Johan Ludwig Mowinckel

Last updated

Johan Ludwig Mowinckel
Johan Ludwig Mowinckel.jpg
Mowinckel in 1924.
Prime Minister of Norway
In office
3 March 1933 20 March 1935
Monarch Haakon VII
Preceded by Jens Hundseid
Succeeded by Johan Nygaardsvold
In office
15 February 1928 12 May 1931
MonarchHaakon VII
Preceded by Christopher Hornsrud
Succeeded by Peder Kolstad
In office
25 July 1924 5 March 1926
MonarchHaakon VII
Preceded by Abraham Berge
Succeeded by Ivar Lykke
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
3 March 1933 20 March 1935
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded by Birger Braadland
Succeeded by Halvdan Koht
In office
15 February 1928 12 May 1931
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded by Edvard Bull, Sr.
Succeeded byBirger Braadland
In office
25 July 1924 5 March 1926
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded by Christian F. Michelet
Succeeded by Ivar Lykke
In office
31 May 1922 6 March 1923
Prime MinisterOtto Blehr
Preceded by Arnold C. Ræstad
Succeeded byChristian F. Michelet
President of the Storting
In office
1 January 1916 31 December 1918
MonarchHaakon VII
Prime Minister Gunnar Knudsen
Preceded by Jørgen Løvland
Søren Tobias Årstad
Gunnar Knudsen
Succeeded byGunnar Knudsen
Ivar Lykke
Anders Buen
Ivar P. Tveiten
Otto B. Halvorsen
Minister of Trade
In office
22 June 1921 20 October 1922
Prime Minister Otto Blehr
Preceded by Gerdt Bruun
Succeeded by Lars Oftedal
Mayor of Bergen
In office
1 January 1902 31 December 1906
Preceded by Christian M. Kahrs
Succeeded by Carl V. E. Geelmuyden
In office
1 January 1911 31 December 1913
Preceded byCarl V. E. Geelmuyden
Succeeded byCarl V. E. Geelmuyden
Member of the Norwegian Parliament
In office
1 January 1906 9 April 1940
Constituency Hordaland
Leader of the Liberal Party
In office
1927–1940
Preceded by Gunnar Knudsen
Succeeded by Jacob S. Worm-Müller (1945)
Personal details
Born(1870-10-22)22 October 1870
Bergen, Hordaland, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway
Died30 September 1943(1943-09-30) (aged 72)
New York, United States
Nationality Norwegian
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s)Augusta Mohr
Children11
Profession Ship-owner
Johann-ludwig-movinkel.jpg

Johan Ludwig Mowinckel (22 October 1870 – 30 September 1943) was a Norwegian statesman, shipping magnate and philanthropist. He served as the Prime Minister of Norway during three separate terms. [1]

Contents

Biography

Johan Ludwig Mowinckel was born in Bergen, Norway. His parents were Johan Anton Wilhelm Mohr Mowinckel (1843–1918) and Edvardine Magdalene Margrethe Müller (1851–71). His father was a merchant and a member of one of Bergen's old merchant families. He was educated at University of Oslo, graduating in 1889. After graduation, he traveled abroad to Bremen and London to better learn the business of shipping. In 1893 he returned to Bergen and joined the offices of Christian Michelsen. In 1912, he became the founder and principal in the joint-stock shipping company, A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi. He was also involved in founding the Norwegian America Line. [2]

Political career

Mowinckel entered public service in Bergen where he became Chairman of the local branch of the Liberal Party (Bergens Venstreforening) . He was elected to the Bergen City Council in 1899 and subsequently mayor of Bergen 1902-1906 and 1911–1913. In 1906, he became Member of Parliament (Storting) for the Liberal party representing Bergen during 1906-1909 and 1913–1918. He became President of the Storting in 1916. He was voted out of office in the 1918 elections. During the period between World War I and 1935 he remained active in national politics. In 1921 Mowinckel was re-elected to the Storting. He served as Minister of Trade in 1921-1922 and Foreign Minister in 1922–1923. Mowinckel was Norway's Prime Minister during three periods in office; 1924–1926, 1928-1931 and 1933–1935. These were all periods dominated by economic and fiscal crisis. In 1930 Mowinckel initiated the Oslo Convention on customs cooperation between Norway, Denmark and the Benelux countries, to prevent higher customs walls. [3] [4]

