Joe Perry (American football)

Last updated

Joe Perry
Perry 1954 Bowman.jpg
Perry c. 1954
No. 74, 34
Position: Fullback
Personal information
Born:(1927-01-22)January 22, 1927
Stephens, Arkansas
Died:April 25, 2011(2011-04-25) (aged 84)
Chandler, Arizona
Height:6 ft 0 in (1.83 m)
Weight:200 lb (91 kg)
Career information
High school: Jordan (Los Angeles, California)
College: Compton JC
Undrafted: 1948
Career history
Career highlights and awards
Career NFL statistics
Rushing yards:8,378
Yards per carry:4.8
Rushing touchdowns:53
Military career
AllegianceFlag of the United States (1912-1959).svg United States
Service/branchFlag of the United States Navy (1864-1959).svg  United States Navy
Battles/warsWorld War II
Player stats at  ·  PFR

Fletcher Joseph Perry (January 22, 1927 – April 25, 2011) was a professional American football fullback in the All-America Football Conference (AAFC) and National Football League (NFL). He played for the San Francisco 49ers from 1948 to 1960, the Baltimore Colts from 1961 to 1962, and returned to the 49ers in 1963 for his final year in football. He was exceptionally fast, a trait uncommon for a fullback and one which earned him the nickname, "the Jet". The first African-American to be named the NFL Most Valuable Player, he became one of American football's first black stars.


After playing a season of football for Compton Junior College, Perry joined the U.S. Navy. While playing football in the military, he was spotted by the 49ers, who signed him into the AAFC. He spent the next 13 seasons playing for San Francisco, where he was featured in the "Million Dollar Backfield", made three straight Pro Bowl appearances, and in 1954 was named the NFL MVP by United Press International (UPI). He was the first player in the NFL to rush for 1,000 yards in consecutive seasons, doing so in 1953 and 1954. Perry retired in 1963 as the league's all-time leader in rushing yards, and in 1969 he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. His jersey number 34 was retired by the 49ers in 1971.

Early life

Fletcher Joseph Perry was born in Stephens, Arkansas, and grew up in Los Angeles, California, after his family moved there during the Great Depression. [1] He was a four-sport star at David Starr Jordan High School in Los Angeles. Perry grew up admiring several African-American athletes at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), including Jackie Robinson, who played football and baseball and ran track for the university. [1] [2] After being rejected by UCLA, Perry played football at Compton Junior College in 1944, and scored 22 touchdowns that season. He was then recruited by UCLA, but declined, and enlisted in the Navy during World War II. [2] He played football in the military for Naval Air Station Alameda. [3] In an East vs. West college all-star game in January 1948, Perry scored on a four-yard run in the first quarter for the West, which also featured Bobby Layne of Texas and Jake Leicht of Oregon. [4]

Professional career

Standing 6 ft 0 in (1.83 m) tall and weighing 200 lb (91 kg), Perry was small for a typical fullback, even during his era. [1] Also unlike typical fullbacks, Perry's forte was not to run with power, as he was a straight-ahead runner who combined power and speed with deceptive elusiveness. [5] His role was primarily as a ball carrier rather than a blocker, and he had a knack for finding holes in opposing defensive lines. [3] "If you saw a hole, you take it," Perry described his running style to The Sacramento Bee . "If you didn't, you kept moving until you did. You run with instinct." [3] Perry was known for his speed, which earned him the nickname "The Jet". He ran the 100-yard dash in 9.5 seconds in 1947, two-tenths of a second slower than Mel Patton's then-world record of 9.3 seconds. [1] [6] [7]

