia</i> (D84) Australian naval ship (D84)

HMAS Australia (I84/D84/C01) was a County-class heavy cruiser of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). One of two Kent-subclass ships ordered for the RAN in 1924, Australia was laid down in Scotland in 1925, and entered service in 1928. Apart from an exchange deployment to the Mediterranean from 1934 to 1936, during which she became involved in the planned British response to the Abyssinia Crisis, Australia operated in local and South-West Pacific waters until World War II began.

RAF Staff College, Andover Royal Air Force staff college

The RAF Staff College at RAF Andover was the first Royal Air Force staff college to be established. Its role was the training of officers in the administrative, staff and policy apects of air force matters.

Hewitt was promoted wing commander in January 1938. Returning to Australia, he was appointed senior air staff officer (SASO) at RAAF Station Richmond, New South Wales, in June. [3] In May 1939, Hewitt was chosen to lead No. 10 Squadron, due to be formed on 1 July at the recently established RAAF Station Rathmines, near Lake Macquarie. He was preparing to depart for England to take delivery of the unit's planned complement of Short Sunderland flying boats when he broke his neck riding his motor cycle near Richmond, and had to forgo the assignment while he recovered. Fit for duty by August, he was given command of the Rathmines base to manage the deployment of No. 10 Squadron and its aircraft, but this was suspended due to the outbreak of World War II in September, and the Sunderlands and their RAAF crews remained in Britain for service alongside the RAF. [13]

RAAF Base Richmond Royal Australian Air Force base in Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia

RAAF Base Richmond is a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) military air base located within the City of Hawkesbury, approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) north-west of the Sydney central business district in New South Wales, Australia. Situated between the towns of Windsor and Richmond, the base is the oldest base in New South Wales and the second oldest in Australia. The base is home to the transport headquarters RAAF Air Lift Group, and its major operational formations, Nos. 84 and 86 Wings. The main aircraft type operated at the base is the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. Richmond is a regular venue for air shows and has at times been mooted as a site for Sydney's proposed second international airport.

No. 10 Squadron RAAF

No. 10 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) maritime patrol squadron based at RAAF Base Edinburgh, South Australia, as part of No. 92 Wing. The squadron was formed in 1939 and saw active service during the Second World War, conducting anti-submarine operations and patrols from bases in the United Kingdom until it disbanded in late 1945. It was re-formed in Australia in 1949 and since then has contributed to Australia's East Timor intervention, and has been deployed to the Middle East as part of the War on Terrorism and the 2003 Gulf War.

RAAF Base Rathmines former Royal Australian Air Force base on Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia

RAAF Base Rathmines is a heritage-listed former RAAF WWII seaplane base and now used as community venues, sports venues and a visitor attraction at Dorrington Road, Rathmines, City of Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. It was in use as an RAAF base from 1939 to 1961. It is also known as Rathmines Park, former RAAF Seaplane Base, Flying Boat Base, Rathmines Aerodrome and Catalina Base. The property is owned by Australian Christadelphian Bible School, Disability Life Enrichment, Don Geddes Nursing Home and Lake Macquarie City Council. The remains of the former air base was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 25 November 2005.

World War II

Director of Personal Services to AOC No. 9 Operational Group

Hewitt (second right) and Group Captains Allan Walters (second left) and Val Hancock (centre) of Allied Air Forces HQ, with the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Vice Marshal George Jones (right), 1942 AWM012244JonesHancockHewitt.jpg
Hewitt (second right) and Group Captains Allan Walters (second left) and Val Hancock (centre) of Allied Air Forces HQ, with the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Vice Marshal George Jones (right), 1942