In 1925 he became a member of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee. Mowinckel took the initiative during the Oslo Convention (Oslokonvensjonen) of 1930 to encourage free trade between the nations of the Belgium–Luxembourg Economic Union and Nordic countries, anticipating postwar efforts toward the formation of the European Union. He also took an active interest in the League of Nations, serving on the council and becoming president in 1933. In September 1933, Ukrainian public figures appealed to Johan Ludwig Mowinckel as the Head of the Council of the League of Nations with the request to consider the question of the man-made famine in Ukraine (Milena Rudnytska, Oleksander Shulhyn, Ukrainian Public Committee for Saving Ukraine. Also, Margery Corbett Ashby, the head of International Women's Alliance, appealed to him. He kept his word - he included the issue of the Holodomor to the 76th session of the Council of the League of Nations in spite of the resistance of the representatives of some European countries. The discussion of the causes and circumstances of the famine in Ukraine lasted for several hours, but the resolution was not adopted. The delegations of France and Great Britain were against it. He explained his decision by the fact that the "lives of millions" dead of starvation did not allow him to remain silent. He was personally acquainted with Norwegian traveler and public figure Fridtjof Nansen, who in 1932-1933 organized the aid to the Ukrainian farmers. On 20 October 1933, M. Danko, the correspondent of Lviv newspaper "Dilo," wrote that Mowinckel "will remain in the history of the Ukrainian struggles in Europe." Children from the Ukrainian community of Czech city of Podebrady (Czecho-Slovakia) thanked Johan Ludwig Mowinckel for his humanistic position regarding the protection of the starving people in Ukraine. On 16 November 1933, he sent a warm response with the gratitude for the attention. He condemned the menace of Nazi philosophy, and when Germany overran Norway in 1940 he followed the Norwegian Government-in-exile to London. In 1942, Johan Ludwig Mowinckel came to the United States and was engaged with Nortraship, the state-owned Norwegian shipping company during World War II. He died on 30 September 1943 in New York City. [5] [6] [1] [7]

Legacy

Posthumously, a new library building at the University of Bergen was dedicated to Johan Ludvig Mowinckel and had its official opening ceremony, in the presence of His Royal Majesty King Olav V, on 13 September 1961. [3] [8] [9]

Related Research Articles

Jan P. Syse

Jan Peder Syse  was a Norwegian lawyer and politician from the Conservative Party. He was Prime Minister of Norway from 1989 to 1990. He also served as Minister of Industry from 1983 to 1985. Syse was President of the Lagting 1993–1997. Syse was President of the Nordic Council in 1988 and 1993. He served in the Norwegian parliament for over 25 years until his sudden death from a cerebral hemorrhage in 1997.

Hilmar Reksten

Hilmar August Reksten was a Norwegian shipping magnate. In the autumn of 1973 he was counted among the world's richest men, possessing a fleet worth about £300,000,000. At his death in 1980, all was lost; he left behind a debt of about £100,000,000.

Lars Oftedal

Lars Oftedal was a Norwegian attorney and newspaper editor.

Arne Sunde

Arne Toralf Sunde was a Norwegian politician, Olympic shooter and army officer. He is best known for his participation in the 1940 Norwegian Campaign, his participation in Nygaardsvold's Cabinet during its 1940–1945 exile in London and three years as a United Nations ambassador. Sunde was President of the United Nations Security Council in June 1949 and July 1950.

Atle Thowsen is a historian and the Director of the Bergen Maritime Museum and served as president of the International Commission for Maritime History from 2000 to 2005.

Events in the year 1943 in Norway.