San Francisco 49ers

1948–1952: AAFC and first Pro Bowl

While playing for Alameda, Perry was scouted by the NFL's Los Angeles Rams, who offered him a $9,500 salary. He turned down the offer and instead signed with the San Francisco 49ers of the AAFC for $4,500. His decision was based on his trust in 49ers owner Tony Morabito, who Perry described as like a father. [8] He was the team's first African-American player. [3] It was during his first practices with the 49ers that he earned his nickname, when quarterback Frankie Albert exclaimed, "You're like a jet, Joe," after Perry had shot out of his stance so quickly that Albert could not hand him the ball in time. [2] Albert's successor at quarterback, Y. A. Tittle, echoed his sentiments. "He was the fastest player off the ball in the history of the world," Tittle told the San Francisco Chronicle . "You'd take the ball from center and turn, and he was already gone through the hole." [8] [1] Tittle became one of Perry's closest friends. [2]

Black players were a novelty in pro football when Perry entered the league, [1] and he was faced with racial abuse and discrimination on and off the field. [2] [6] "I can't remember a season when I didn't hear a racial slur," he said. "Someone would say, 'Nigger, don't come through here again', and I'd say, 'I'm coming through again, and you better bring your family.'" [2] When he was invited to play in the 1949 AAFC All-Star game in Houston, he and other black players on the all-star team were not allowed to stay in the same hotel as white players. There was initial uncertainty over whether or not black players would be allowed to participate in the game at all. [9] Perry's 49ers teammates, however, were more accepting of him, and provided him strong support from the outset. [3] [6] [8]

With the 49ers in the AAFC, Perry led the league in rushing touchdowns in both 1948 in 1949, and also in rushing yards in 1949. [10] He had the first and only kick return touchdown of his career in 1948 when he returned a kickoff 87 yards against the Brooklyn Dodgers. Following the season, Perry was invited to play in the 1949 AAFC All-Star game against the league champion Cleveland Browns. [11] The AAFC folded soon after and the 49ers were absorbed into the NFL in 1950. [2] Perry finished fifth among league rushing leaders in both 1950 and 1951. The 49ers acquired halfback Hugh McElhenny in the 1952 Draft, who joined Perry in the backfield to form a prolific rushing duo. [12] He and McElhenny finished third and fourth in the league respectively in rushing yards that season. [13] Following the season, Perry was invited to play in his first Pro Bowl. [10]

1953 and 1954: Back-to-back 1,000-yard seasons

Perry became the first player to eclipse 1,000 rushing yards in consecutive seasons, when he did so in 1953 and 1954. [8] His 1,018 yards rushing in 1953 and 1,049 in 1954 were the third and second highest totals for a single season in the NFL, respectively, behind only Steve Van Buren's 1,146 yards in 1949. [14] He led the league in carries, rushing yards, rushing yards per game, and yards from scrimmage in both seasons. His ten rushing touchdowns and 13 total touchdowns in 1953 were both the most in the NFL that year. Perry, McElhenny, and Tittle comprised the offensive backfield of that year's Pro Bowl. [15] The Associated Press (AP), [16] United Press (UP), and New York Daily News each named Perry their first-team All-Pro fullback. [10] Morabito awarded Perry an extra five dollars for every yard he gained in 1953, for a total bonus of $5,090. [17]

With the 49ers' acquisition of halfback John Henry Johnson in 1954, Perry now had a reliable blocker to run behind. The backfield of Perry, Johnson, Tittle, and McElhenny—which became known as the "Million Dollar Backfield"—shattered the 49ers team record for rushing yards in a season. [18] Despite having to split more carries between him and his teammates, Perry again led the NFL in rushing yards. He gained almost 400 yards more than his nearest competitor, his backfield mate Johnson. [1] A. S. "Doc" Young, writing for Jet magazine, called Perry "the bellwether of the greatest rushing backfield in pro football." [19] The United Press named Perry its Pro Player of the Year, [20] the first black player so honored. [1] He was a first-team All-Pro for the AP, UP, [21] New York Daily News, and The Sporting News , and played in his third straight Pro Bowl. [10]