On 20 November 1939, the RAAF formed No. 1 Group in Melbourne, [14] which evolved into Southern Area Command early in 1940 with Hewitt as senior administration staff officer. [4] [15] Having been promoted group captain in December 1939, Hewitt was made Director of Personal Services (DPS) at RAAF Headquarters in July 1940. [3] He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire on 11 July for his performance as SASO at Richmond. [3] [16] Described by author Joyce Thompson as having "a Calvinist background and rigid ideas on women's place in society", as DPS Hewitt opposed the creation of the Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) and later advocated that its members be enrolled on a contractual basis rather than enlisted or commissioned as Permanent Air Force staff. [17] Promoted acting air commodore, he became Acting Deputy Chief of the Air Staff in October 1941. [3] [18] In January 1942, he was posted to the staff of American-British-Dutch-Australian Command in the Dutch East Indies. [3] Hewitt served as Assistant Chief of the Air Staff in March and April before being assigned to the newly formed Allied Air Forces Headquarters (AAF HQ), South West Pacific Area (SWPA), as Director of Intelligence. [18] [19] He established cordial working relations with his American peers at AAF HQ, becoming a confidant of its commander, Major General George Kenney. [2]

In February 1943, Hewitt was appointed Air Officer Commanding (AOC) No. 9 Operational Group (No. 9 OG). [20] The RAAF's main mobile strike force, No. 9 OG initially comprised seven Australian combat squadrons and came under the control of the US Fifth Air Force. [20] [21] The month he took over, Hewitt's squadrons were reorganised into two wings based in New Guinea: No. 71 Wing, comprising units at Milne Bay, New Guinea, and No. 73 Wing, comprising those at Port Moresby. [22] In March, No. 9 OG led the RAAF's contribution to the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, "the decisive aerial engagement" in the SWPA according to General Douglas MacArthur, resulting in 12 Japanese ships being sunk. [23] Hewitt occasionally flew with his crews on operations, contrary to General Kenney's policy against commanders taking such risks. [24]

Hewitt (right) with the USAAF's Major General Ennis Whitehead, New Guinea, 1943 OG0003Hewitt.jpg
Hewitt (right) with the USAAF's Major General Ennis Whitehead, New Guinea, 1943

By April 1943, Hewitt had been dragged into the divisive personal conflict between the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Vice Marshal George Jones, and the AOC of RAAF Command, Air Vice Marshal Bill Bostock. RAAF Command was the Air Force's main operational formation in the Pacific, controlling 24 Australian squadrons. Jones, administrative and de jure head of the RAAF, sought to extend his authority into the sphere of operations by posting a "more accountable" officer into Bostock's position, namely Hewitt. [20] [25] The Minister for Air, Arthur Drakeford, backed Jones' manoeuvre but was informed by Prime Minister John Curtin that MacArthur, as Supreme Commander SWPA, "would insist on the replacement of AVM Bostock by an equally able officer", and that "Air Commodore Hewitt ... was not considered an adequate replacement." [26] Hewitt recognised qualities in both Jones and Bostock, and tried not to take sides in their feud. [27]

No changes were made to command arrangements in the South West Pacific following this episode, and Hewitt continued to lead No. 9 OG in its bombing and strafing campaign against Japanese airfields and lines of communication in New Britain, north-east of New Guinea. By mid-June 1943, he had set up Group Headquarters at Milne Bay, and No. 73 Wing HQ at Goodenough Island. On 22 July, he mounted an operation against Gasmata airfield using 62 aircraft from five of his squadrons, the largest strike undertaken by the Australians to that date. [28] No. 9 OG would take most of the credit for the RAAF reaching a peak of 254 tons of bombs dropped in October, as against 137 tons delivered the previous month. [29] On 8 November, Hewitt sent out a formation of three Bristol Beauforts in a severe electrical storm to attack the heavily defended harbour at Rabaul. This was conceived as a "make or break" effort to prove the worth or otherwise of the Beaufort as a torpedo bomber, in which role it had so far been a disappointment; in what the official history of the RAAF in World War II described as "an heroic attack", at least one enemy tanker was struck, for the loss of one Beaufort. [30] The planning and execution of the raid led to conflict between Hewitt and the commanding officer of the Beaufort squadron, Wing Commander G. D. Nicoll, and Hewitt dismissed Nicoll shortly afterwards; the decision was swiftly reversed by Air Vice Marshal Jones. [3]

AOC No. 9 Operational Group to Air Member for Personnel

Hewitt as AOC No. 9 Operational Group in New Guinea, casting his vote in the 1943 Federal election OG0041Hewitt1943.jpg
Hewitt as AOC No. 9 Operational Group in New Guinea, casting his vote in the 1943 Federal election

