Johan Gottschalk Wallerius (11 July 1709 – 16 November 1785) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist.
Wallerius was born in Stora Mellösa, Närke, in 1709 as a son of provost Erik Nilsson Wallerius and his spouse Elisabeth Tranæa . He was a younger brother to the physicist, philosopher and theologian Nils Wallerius.
Stora Mellösa is a locality situated in Örebro Municipality, Örebro County, Sweden with 776 inhabitants in 2010.
Närke is a Swedish traditional province, or landskap, situated in Svealand in south central Sweden. It is bordered by Västmanland to the north, Södermanland to the east, Östergötland to the southeast, Västergötland to the southwest, and Värmland to the northwest. Närke has a surface area of 4,126 km² and a total population of 208,376.
A provost is the ceremonial head of many Scottish local authorities, and under the name prévôt was a governmental position of varying importance in Ancien Régime France.
Johan Gottschalk entered Uppsala University in 1725, and graduated as magister in 1731 after studies of mathematics, physics and medicine. He continued his studies at Lund University, where he received his Doctor of Medicine degree in 1735. After this graduation, he came back to Uppsala where he opened a course in chemistry in his laboratory.This course allowed students in pharmacy and chemistry to witness demonstrations and practice themselves with the experiments. The popularity of this teaching allowed Wallerius to become adjunct of medicine at Uppsala University in 1741 and the first holder of a new professorship of chemistry, medicine and pharmacy in 1750. The same year, Wallerius was elected member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He retired from the chemistry chair in 1767 and was succeeded by his student Torbern Bergman.
Uppsala University is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477. It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings. The university uses "Gratiae veritas naturae" as its motto and embraces natural sciences.
Lund University is a prestigious public university in Sweden, consistently ranked among the world's top 100 universities. The university, located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, Sweden, arguably traces its roots back to 1425, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral. After Sweden won Scania from Denmark in the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde, the university was founded in 1666 on the location of the old studium generale next to Lund Cathedral.
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, Canada and some other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional degree is typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS).
Wallerius is regarded as the founder of agricultural chemistry, mainly based on the significance of his widely disseminated work Agriculturae fundamenta chemica (1761, published in Swedish the same year as Åkerbrukets chemiska grunder and later translated into many other languages).He published several other studies on chemical, mineralogical and geological subjects and used his own farm Hagelstena in Alsike (south of Uppsala) as an experimental field. He spent his early retirement from the University due to poor health applying the principles of chemistry as a way to improve agriculture in his own farm, and published some of his findings in Rön, rörande landtbruket. Om svenska åkerjordartenas egenskaper och skiljemerken samt deras förbättring genom tienlig jordblanning, which was awarded the price of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Agricultural chemistry is the study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation. These studies emphasize the relationships between plants, animals and bacteria and their environment. The science of chemical compositions and changes involved in the production, protection, and use of crops and livestock. As a basic science, it embraces, in addition to test-tube chemistry, all the life processes through which humans obtain food and fiber for themselves and feed for their animals. As an applied science or technology, it is directed toward control of those processes to increase yields, improve quality, and reduce costs. One important branch of it, chemurgy, is concerned chiefly with utilization of agricultural products as chemical raw materials. Etc.
Alsike is a locality situated in Knivsta Municipality, Uppsala County, Sweden with 2,681 inhabitants in 2010. Alsike is located about 50 km north of Stockholm and only 25 km away from Arlanda Airport. It is also the location of Alsike Abbey. Alsike is located on the Ingegerdsleden, a historic pilgrimage route between Uppsala Cathedral and Storkyrkan in Stockholm. Alsike clover gets its common name from Alsike, Sweden.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is one of the royal academies of Sweden. Founded on June 2, 1739, it is an independent, non-governmental scientific organization which takes special responsibility for ptomoting the natural sciences and mathematics and strengthen their influence in society, whilst endeavouring to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.
The first freestanding chemical laboratory building in Uppsala, still standing at Västra Ågatan 24 by the River Fyris, was erected during his time as professor.