Perry in 1963 Joeperry 49ers 1963.jpg
Perry in 1963

1955–1960: All-time rushing leader

Prior to a game against the Cleveland Browns at Kezar Stadium in 1955, the 49ers staged "Joe Perry Day", in which fans honored Perry with gifts including a new car. [2] "I was a favorite son," he said of the occasion. "I just thought Joe Perry Day was one of the great honors in my life." [6] He had 20 carries in that game for 116 yards, out-gaining the entire Browns backfield and prompting Cleveland coach Paul Brown to remark, "This was Joe Perry's day in more ways than one." [19] Perry accounted for 701 rushing yards and two touchdowns in 1955, leading the 49ers in rushing for the seventh straight season. [8] His streak was snapped by McElhenny in 1956. [22]

The closest Perry came to winning a championship with the 49ers was in 1957, as San Francisco finished with an 8–4 record but lost the Western Conference tiebreaker game to the Detroit Lions. [3] [23] He led the 49ers in rushing for the final time in 1958, with 758 yards. That season, he surpassed Steve Van Buren for first place on the NFL's all-time rushing yards list. [1] He was named a first-team All-Pro by The Sporting News. [10] The following year, he shared carries with fullback J.D. Smith. Perry carried only 36 times for 95 yards in 1960 as Smith took over the starting role. After the season, Perry was traded to the Baltimore Colts. [24]

Baltimore Colts, return to San Francisco, and retirement

Colts head coach Weeb Ewbank cited injuries to fullback Alan Ameche as the key reason for the team's inability to win a third straight NFL championship. Ewbank hoped Perry could fill in the role if Ameche was not ready when the season began. [24] Ameche retired prior to the season, [25] and Perry filled in to lead the Colts in rushing in 1961, while catching a career-high 34 passes for 322 yards. [10] "Joe was the kind of guy you'd love to play your whole career with," said Colts quarterback Johnny Unitas. "He was older when we got him, but he did well for us. He was amazing on the screen pass, like McElhenny. And Joe clawed and scratched for every yard." [6] A thigh ligament injury caused him to miss several games in 1962 which, along with an injury to halfback Lenny Moore, severely hampered the Colts' running game. [26] He was traded back to San Francisco in 1963, where he played a diminished role in his final nine games before retiring at age 36. [10]

Legacy and honors

Perry's durability allowed him to play in three decades, from the 1940s to the 1960s, for 16 seasons. [2] He was the NFL's career rushing leader from 1958 to 1963, ultimately compiling 8,378 yards; his record was broken by Jim Brown on October 20, 1963. His 7,344 rushing yards for the 49ers stood as the franchise record for nearly 60 years before it was broken in 2011 by Frank Gore. [27] As of 2020, Perry's 68 rushing touchdowns with the team remains a franchise record. [28]

He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1969, his first year of eligibility. Also in that year's class was longtime teammate, tackle Leo Nomellini. [29] The 49ers' Million Dollar Backfield is the only full-house backfield to have all four of its members enshrined in the Hall. [30] Perry's jersey number 34 was retired by the 49ers in 1971, and he was a charter member of the San Francisco 49ers Hall of Fame in 2009. [31] Following his death in 2011, the team honored Perry that season by wearing helmet decals with his number 34 on them. [17]

Other ventures and later life

In addition to his football career, Perry also hosted a popular sports and music radio program, "Both Sides Of The Record", sponsored by Burgermeister Beer ("Burgie"), on R&B-formatted KWBR (1310 AM; later known as KDIA) beginning in 1954. The program was arranged by Franklin Mieuli, a sports entrepreneur who worked in marketing for Burgie, in addition to being a part-owner of the 49ers and producer of the team's radio and television broadcasts. [32] After retiring from football, Perry competed in the Professional Bowlers Association Tour and carried an average of over 200. [8] He also served as a scout and assistant for the 49ers, and later was a sales representative for E & J Gallo Winery. [3]

The 49ers announced that Perry died on Monday April 25, 2011 in Arizona of complications from dementia at the age of 84. [3] [1] [2] 49ers owner John York said: [33]

I was deeply saddened to hear of Joe Perry's passing. He was a dear friend to my family and I and to the entire 49ers organization. He was also an integral part of our rich history. A truly remarkable man both on and off the field, Joe had a lasting impact on the game of football and was an inspirational man to the generations of players that followed him. Our heartfelt sympathy goes out to his wife, Donna, and his entire family. He will be sadly missed by all of us.