Although Hewitt was performing an "excellent job" according to Fifth Air Force commander Major General Ennis Whitehead, he was controversially removed from his post in mid-November 1943 by Jones, over accusations of poor discipline and morale within No. 9 OG. [20] [31] RAAF historian Alan Stephens later described the circumstances of Hewitt's dismissal as "murky", and the allegations leading to it as unofficial. [20] Drakeford defended Hewitt's service record, informing the Prime Minister that "the present position may be largely, if not entirely, due to some temporary physical stress brought about by the strain of his important duties as A.O.C. of No. 9 Group." [31] Hewitt himself believed that he had been smeared by a disgruntled former staff officer; [2] historian Kristen Alexander identified Wing Commander Kenneth Ranger, who would play a leading part in the "Morotai Mutiny" of 1945, as having made allegations regarding Hewitt's supposed "lack of balance, vanity and lack of purpose in the prosecution of the war". [32] Hewitt returned to his previous position as Director of Intelligence at Allied Air Headquarters, and the Air Member of Personnel, Air Commodore Frank Lukis, took over as AOC No. 9 OG in December. [27] General Kenney considered Hewitt's removal "bad news". [20]

After completing his tour as Director of Intelligence at AAF HQ at the end of 1944, Hewitt became acting Air Member for Personnel (AMP) in 1945. [33] As AMP, Hewitt sat on the Air Board, the RAAF's controlling body that consisted of its most senior officers and was chaired by the Chief of the Air Staff. [34] Along with the other members of the board, he reviewed the findings of the inquiry by Justice John Vincent Barry into the "Morotai Mutiny", which had involved senior pilots of the Australian First Tactical Air Force (No. 1 TAF) attempting to resign their commissions to protest the relegation of RAAF fighter squadrons to strategically unimportant ground attack missions. Hewitt recommended that the AOC No. 1 TAF, Air Commodore Harry Cobby, be removed from command, along with his two senior staff officers. The majority of the Air Board saw no reason to take such action, leaving Hewitt to append a dissenting note to its decision. Drakeford supported Hewitt's position, and the three senior No. 1 TAF officers were later dismissed from their posts by Air Vice Marshal Jones. [32]

Post-war career

Demobilisation and rationalisation

Hewitt's appointment as Air Member for Personnel was made permanent following the end of World War II in August 1945. [33] In this role he was directly responsible for the demobilisation of what had become the world's fourth largest air force, and its transition to a much smaller peacetime service. [33] [35] Hewitt considered that the RAAF was in danger of losing some of its best staff through rapid, unplanned demobilisation, and recommended that its workforce be stabilised for two years at a strength of 20,000 while it reviewed its post-war requirements. Although the Air Board supported Hewitt's proposal, government cost-cutting resulted in the strength of the so-called Interim Air Force remaining lower than planned, being reduced to some 13,000 by October 1946 and under 8,000 by the end of 1948. [36] Despite claiming that employing women in the Air Force was an important factor in reducing "antagonism and prejudice" against them in the work force in general, Hewitt also recommended that the WAAAF be disbanded after the war. [37]

As AMP, Hewitt was responsible for reviewing the potential employment of senior officers in the post-war Air Force. This review led to the early retirement of such figures as Air Marshal Richard Williams and Air Vice Marshals Stanley Goble, Bill Bostock, Frank McNamara, Bill Anderson, Henry Wrigley and Adrian Cole, ostensibly to make way for the advancement of younger and equally capable officers. [38] [39] Hewitt helped draft the letters to each of the retirees, explaining the reasons for the decision and redundancy payments involved. [39] He was also responsible for rationalising the Air Force List of officers and their seniority that had become a source of numerous irregularities due to the temporary and acting promotions granted during wartime. This resulted in many officers of senior rank being demoted as many as three levels, such as group captain to flight lieutenant, in the first post-war List released in June 1947. [40]

RAAF education and other work

Hewitt (centre) inspecting a USAF F-86 Sabre in Korea during a visit to No. 77 Squadron, 1952 JK0414Hewitt1952.jpg
Hewitt (centre) inspecting a USAF F-86 Sabre in Korea during a visit to No. 77 Squadron, 1952