Det Norske Teatret

Det Norske Teatret is a theatre in Oslo. The theatre was founded in 1912, after an initiative from Hulda Garborg and Edvard Drabløs. It opened in 1913, touring with two plays, Ervingen by Ivar Aasen and Rationelt Fjøsstell by Hulda Garborg. Its first official performance was Ludvig Holberg's comedy Jeppe på berget, with Haakon VII of Norway and the prime minister of Norway among the spectators. Hulda Garborg was the first board manager, and Rasmus Rasmussen was the first theatre director. The theatre primarily performs plays written in or translated into Nynorsk.

Events in the year 1837 in Norway.

Events in the year 1931 in Norway.

Events in the year 1933 in Norway.

Arne Berge was a Norwegian priest. He was seamen's priest in Hamburg during World War II, when he also worked among Scandinavian prisoners in Germany, and helped planning and carrying out the operation of the White Buses.

Tim Greve was a Norwegian historian, biographer, civil servant, diplomat and newspaper editor.

Sverre Steen was a Norwegian historian and professor at the University of Oslo from 1938 to 1965. He served as president of the Norwegian Historical Association from 1936 to 1947

Alex Brinchmann

Alexander Brinchmann was a Norwegian children's physician and pediatrician. He was also a songwriter, novelist, playwright and crime fiction writer. He chaired of the Norwegian Pediatric Society 1933-1934 and the Norwegian Authors' Union 1941-1945.

Agnes Mowinckel

Agnes Mowinckel was a Norwegian actress and theatre director. Born in Bergen into a distinguished family, she became Norway's first professional stage director. A pioneer in bringing painters to the theatre, she used light as an artistic element, and engaged contemporary composers. She took part in theatrical experiments, worked at small stages in Oslo, and founded her own theatre.

Johan Ernst Mowinckel was a Norwegian merchant and consul from Bergen, and one of the leading persons of the city. He was the great grandfather of Prime minister Johan Ludwig Mowinckel and to actress Agnes Mowinckel. Mowinckel established the grocery Mowinckel & Co. Among the company's business activities was export of fish and import of corn and salt.

Einar Falck was a Norwegian businessperson.

Arnt Jacobsen Mørland was a Norwegian ship-owner, resistance member, and politician for the Christian Democratic Party.

MS Ravnaas was a Norwegian cargo ship built in 1931, and sunk by Japanese aircraft in the Pacific Ocean in December 1941.

Joachim Grieg was a Norwegian ship broker and politician. Grieg was the founder of Joachim Grieg & Co. one of Norway's largest ship brokerage. He was also politically and civically active both nationally and locally.

References

  1. 1 2 Knut Dørum. "Johan Ludwig Mowinckel". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  2. "About us". A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  3. 1 2 Leiv Mjeldheim. Johan Ludvig Mowinckel Norsk Biografisk Leksikon (in Norwegian)
  4. Harald Kjølås. "Johan Ludwig Mowinckel". Allkunne. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  5. "Oslokonvensjonen – 1930". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  6. "Norwegian Government-in-exile". London Remembers. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  7. Audun Grimstad. "Nortraship". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  8. Johan Lidwig Mowinckel Norsk samfunnsvitenskapelig datatjeneste (in Norwegian)
  9. Johan Ludwig Mowinckel Government of Norway (in Norwegian)
Political offices
Preceded by
Abraham Berge
Prime Minister of Norway
19241926
Succeeded by
Ivar Lykke
Preceded by
Christopher Hornsrud
Prime Minister of Norway
19281931
Succeeded by
Peder Kolstad
Preceded by
Jens Hundseid
Prime Minister of Norway
19331935
Succeeded by
Johan Nygaardsvold
Preceded by
Christian M. Kahrs
Mayor of Bergen
19021906
Succeeded by
Carl V. E. Geelmuyden
Preceded by
Carl V. E. Geelmuyden
Mayor of Bergen
19111913
Succeeded by
Carl V. E. Geelmuyden