Prime Minister Nygaardsvold in 1934
|Prime Minister of Norway|
20 March 1935 –25 June 1945
|Preceded by||Johan Ludwig Mowinckel|
|Succeeded by||Einar Gerhardsen|
|President of the Storting|
11 January 1934 –20 March 1935
|Prime Minister||Johan Ludwig Mowinckel|
|Vice President||C. J. Hambro|
|Preceded by||C.J. Hambro|
|Succeeded by||C. J. Hambro|
|Parliamentary Leader of the Labour Party|
5 March 1932 –20 March 1935
|Prime Minister|| Jens Hundseid |
Johan Ludwig Mowinckel
|Preceded by||Alfred Madsen|
|Succeeded by||Sverre Støstad|
|Minister of Labour|
20 March 1935 –2 October 1939
|Preceded by||Ole Monsen Mjelde|
|Succeeded by||Olav Hindahl|
|Minister of Agriculture and Food|
28 January 1928 –15 February 1928
|Prime Minister||Christopher Hornsrud|
|Preceded by||Ole Bærøe|
|Succeeded by||Hans Jørgensen Aarstad|
|Member of the Norwegian Parliament|
1 January 1916 –31 December 1949
|Born||6 September 1879|
|Died||13 March 1952 72) (aged|
|Political party||Labour Party|
|Spouse(s)||Albine Regine Brandslet (1878–1961)|
Johan Nygaardsvold (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈnỳːɡoːʂvɔl] ; 6 September 1879 – 13 March 1952) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of Norway from 1935 to 1945. From 1940 until 1945, he oversaw the Norwegian Government-in-exile from London as head of the Nygaardsvold cabinet during the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany.
Nygaardsvold was born in Hommelvik, the main centre of the municipality of Malvik in the county of Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. His parents were Anders Nygaardsvold (1839–1897) and Andrea Ratvold (1845–1929). His father was a tenant farmer and a founding member of the first labour union in the area. Johan took his first job as a lumber mill worker when he was 12 years old. On 6 June 1901, he married Albine Regine Brandslet (1878–1961).
Nygaardsvold and his wife emigrated to Canada in 1902 where he took jobs in British Columbia, and in the US in Kalispell, Montana and Spokane, Washington. He and his wife returned to Norway in 1907 after he had followed a career including as an Industrial Workers of the World agitator. In 1909 he found a job at Hommelvik Sawmill.
In 1910, Nygaardsvold was elected to the board of education for the Labour Party, and rose quickly through the ranks in local politics. In 1916, he was elected to the Norwegian parliament for the first time, serving continuously until 1949. He worked as a labourer in the Swedish lumber industry during the summers in the first few years. From 1920 to 1922 he served as the mayor for his home town of Malvik.
In 1928, Nygaardsvold was appointed minister of agriculture in the short-lived Christopher Hornsrud cabinet. From 11 January 1934 to 20 March 1935 he served as President of the Storting. In 1935, Nygaardsvold was asked to form a government as Prime Minister of Norway. He was serving as Prime Minister when Nazi Germany attacked on Norway 9 April 1940. Following the German occupation of Norway, German officials demanded that the Government headed by Nygaardsvold capitulate and that the King appoint a government headed by Nazi sympathiser Vidkun Quisling. King Haakon VII stated that he could not comply with the German ultimatum and would rather abdicate than appoint Quisling prime minister. On 7 June 1940, the Norwegian Government-in-exile relocated to London. Nygaardsvold continued as prime minister in exile until the government returned to Norway on 31 May 1945. He resigned on 25 June 1945 when King Haakon appointed Einar Gerhardsen to head an interim government composed of all political parties.
A number of progressive reforms were instituted during Nygaardsvold's time as prime minister. The Old Age Insurance Law of July 1936, for instance, introduced national pension insurance, while the Unemployment Insurance Law of June 1938 introduced compulsory unemployment insurance for all employees and workers outside the primary sector “who were compulsorily insured under the sickness insurance scheme; means-tested benefits; those with incomes above or below certain levels not entitled to benefits.”
Johan Nygaardsvold was elected to the Storting for the last time in the autumn of 1945. At the end of the Storting term in 1949, he retired from politics. That same year, he was awarded the Medal for Outstanding Civic Service (Borgerdådsmedaljen). He returned to Hommelvik and died of cancer in Trondheim in 1952. He was buried at Hommelvik Church in Malvik.