Hewitt was responsible for initiating major improvements in Air Force education that took place between 1945 and 1953, playing a key role in the establishment of RAAF College and the introduction of an apprenticeship training programme. The purpose of the College was, in Hewitt's words, to "sow the seeds of service" for future leaders, helping create a special RAAF esprit de corps . He added that it was "almost a truism that the future RAAF can be no better than the Air Force College". [41] Founded at Point Cook in January 1948, RAAF College's inaugural commandant was Air Commodore Val Hancock, who also drafted its first charter. [42] With the support of the Air Member for Engineering and Maintenance, Air Vice Marshal Ellis Wackett, Hewitt developed the Apprenticeship Training Scheme to raise the standard of technical roles in the Air Force, introducing it with a nationwide publicity campaign to attract recruits. Its base was the Ground Training School, which opened at Wagga, New South Wales, in early 1948 to provide education and technical training for youths aged 15 to 17. It was renamed RAAF Technical College in 1950 and the RAAF School of Technical Training in 1952. [43]

Parallel to his initiatives in Air Force education and training, Hewitt introduced a revised aircrew ranking scheme that consisted of skill categories with various levels, such as navigator level 4 or pilot level 1, rather than the regular military ranks such as sergeant or flight lieutenant. This was abandoned in 1950 due to dissatisfaction caused by the lack of obvious equivalence between these specialist "ranks" and the traditional ranking system common to the rest of the RAAF and other defence forces. [44] After completing his term as Air Member for Personnel in 1948, he was posted to London as the Australian Defence Representative. [4] By now promoted air vice marshal, Hewitt was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1951 New Year Honours, in part for his leadership of No. 9 OG during the war. [3] [45] Returning from Britain the same year, he took over as Air Member for Supply and Equipment (AMSE) from Air Vice Marshal George Mackinolty, who had died suddenly of cancer. [46] [47] Hewitt served as AMSE until his retirement from the RAAF in April 1956. [1] [47] In this role, he again cooperated with Air Vice Marshal Wackett—now the Air Member for Technical Services—to introduce the concept of acquiring spare parts based on "life-of-type", whereby the forecast number and type of spares necessary for an aircraft's projected service life would be ordered when it was first deployed operationally, to reduce support costs and delivery times. [48]

Later life and legacy

Following his retirement from the Air Force in 1956, Hewitt joined International Harvester Co. Australia as Manager of Education and Training. He became a trustee of the Services Canteen Trust the same year, serving in this position until 1977. Having retired from International Harvester in 1966, Hewitt became an author in later life and wrote two books on his experiences in the military. [4] The first, Adversity in Success, was published in 1980 and gave his account of the air war in the South West Pacific. He followed it in 1984 with The Black One. Hewitt also acted as chairman and managing director of his own publishing house, Langate Publishing. [1] [4] Predeceased by his wife Lorna, he died in Melbourne on 1 November 1985, and was survived by his daughters. [3]

Historian Alan Stephens credits Hewitt with being primarily responsible for the "education revolution" that took place in the RAAF between 1945 and 1953, noting that Hewitt's initiatives while Air Member for Personnel were carried on by his successor in the position, Air Vice Marshal Frank Bladin. [49] According to Stephens and Jeff Isaacs, the importance of RAAF College and the Apprenticeship Training Scheme in contributing to the professionalism of the post-war service "cannot be over-stated". [1] Air Vice Marshal Ernie Hey, the Air Member for Technical Services from 1960 through 1972, declared that the apprenticeship programme was "one of the best things" the RAAF ever established and that its graduates—numbering some 5,500 from 1952 to 1993—were "absolutely outstanding". [50] Joe Hewitt is commemorated by Hewitt Reef in Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, named in his honour by the survey team on HMAS Moresby, with whom he worked as a member of No. 101 Flight in 1926–1928. [9] Hewitt also founded an eponymous trophy for small arms proficiency in the Air Force. [51] [52]

