Johann Christian Reil

Last updated
Johann Christian Reil
Johann Christian Reil (1811).jpg
Reil the anatomist: a portrait from 1811
Born(1759-02-20)20 February 1759
Died22 November 1813(1813-11-22) (aged 54)
NationalityGerman
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics
physiology
anatomy
psychiatry
Institutions University of Halle
Humboldt University of Berlin
Reil's tomb on the Reilberg in Halle (Saale), Germany, today Bergzoo Halle Johann Christian Reil - Grab.jpg
Reil's tomb on the Reilberg in Halle (Saale), Germany, today Bergzoo Halle

Johann Christian Reil (20 February 1759, Rhaude (an urban district of Rhauderfehn) – 22 November 1813, Halle an der Saale) was a German physician, physiologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist. He coined the term psychiatryPsychiatrie in German – in 1808. [1] [2]

Contents

Medical conditions and anatomical features named after him include Reil's finger (later called digitus mortuus or Raynaud syndrome) and the Islands of Reil in the cerebral cortex. In 1809, he was the first to describe the white fibre tract now called the arcuate fasciculus. [3] He is frequently and erroneously crediting with discovering the locus coeruleus, [4] which was first described by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr. [5]

In 1779 and 1780, Reil became acquainted with the scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach while Reil was studying medicine in Göttingen. [6] From 1788 to 1810, Reil worked in a hospital in Halle, Germany. There he developed a medical program based heavily on Friedrich Schelling's Naturphilosophie [7] In 1795 Reil established the very first journal of physiology in German, the Archiv für die Physiologie. [8] In 1810 he became one of the first university teachers of psychiatry when appointed professor of medicine in Berlin.

From 1802-1805, the poet Goethe visited Reil to discuss scientific matters such as psychiatry and to access his skills as a physician. [9]

Reil used the term 'psychiaterie' in a short-lived journal he set up with J.C. Hoffbauer, Beytrage zur Beforderung einer Curmethode auf psychischem Wege (1808: 169). He argued there should not just be a branch of medicine (psychische Medizin) or of theology or penal practice, but a discipline in its own right with trained practitioners. He also sought to publicize the plight of the insane in the asylums and to develop a 'psychical' method of treatment, consistent with the moral treatment movement of the times. He was critical of Frenchman Philippe Pinel, however. Reil was mainly theoretical, with little direct clinical experience, by contrast with Pinel. Reil is considered a writer within the German Romantic context, and his 1803 work Rhapsodien uber die Anwendung der psychischen Kurmethode auf Geisteszerrüttungen ('Rhapsodies about applying the psychological method of treatment to mental breakdowns') has been called the most important document of Romantic psychiatry. Reil didn't conceptualize madness as just a break from reason but as a reflection of wider social conditions, and believed that advances in civilization created more madness. He saw this as due not to physical lesions in the brain or to hereditary evil, but as a disturbance in the harmony of the mind's functions (forms of awareness or presence), rooted in the nervous system. [10]

Reil also wrote on Blumenbach's idea of the Bildungstrieb (literally, "building power"), a vital force within each organism that compels it to create, maintain, and repair its form. In Reil's essay "Von der Lebenskraft," he argued that each organism contained a "dormant germ" that was activated by the addition of the father's "animal force." [11]

Reil died on 22 November 1813 [12] from typhus contracted while treating the wounded in the Battle of Leipzig, later known as the Battle of the Nations, one of the most severe confrontations of the Napoleonic Wars. [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

Eugen Bleuler

Paul Eugen Bleuler was a Swiss psychiatrist and eugenicist most notable for his contributions to the understanding of mental illness. He coined many psychiatric terms, such as "schizophrenia", "schizoid", "autism", depth psychology and what Sigmund Freud called "Bleuler's happily chosen term ambivalence".

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach 18th and 19th-century German physiologist and anthropologist

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist. He is considered to be a main founder of zoology and anthropology as comparative, scientific disciplines. He was also important as a race theorist. Although he was once viewed as a proponent of scientific racism, he is now considered an early pioneer in what is now called anti-racism.

Neurophysiology is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system. The primary tools of basic neurophysiological research include electrophysiological recordings, such as patch clamp, voltage clamp, extracellular single-unit recording and recording of local field potentials, as well as some of the methods of calcium imaging, optogenetics, and molecular biology.

Locus coeruleus

The locus coeruleus (LC) (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\), also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus, is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic. It is a part of the reticular activating system.

Félix Vicq-dAzyr French anatomist

Félix Vicq d'Azyr was a French physician and anatomist, the originator of comparative anatomy and discoverer of the theory of homology in biology.

Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol French psychiatrist (1772–1840)

Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol was a French psychiatrist.

Constantin von Monakow

Constantin von Monakow was a Russian-Swiss neuropathologist who was a native of Bobretsovo in the Vologda Governorate.