During his time in office, Nygaardsvold had immense popular appeal and was given credit for the Labour Party's election results in 1933. Nygaardsvold was the prime minister in the second Labour Party cabinet in Norway, after he helped formulate the so-called "crisis accord" with the Farmers' Party. His government's domestic policy was largely dedicated to recovering from the Great Depression, but it is most noted for its foreign and military policy in the years leading up to the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany and his administration in exile from 1940 to 1945. The investigative commission that issued a report after the liberation of Norway found that he could not be absolved from responsibility for the lack of operational readiness for the German invasion, but gave him credit for his management of a unity government in exile. He was awarded an honorary salary for his service in exile, but refused to accept it.
Nasjonal Samling was a Norwegian far-right party active from 1933 to 1945. It was the only legal party of Norway from 1942 to 1945. It was founded by former minister of defence Vidkun Quisling and a group of supporters such as Johan Bernhard Hjort – who led the party's paramilitary wing (Hirden) for a short time before leaving the party in 1937 after various internal conflicts. The party celebrated its founding on 17 May, Norway's national holiday, but was founded on 13 May 1933.
Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling was a Norwegian military officer and politician who nominally headed the government of Norway during the occupation of the country by Nazi Germany during World War II. He first came to international prominence as a close collaborator of explorer Fridtjof Nansen, organizing humanitarian relief during the Russian famine of 1921 in Povolzhye. He was posted as a Norwegian diplomat to the Soviet Union, and for some time also managed British diplomatic affairs there. He returned to Norway in 1929, and served as Minister of Defence in the governments of Peder Kolstad (1931–32) and Jens Hundseid (1932–33), representing the Farmers' Party.
Malvik is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the Trondheim Region. The administrative center of the municipality is the village of Hommelvik. Other villages in Malvik include Muruvika, Smiskaret, Sneisen, Vikhammer, and Hundhammeren.
Christopher Andersen Hornsrud was a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party. He served as leader of the Labour Party from 1903 to 1906 and became a member of the Storting in 1912. In 1928, he became the first Norwegian Prime Minister from the Labour Party, but the cabinet had a weak parliamentary basis and was only in office for three weeks from January to February. He combined the post of Prime Minister with that of Minister of Finance. After resigning he became Vice-President of the Storting, a position he held to 1934.
The Labour Party, formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway. It was the senior partner of the governing Red-Green Coalition from 2005–13, and its leader, Jens Stoltenberg, served as Prime Minister of Norway during that time. The party is currently led by Jonas Gahr Støre.
Johan Ludwig Mowinckel (22 October 1870 – 30 September 1943) was a Norwegian statesman, shipping magnate and philanthropist. He served as the Prime Minister of Norway during three separate terms.
Christian Fredrik Monsen was a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party and the Communist Party.
Harald Viggo Hansteen was a Norwegian lawyer. He was executed during the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany.
Nygaardsvold's Cabinet was appointed on 20 March 1935, the second Labour cabinet in Norway. It brought to an end the non-socialist minority Governments that had been dominating politics since the introduction of the parliamentary system in 1884, and replaced it with stable Labour Governments that, with the exception of during World War II, would last until the coalition cabinet Lyng in 1963.
Events in the year 1945 in Norway.
Events in the year 1942 in Norway.
Events in the year 1943 in Norway.
Events in the year 1935 in Norway.
Carl Nicolai Stoud Platou was a Norwegian civil servant and politician. A jurist by education, he is best known for his civil servant career in the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police, which spanned from 1911 to 1941. He was promoted to deputy under-secretary of state in 1926, but was dismissed and later incarcerated for listening to hostile radio in 1941, during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany. He returned after the war as Chief Minister of the Ministry of Justice and the Police in May 1945 and County Governor of Akershus and Oslo from 1945 to 1955. He had been involved in politics before the war as well, as deputy mayor of Aker.
The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the fascist collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in German-occupied Norway during the Second World War. The official name of the regime from 1 February 1942 until its dissolution in May 1945 was Nasjonale regjering. Actual executive power was retained by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, headed by Josef Terboven.
The King's Choice is a 2016 biographical war film directed by Erik Poppe. It is a co-production between Norway and Ireland, and was selected as the Norwegian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 89th Academy Awards. In December 2016, it made the shortlist of nine films to be considered for a nomination at the 89th Academy Awards.
Johan Ludwig Mowinckel
| Prime Minister of Norway |