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stephens & Isaacs, High Fliers, pp. 97–99
  2. 1 2 3 Dennis et al., Oxford Military History of Australia, p. 259
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Funnell, Ray. "Hewitt, Joseph Eric (1901–1985)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . National Centre of Biography, Australian National University . Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Draper, Who's Who in Australia 1985, p. 409
  5. Gillison, Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 23–24
  6. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, p. 34
  7. "No. 33048". The London Gazette . 19 May 1925. p. 3382.
  8. "No. 33087". The London Gazette . 25 September 1925. p. 6206.
  9. 1 2 Coulthard-Clark, The Third Brother, pp. 408–411
  10. Coulthard-Clark, The Third Brother, p. 218
  11. Wilson, The Eagle and the Albatross, p. 27
  12. Wilson, The Eagle and the Albatross, p. 51
  13. Coulthard-Clark, The Third Brother, p. 150
  14. Gillison, Royal Australian Air Force, p. 67
  15. Gillison, Royal Australian Air Force, p. 92
  16. "No. 34893". The London Gazette (Supplement). 9 July 1940. p. 4254.
  17. Thomson, The WAAAF in Wartime Australia, pp. 58–59
  18. 1 2 Ashworth, How Not to Run an Air Force!, p. 295
  19. Gillison, Royal Australian Air Force, p. 473
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 122–123
  21. Odgers, Air War Against Japan, p. 6
  22. Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 23–24
  23. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 160–165
  24. Ashworth, How Not to Run an Air Force!, p. 211
  25. Helson, Ten Years at the Top, pp. 122–126
  26. Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 16–18
  27. 1 2 Ashworth, How Not to Run an Air Force!, pp. 210–211
  28. Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 33–35
  29. Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 93–95
  30. Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 100–102
  31. 1 2 Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 102–103
  32. 1 2 Alexander, "Cleaning the Augean stables"
  33. 1 2 3 Helson, Ten Years at the Top, p. 224
  34. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, p. 112
  35. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 170–171
  36. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 176–179
  37. Stephens, Going Solo, p. 335
  38. Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 22–24
  39. 1 2 Helson, Ten Years at the Top, pp. 234–239
  40. Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 24–25
  41. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, p. 186
  42. Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 120–123
  43. Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 129–131
  44. Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 92–95
  45. "No. 39105". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 December 1950. p. 36.
  46. Stephens & Isaacs, High Fliers, pp. 104–107
  47. 1 2 Stephens, Going Solo, p. 500
  48. Stephens, Going Solo, p. 182
  49. Stephens, Going Solo, p. 118
  50. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 191–192
  51. "Air weapons contest at Canberra". The Canberra Times . Canberra. 4 December 1953. p. 2. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  52. "RAAF holds trophy shoot". The Age . Melbourne. 28 November 1960. p. 5. Retrieved 7 January 2016.

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No. 9 Operational Group was a major Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) formation providing fighter, ground-attack and anti-shipping support to the Allies in the South West Pacific theatre during World War II. Established in September 1942, it acted as a mobile striking force independent of the RAAF's static area commands. As the war in the Pacific progressed, No. 9 Operational Group itself developed into an area command called Northern Command, responsible for garrisoning New Guinea.

William Anderson (RAAF officer) RAAF officer, born 1891

Air Vice-Marshal William Hopton (Bill) Anderson, CBE, DFC was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). He flew with the Australian Flying Corps in World War I, earning the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Belgian Croix de guerre, and leading Nos. 3 and 7 Squadrons. Anderson commanded the Australian Air Corps during its brief existence in 1920–21, before joining the fledgling RAAF. The service's third most senior officer, he primarily held posts on the Australian Air Board in the inter-war years. He was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1934, and promoted to air commodore in 1938.

John McCauley Royal Australian Air Force chief

Air Marshal Sir John Patrick Joseph McCauley, KBE, CB was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). He served as Chief of the Air Staff from 1954 to 1957. A Duntroon graduate, McCauley spent four years in the Australian Military Forces before transferring to the RAAF in 1924. He was Director of Training from 1936 to 1938, and commanded engineering and flying training schools for the first eighteen months of World War II. Having been promoted to group captain in 1940, he was posted to Singapore in June 1941 to take charge of all RAAF units defending the area. He earned praise for his efforts in attacking invading Japanese forces before the fall of Singapore, and for his dedication in evacuating his men. After serving as Deputy Chief of the Air Staff in 1942–44, he was appointed to a senior operational role with the Royal Air Force's 2nd Tactical Air Force in Europe, where he saw out the rest of the war.