Gabriel Anton

Gabriel Anton was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist. He is primarily remembered for his studies of psychiatric conditions arising from damage to the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia.

Karl Friedrich Burdach

Karl Friedrich Burdach was a German physiologist. He was born in Leipzig and died in Königsberg. He was the first to use the word "biology" and was a pioneer of neuroanatomy.

Wilhelm Griesinger

Wilhelm Griesinger was a German neurologist and psychiatrist born in Stuttgart.

Theodor Ziehen

Georg Theodor Ziehen was a German neurologist and psychiatrist born in Frankfurt am Main. He was the son of noted author, Eduard Ziehen (1819–1884).

Bernhard von Gudden

Johann Bernhard Aloys von Gudden was a German neuroanatomist and psychiatrist born in Kleve.

Heinrich Philipp August Damerow

Heinrich Philipp August Damerow was a German psychiatrist born in Stettin, Province of Pomerania, Prussia. He made significant contributions in the field of institutional psychiatry.

Johann Christian August Heinroth

Johann Christian August Heinroth was a German physician who was the first to use the term psychosomatic. Heinroth divided the human personality into three personality types in his scholarly papers and published books in the 1800s, describing the Uberuns (conscience), the ego and the Fleish.

Raymond Vieussens

Raymond Vieussens was a French anatomist from Le Vigan. There is uncertainty regarding the exact year of Vieussens birth, with some sources placing it as late as 1641.

Christian Friedrich Nasse German physician and psychiatrist

Christian Friedrich Nasse was a German physician and psychiatrist born in Bielefeld.

Justus Christian Loder

Justus Ferdinand Christian Loder was a German anatomist and surgeon who was a native of Riga.

Carl Wigand Maximilian Jacobi

Carl Wigand Maximilian Jacobi was a German psychiatrist.

Gottlieb Burckhardt

Johann Gottlieb Burckhardt was a Swiss psychiatrist and the medical director of a small mental hospital in the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel. He is commonly regarded as having performed the first modern psychosurgical operation. Born in Basel, Switzerland, he trained as doctor at the Universities of Basel, Göttingen and Berlin, receiving his medical doctorate in 1860. In the same year he took up a teaching post in the University of Basel and established a private practice in his hometown. He married in 1863 but the following year he was diagnosed with tuberculosis and gave up his practice and relocated to a region south of the Pyrenees in search of a cure. By 1866 he had made a full recovery and returned to Basel with the intention of devoting himself to the study of nervous diseases and their treatment. In 1875, he attained a post at the Waldau University Psychiatric Clinic in Bern, and from 1876 he lectured on mental diseases at the University of Bern. Beginning in this period, he published widely on his psychiatric and neurological research findings in the medical press, developing the thesis that mental illnesses had their origins in specific regions of the brain.

References

  1. British Journal of Psychiatry, Psychiatry’s 200th birthday
  2. Binder DK, Schaller K, Clusmann H. (2007). The seminal contributions of Johann-Christian Reil to anatomy, physiology, and psychiatry. Neurosurgery. 61(5): 1091–6 doi : 10.1227/01.neu.0000303205.15489.23 PMID   18091285
  3. Catani M, Mesulam M. (2008). The arcuate fasciculus and the disconnection theme in language and aphasia: history and current state. Cortex. 44(8):953-61. PMID   18614162
  4. Maeda T. (2000). The Locus coeruleus: history. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. 18:57–64. PMID   10708919
  5. Tubbs, R. Shane; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M.; Mortazavi, Martin M.; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A. (2011). "Félix Vicq d'Azyr (1746–1794): early founder of neuroanatomy and royal French physician". Child's Nervous System. 27 (7): 1031–1034. doi: 10.1007/s00381-011-1424-y . ISSN   0256-7040. PMID   21445631.
  6. Watson, Peter. The German Genius. New York: Harper, 2010. p. 83.
  7. 1 2 Hansen, Leeann. "From Enlightenment to Naturphilosophie: Marcus Herz, Johann Christian Reil, and the Problem of Border Crossings." Journal of Natural Biology. Spring 1993, Vol 26., No. 1. pp. 39–64.
  8. https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article-abstract/61/5/1091/2558437/The-Seminal-Contributions-of-Johann-Christian-Reil?redirectedFrom=fulltext
  9. Binder, D.K.; Schaller, K.; and Clusmann, H. "The seminal contributions of Johann-Christian Reil to anatomy, physiology, and psychiatry." Neurosurgery. November 2007, 61(5): 1091–6.
  10. Theodore Ziolkowski, German Romanticism and its Institutions. Princeton, N.J.:Princeton University Press, 1990, pp. 181–217.
  11. Watson, p. 83.
  12. Klemme, Heiner F (30 June 2016). The Bloomsbury Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers. Bloomsbury. p. 608. ISBN   9781474256001 . Retrieved 21 November 2018.

Sources