On June 9, 2011, it was announced that Perry and his fellow Million Dollar Backfield teammate, John Henry Johnson, who died on June 3, 2011, would have their brains examined by researchers at Boston University who are studying head injuries in sports. Both men were suspected of having chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a disorder linked to repeated brain trauma. Perry's widow, Donna, told the San Francisco Chronicle that she believes her husband had CTE. She further told the newspaper that "When Joe was playing, they'd give them smelling salts and put them back in. "Now the equipment is better, and they're looking into ways to protect them. We have to look at what this is doing to our children." [34]

See also

Related Research Articles

All-America Football Conference Professional American football league operating from 1946–1949

The All-America Football Conference (AAFC) was a professional American football league that challenged the established National Football League (NFL) from 1946 to 1949. One of the NFL's most formidable challengers, the AAFC attracted many of the nation's best players, and introduced many lasting innovations to the game. However, the AAFC was ultimately unable to sustain itself in competition with the NFL. After its folding, three of its teams were admitted to the NFL: the San Francisco 49ers, the Cleveland Browns and the original Baltimore Colts.

Thomas Dean Rathman is a former professional football player, a fullback for the San Francisco 49ers and Los Angeles Raiders of the National Football League. Following his playing career, he became a coach in 1995 and coached the 49ers' running backs through the 2016 season and now will be inducted into the 49ers' hall of fame. Rathman was a three-sport star at Grand Island Senior High in central Nebraska. In addition to a state Hall of Fame career as a fullback for the Islanders football team, Rathman won a state championship in the high jump in 1980 during his junior year.

Y. A. Tittle American football player (1926–2017)

Yelberton Abraham Tittle Jr. was a professional American football quarterback. He played in the National Football League (NFL) for the San Francisco 49ers, New York Giants, and Baltimore Colts, after spending two seasons with the Colts in the All-America Football Conference (AAFC). Known for his competitiveness, leadership, and striking profile, Tittle was the centerpiece of several prolific offenses throughout his 17-year professional career from 1948 to 1964.

Frank Gore American football player (born 1983)

Franklin Gore Sr. is a former American football running back who played in the National Football League (NFL) for 16 seasons. A member of the San Francisco 49ers during most of his career, he ranks third in NFL career rushing yards. His career was also noted for longevity, a rare trait with his position, and he holds the league record for games played by a running back.

John Henry Johnson American gridiron football player (1929–2011)

John Henry Johnson was a gridiron football running back known for his excellence at the fullback position as both a runner and a blocker. His first professional stint was in Canada in the Western Interprovincial Football Union for one season with the Calgary Stampeders. He then played in the National Football League (NFL) for the San Francisco 49ers, Detroit Lions, and Pittsburgh Steelers before spending his final season in the American Football League (AFL) with the Houston Oilers. Commonly referred to as simply John Henry, an allusion to the folk hero of the same name, Johnson was a tough and tenacious player who performed at a high level well into the tail end of his career.

Hugh McElhenny American football player (1928–2022)

Hugh Edward McElhenny Jr. was an American professional football player who was a halfback in the National Football League (NFL) from 1952 to 1964 for the San Francisco 49ers, Minnesota Vikings, New York Giants, and Detroit Lions. He was noted for his explosive, elusive running style and was frequently called "the King" and "Hurryin' Hugh". A member of San Francisco's famed Million Dollar Backfield and one of the franchise's most popular players, McElhenny's uniform number, No. 39, is retired by the 49ers and he is a member of the San Francisco 49ers Hall of Fame.