Charles Read (RAAF officer) Royal Australian Air Force senior commander

Air Marshal Sir Charles Frederick Read, KBE, CB, DFC, AFC was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). He served as Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) from 1972 to 1975. Born in Sydney, Read joined the RAAF in 1937, and began his career flying biplane fighters. As a Beaufighter pilot, he led No. 31 Squadron and No. 77 Wing in the South West Pacific during World War II. His achievements earned him the Distinguished Flying Cross and a mention in despatches, and he finished the war an acting group captain.

Frank Lukis RAAF senior commander

Air Commodore Francis William Fellowes (Frank) Lukis, CBE was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). A veteran of World War I, he first saw combat as a soldier in the Australian Imperial Force at Gallipoli. In 1917, Lukis transferred to the Australian Flying Corps and flew with No. 1 Squadron in the Middle East, where he was twice mentioned in despatches. A member of the Australian Air Corps following the war, he transferred to the fledgling RAAF in 1921, and became the first commanding officer of the newly re-formed No. 3 Squadron at RAAF Station Richmond, New South Wales, in 1925.

Henry Wrigley Royal Australian Air Force senior commander

Air Vice Marshal Henry Neilson Wrigley, CBE, DFC, AFC was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). A pioneering flyer and aviation scholar, he piloted the first trans-Australia flight from Melbourne to Darwin in 1919, and afterwards laid the groundwork for the RAAF's air power doctrine. During World War I, Wrigley joined the Australian Flying Corps and saw combat with No. 3 Squadron on the Western Front, earning the Distinguished Flying Cross; he later commanded the unit and published a history of its wartime exploits. He was awarded the Air Force Cross for his 1919 cross-country flight.

Frank Bladin Royal Australian Air Force senior commander

Air Vice Marshal Francis Masson (Frank) Bladin, was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Born in rural Victoria, he graduated from the Royal Military College, Duntroon, in 1920. Bladin transferred from the Army to the Air Force in 1923, and learned to fly at RAAF Point Cook, Victoria. He held training appointments before taking command of No. 1 Squadron in 1934. Quiet but authoritative, he was nicknamed "Dad" in tribute to the concern he displayed for the welfare of his personnel.

Ellis Wackett Royal Australian Air Force senior engineer

Air Vice Marshal Ellis Charles Wackett, CB, CBE was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Its chief engineer from 1935 to 1959, he served on the RAAF's controlling body, the Air Board, for a record seventeen years, and has been credited with infusing operations with new standards of airworthiness. Commencing his service career as a Royal Australian Navy cadet during World War I, Wackett transferred to the Air Force in 1923 while on an engineering course in Britain. He qualified as a pilot before completing his studies and returning to Australia, where he inaugurated parachute instruction within the RAAF and made the country's first freefall descent from a military aircraft in 1926. The following year, he led a three-month survey flight to Papua New Guinea.

Allan Walters Royal Australian Air Force senior commander

Air Vice Marshal Allan Leslie Walters, CB, CBE, AFC was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Born in Victoria and raised in Western Australia, he graduated from the Royal Military College, Duntroon, before transferring to the RAAF in 1928. He was considered one of the service's leading flying instructors and aerobatic pilots between the wars, and was appointed to his first squadron command in 1937. Over the course of World War II, Walters led No. 1 Squadron in Singapore, No. 1 (Fighter) Wing in Darwin, Northern Territory, No. 72 Wing in Dutch New Guinea, and Northern Command in Papua New Guinea. He was decorated with the Air Force Cross in 1941 for his work with No. 1 Squadron, and mentioned in despatches in 1944 for his service with No. 72 Wing.

Ian Dougald McLachlan Royal Australian Air Force senior commander

Air Vice Marshal Ian Dougald McLachlan, CB, CBE, DFC was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Born in Melbourne, he was a cadet at the Royal Military College, Duntroon, before joining the Air Force in December 1930. After serving in instructional and general flying roles, he took command of No. 3 Squadron in December 1939, leading it into action in the Middle East less than a year later. Awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, he returned to Australia in 1942 to command air bases in Canberra and Melbourne. The following year he was posted to the South West Pacific, where he led successively Nos. 71 and 73 Wings. Having been promoted to group captain, he took charge of Southern Area Command in 1944, and No. 81 Wing in the Dutch East Indies the following year.