Fyrisån is a river in the Swedish province of Uppland, which passes through the city of Uppsala and ends in Lake Mälaren.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig was a German scientist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry. As a professor at the University of Giessen, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded as one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time. He has been described as the "father of the fertilizer industry" for his emphasis on nitrogen and trace minerals as essential plant nutrients, and his formulation of the law of the minimum, which described how plant growth relied on the scarcest nutrient resource, rather than the total amount of resources available. He also developed a manufacturing process for beef extracts, and with his consent a company, called Liebig Extract of Meat Company, was founded to exploit the concept; it later introduced the Oxo brand beef bouillon cube. He popularized an earlier invention for condensing vapors, which came to be known as the Liebig condenser.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist. Isaac Asimov called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit. For example, Scheele discovered oxygen, and identified molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine before Humphry Davy, among others. Scheele discovered organic acids tartaric, oxalic, uric, lactic, and citric, as well as hydrofluoric, hydrocyanic, and arsenic acids. He preferred speaking German to Swedish his whole life, as German was commonly spoken among Swedish pharmacists.
Per Teodor Cleve was a Swedish chemist, biologist, mineralogist and oceanographer. He is best known for his discovery of the chemical elements holmium and thulium.
Torbern Olaf (Olof) Bergman (KVO) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist noted for his 1775 Dissertation on Elective Attractions, containing the largest chemical affinity tables ever published. Bergman was the first chemist to use the A, B, C, etc., system of notation for chemical species.
Johan Gadolin was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist. Gadolin discovered a "new earth" containing the first rare-earth compound yttrium, which was later determined to be a chemical element. He is also considered the founder of Finnish chemistry research, as the second holder of the Chair of Chemistry at the Royal Academy of Turku. Gadolin was ennobled for his achievements and awarded the Order of Saint Vladimir and the Order of Saint Anna.
Erik Benzelius the younger was a priest, theologian, librarian, bishop of Linköping, 1731-1742 and Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden, 1742–1743. He was a highly learned man and one of Sweden's important Enlightenment figures.
William Christopher Zeise was a Danish organic chemist. He is best known for synthesising one of the first organometallic compounds, named Zeise's salt in his honour. He also performed pioneering studies in organosulfur chemistry, discovering the xanthates in 1823.
Nils Peter Hamberg was a Swedish pharmacist and physician. He started teaching chemistry in 1861 and later on became a forensic chemist. Hamburg was the older brother to the missionary Knut Theodor Hamberg (1819–1854).
Norrlands nation is a student society and the largest of thirteen nations at Uppsala University. It mainly recruits its members from the province of Norrland, which is the northernmost part of Sweden. As of 2012, the nation has about 8,000 members.
Anders Jonas Ångström was a Swedish physicist and one of the founders of the science of spectroscopy.
Henrik Gustaf Söderbaum was a Swedish chemist and secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1923 to 1933.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius, known throughout his life as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist. Berzelius is considered, along with Robert Boyle, John Dalton, and Antoine Lavoisier, to be one of the founders of modern chemistry.
Jean-Baptiste-Michel Bucquet was a French chemist, member of the French Royal Academy of Sciences, physician and public teacher.
Nils Wallerius was a Swedish physicist, philosopher and theologian. He was one of the first scientists to study and document the characteristics of evaporation through modern scientific methods. He was also among the first and more notable followers of the philosophies of German philosopher Christian Wolff (1679–1754).
Events from the year 1709 in Sweden
Amolak Chand Jain is an Indian natural product chemist, academic and the head of the department of chemistry at Delhi University, University of Jammu and Himachal Pradesh University. He is known for his studies on polyphenols, flavonoids and isoflavonoids and their syntheses. He is an elected fellow of the Indian National Science Academy and the National Academy of Sciences, India and a life member of the International Academy of Physical Sciences. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards, in 1969, for his contributions to chemical sciences.