Bill Johnson (center) American football player and coach (1926–2011)

William Levi Johnson Sr., known as Tiger Johnson, was a professional football player and coach. He was born in Tyler, Texas, where he was raised by his single mother and five older siblings. Among his siblings was older brother Gilbert Johnson, who played quarterback at Southern Methodist University with the iconic running back Doak Walker. Bill was a football and baseball star for Tyler Junior College and Texas A&M University and graduated from Stephen F. Austin State University. He played center for the San Francisco 49ers from 1948 to 1956.

J.D. Smith Jr. was an American football running back in the National Football League for the Chicago Bears, San Francisco 49ers, and Dallas Cowboys. He played college football at North Carolina A&T State University.

Billy Wilson (wide receiver) American football player (1927–2009)

Billy Wilson was an American football wide receiver who played for the San Francisco 49ers from 1951 to 1960. He was named to the Pro Bowl six times.

The 1948 Cleveland Browns season was the team's third in the All-America Football Conference (AAFC). After winning the AAFC crown in 1946 and 1947, the league's first two years of existence, the Browns repeated as champions in 1948 and had a perfect season, winning all of their games.

The 1949 Cleveland Browns season was the team's fourth and final season in the All-America Football Conference (AAFC). The Browns finished the regular season with a 9–1–2 win–loss–tie record and beat the San Francisco 49ers to win their fourth straight league championship. In the season's sixth game on October 9, 1949, the 49ers stopped the Browns' professional football record unbeaten streak after 29 games. The streak started two years before on October 19, 1947, and included two league championship games and two ties.

The 1950 San Francisco 49ers season was the franchise's 1st season in the National Football League and their 5th overall. After playing the previous four years in the All-America Football Conference (AAFC), which folded after the 1949 season, the 49ers, Baltimore Colts, and Cleveland Browns all joined the NFL from the AAFC.

The 1952 San Francisco 49ers season was the franchise's 3rd season in the National Football League and their 7th overall. They were coming off a 7–4–1 record in 1951.

The 1953 San Francisco 49ers season was the franchise's 4th season in the National Football League and their 8th overall. They were coming off a 7–5 record in 1952.

The 1954 San Francisco 49ers season was the franchise's 5th season in the National Football League and their 9th overall. The team was coming off a 9–3 record in 1953, finishing one game behind the Detroit Lions for a spot in the championship game.

The 1953 Detroit Lions season was the franchise's 24th season in the National Football League. The Lions won their second consecutive and third overall National Football League (NFL) championship. In their fourth year under head coach Buddy Parker, the Lions compiled a 10–2 record during the regular season, outscored opponents 271 to 205, finished in first place in the NFL's Western Division, and defeated the Cleveland Browns 17–16 in the NFL Championship Game at Briggs Stadium in Detroit.

The 1963 New York Giants season was the franchise's 39th season in the National Football League. The Giants won their third consecutive NFL Eastern Conference title with an 11–3 record, their sixth in eight years, but again lost the NFL championship game. This loss was to the Chicago Bears, 14–10 at Wrigley Field, in the Giants' final post-season appearance until 1981.

Kyle Juszczyk American football player (born 1991)

Kyle Patrick Juszczyk is an American football fullback for the San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Harvard, and was drafted by the Baltimore Ravens in the fourth round of the 2013 NFL Draft.