RAAF Command

RAAF Command was the main operational arm of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) during World War II. The command was formed in September 1942 and by April 1943 comprised 27 squadrons, including units from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as Australia. Coming under the operational authority of Allied Air Forces Headquarters in the South West Pacific Area, RAAF Command exercised control of its units through geographically based area commands in Australia and, later, New Guinea, as well as large mobile formations including the Australian First Tactical Air Force. The command reached a strength of 41 squadrons in October 1944. From the time of its establishment, until its disbandment in September 1945, it was led by Air Vice Marshal Bill Bostock.

Alan Charlesworth RAAF senior commander

Air Vice Marshal Alan Moorehouse Charlesworth, CBE, AFC was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Born in Tasmania, he graduated from the Royal Military College, Duntroon, and served with the 2nd Light Horse Regiment in Queensland before transferring to the Air Force in 1925. Most of his pre-war flying career was spent with No. 1 Squadron at RAAF Station Laverton, Victoria. In 1932 he undertook a series of survey flights around Australia, earning the Air Force Cross. Charlesworth's early wartime commands included No. 2 Squadron at Laverton, and RAAF Station Pearce in Western Australia. Appointed Air Officer Commanding (AOC) Eastern Area in December 1943, he was promoted temporary air commodore the following year and took over as AOC North-Western Area in Darwin, Northern Territory.

Frank Headlam Royal Australian Air Force senior commander

Air Vice Marshal Frank Headlam, was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Born and educated in Tasmania, he joined the RAAF as an air cadet in January 1934. He specialised in flying instruction and navigation before the outbreak of World War II. In April 1941, he became commanding officer of No. 2 Squadron, which operated Lockheed Hudsons. The squadron was deployed to Dutch Timor in December, and saw action against Japanese forces in the South West Pacific. After returning to Australia in February 1942, Headlam held staff appointments and training commands, finishing the war a group captain.

Western Area Command (RAAF) Royal Australian Air Force command

Western Area Command was one of several geographically based commands raised by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) during World War II. It was formed in January 1941, and controlled RAAF units located in Western Australia. Headquartered in Perth, Western Area Command was responsible for air defence, aerial reconnaissance and protection of the sea lanes within its boundaries. Its aircraft conducted anti-submarine operations throughout the war, and attacked targets in the Dutch East Indies during the Borneo campaign in 1945.

Southern Area Command (RAAF) Royal Australian Air Force command

Southern Area Command was one of several geographically based commands raised by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) during World War II. It was formed in March 1940, and initially controlled units located in Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and southern New South Wales. Headquartered in Melbourne, Southern Area Command was responsible for air defence, aerial reconnaissance and protection of the sea lanes within its boundaries. From 1942 its operational responsibilities excluded New South Wales.

North-Western Area Command (RAAF) Royal Australian Air Force command

North-Western Area Command was one of several geographically based commands raised by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) during World War II. Its wartime sphere of operations included the Northern Territory, adjacent portions of Queensland and Western Australia, and the Dutch East Indies. The command was formed in January 1942, following the outbreak of the Pacific War, from the western part of Northern Area Command, which had covered all of northern Australia and Papua. Headquartered at Darwin, North-Western Area Command was initially responsible for air defence, aerial reconnaissance and protection of the sea lanes within its boundaries.

Air Board (Australia)

The Air Board, also known as the Administrative Air Board, or the Air Board of Administration, was the controlling body of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) from 1921 to 1976. It was composed of senior RAAF officers as well as some civilian members, and chaired by the Chief of the Air Staff (CAS). The CAS was the operational head of the Air Force, and the other board members were responsible for specific areas of the service such as personnel, supply, engineering, and finance. Initially based in Melbourne, the board relocated to Canberra in 1961.

References

Further reading

Military offices
Preceded by
Bill Garing
Air Officer Commanding No. 9 Operational Group
1943
Succeeded by
Frank Lukis
Preceded by
Frederick Scherger
Air Member for Personnel
1945–1948
Succeeded by
Frank Bladin