The Million Dollar Backfield was a National Football League (NFL) offensive backfield of the San Francisco 49ers from 1954 to 1956. Featuring quarterback Y. A. Tittle, halfbacks Hugh McElhenny and John Henry Johnson, and fullback Joe Perry, the backfield was also referred to as the "Fabulous Foursome" and "Fearsome Foursome" by sportswriters. Formed well before players earned six-figure salaries, the unit was named as such for its offensive prowess, and compiled record offensive statistics. It is regarded as one of the best backfields compiled in NFL history, and is the only full house backfield to have all four of its members enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Schudel, Matt (April 26, 2011). "Joe Perry, football star of the 1950s and first African American MVP, dies at 84". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Carlson, Michael (April 29, 2011). "Joe 'The Jet' Perry: Fast and powerful full-back who became one of American football's first black stars" . The Independent . Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Goldstein, Richard (April 25, 2011). "Joe Perry, Hall of Fame Fullback, Dies at 84". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  4. "Jake Leicht Stars In All-Star Game". The Bulletin. United Press. January 19, 1948. p. 2. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  5. "Joe Perry Bio". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Newhouse, Dave (April 25, 2011). "49ers Hall of Famer Joe 'The Jet' Perry dies at 84". The Mercury News. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  7. Purvis, Andy (2012). Remembered Greatness. Xulon Press. p. 326. ISBN   978-1619968394 . Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dwight Chapin, Tom FitzGerald (April 26, 2011). "49ers Hall of Famer Joe Perry dies at 84". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
  9. Piascik, Andy (2010). The Best Show in Football: The 1946–1955 Cleveland Browns—Pro Football's Greatest Dynasty. Taylor Trade Publications. p. 147. ISBN   978-1589796164 . Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Joe Perry Stats". Pro Football Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  11. "Graham Honored On Pro Football All-Star Lineup". Spokane Daily Chronicle. United Press. December 26, 1949. p. 19. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  12. "56,822 See San Francisco Wallop Lions, 28–0: McElhenny and Perry Stun Detroit With Bruising Ball Carrying". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. October 13, 1952. p. 27. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  13. "1952 NFL Rushing & Receiving". Sports Reference. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  14. "Best In The World". The Afro American. December 26, 1953. p. 16. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  15. "Grid Rivalries Renewed Today In Pro Bowl". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Associated Press. January 17, 1954. p. 13. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  16. Eck, Frank. "Six Browns and Five Lions Appointed To Two Platoon Squad". Reading Eagle. Associated Press. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  17. 1 2 Maiocco, Matt; Clark, Dwight (2013). San Francisco 49ers: The Complete Illustrated History (Illustrated ed.). MVP Books. p. 24. ISBN   978-0760344736 . Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  18. Tameta, Andre (May 22, 2009). "San Francisco's Million Dollar Backfield: The 49ers' Fabulous Foursome". Bleacher Report. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  19. 1 2 Young, A. S. (November 3, 1955). "Inside Sports". Jet. 8 (26): 55. ISSN   0021-5996 . Retrieved October 10, 2016.
  20. "Perry Top Pro Gridman of '54". The Bend Bulletin. United Press. December 22, 1954. p. 3. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  21. "Lions, Browns and Eagles Dominate All-Pro Selections". Beaver County Times. United Press. December 20, 1954. p. 14. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  22. "1956 San Francisco 49ers Statistics & Players". Sports Reference. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  23. Stevenson, Jack (December 23, 1957). "Another Amazing Comeback Gives Lions 31–27 Victory". Ludington Daily News. Associated Press. p. 10. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  24. 1 2 "Joe Perry traded to Colts". The Bulletin. United Press International. February 15, 1961. p. 3. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  25. "'The Horse' Ameche retires from Colts". Kentucky New Era. Associated Press. June 22, 1961. p. 16. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  26. "Anxious to play, Lenny Moore eyes Bears clash". Baltimore Afro-American. October 16, 1962. p. 14. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  27. Barber, Phil (December 5, 2011). "Gore passes Perry to set 49ers' career rushing mark". The Press Democrat. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  28. "San Francisco 49ers Career Rushing Leaders". Sports Reference. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  29. "Five New Members Join Pro Grid Hall Of Fame". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. September 14, 1969. p. 17. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  30. "Johnson, member of 49ers' 'Million Dollar Backfield,' dies at 81". National Football League. June 4, 2011. Retrieved September 3, 2016.
  31. "49ers Announce Edward DeBartolo Sr. 49ers Hall of Fame". San Francisco 49ers. May 12, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  32. "KWBR Joe Perry". Bay Area Radio Museum. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  33. "Joe 'The Jet' Perry, First Black 49ers Player, Dies at 84". The Afro American. April 27, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
  34. "Researchers to study 49ers RBs". ESPN. Retrieved June 9, 2011.

Further reading

Preceded by NFL career rushing yards leader
Succeeded by