J. F. Gmelin
|Died||1 November 1804 56) (aged|
|Alma mater||University of Tübingen|
|Known for||Textbooks on chemistry, pharmaceutical science, mineralogy, and botany|
|Relatives||Leopold Gmelin (son)|
|Fields||Naturalist, botanist, and entomologist|
|Institutions|| University of Göttingen |
University of Tübingen
|Thesis||Latin: Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam|
|Doctoral advisor|| Philipp Friedrich Gmelin |
Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger
|Doctoral students|| Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt |
Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer
Wilhelm August Lampadius
|Author abbrev. (botany)||J.F.Gmel.|
|Author abbrev. (zoology)||Gmelin|
Johann Friedrich Gmelin (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German naturalist, chemist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist, and malacologist.
Johann Friedrich Gmelin was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen. He studied medicine under his father Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam, defended under the presidency of Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger, whom he thanks with the words Patrono et praeceptore in aeternum pie devenerando, pro summis in medicina obtinendis honoribus.at University of Tübingen and graduated with a Master's degree in 1768, with a thesis entitled:
In 1769, Gmelin became an adjunct professor of medicine at University of Tübingen. In 1773, he became professor of philosophy and adjunct professor of medicine at University of Göttingen. He was promoted to full professor of medicine and professor of chemistry, botany, and mineralogy in 1778. He died in 1804 in Göttingen.
Johann Friedrich Gmelin when young became an "apostle" of Carl Linnaeus, probably when Linnaeus was working in the Netherlands, and undertook a plant-collecting expedition to "Persia" on his behalf.Later in life he published several textbooks in the fields of chemistry, pharmaceutical science, mineralogy, and botany. He also edited and published the posthumous 13th edition of Systema Naturae by Carl Linnaeus from 1788 to 1793. This contained descriptions and scientific names of many new species, including birds that had earlier been catalogued without a scientific name by John Latham in his A General Synopsis of Birds. Gmelin's publication is cited as the authority for over 290 bird species and also a number of butterfly species.
Among his students were Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt, Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer, Friedrich Stromeyer, and Wilhelm August Lampadius. He was the father of Leopold Gmelin.
He described the redfin pickerel in 1789. In the scientific field of herpetology, he described many new species of amphibians and reptiles.In the field of malacology, he described and named many species of gastropods.
The plant genus Gmelina was named after Gmelin by Linnaeus.
The abbreviation "Gmel." is also found.
Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin; his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus and, after his 1761 ennoblement, as Carolus a Linné.
Christian Gottlob Gmelin was a German chemist. He was born in Tübingen, Germany, and was a grandson of Johann Konrad Gmelin and a great-grandson of Johann Georg Gmelin.
Johann Georg Gmelin was a German naturalist, botanist and geographer.
Leopold Gmelin was a German chemist. Gmelin was a professor at the University of Heidelberg He worked on the red prussiate and created Gmelin's test, and wrote his Handbook of Chemistry, which over successive editions became a standard reference work still in use.
Samuel George Gottlieb Gmelin was a German physician, botanist, and explorer.
Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck was a prolific German botanist, physician, zoologist, and natural philosopher. He was a contemporary of Goethe and was born within the lifetime of Linnaeus. He described approximately 7,000 plant species. His last official act as president of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina was to admit Charles Darwin as a member. He was the author of numerous monographs on botany and zoology. His best-known works deal with fungi.
The Brazilian teal or Brazilian duck is the only duck in the genus Amazonetta. It is widely distributed in eastern South America.
Systema Naturae is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann, Linnaeus was first to use it consistently throughout his book. The first edition was published in 1735. The full title of the 10th edition (1758), which was the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places".
Josef (Joseph) August Schultes was an Austrian botanist and professor from Vienna. Together with Johann Jacob Roemer (1763–1819), he published the 16th edition of Linnaeus' Systema Vegetabilium. In 1821, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He was the father of Julius Hermann Schultes (1804-1840).
Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart was a German botanist, a pupil of Carl Linnaeus at Uppsala University, and later director of the Botanical Garden of Hannover, where he produced several major botanical works between 1780 and 1793. Ehrhart was the first author to use the rank of subspecies in botanical literature, and he published many subspecific names between 1780 and 1789.
Cavanilla is a name that has been used four times, applied to four different groups of plants. None of the names is in common use today. Names are
Supplementum Plantarum Systematis Vegetabilium Editionis Decimae Tertiae, Generum Plantarum Editiones Sextae, et Specierum Plantarum Editionis Secundae, commonly abbreviated to Supplementum Plantarum Systematis Vegetabilium or just Supplementum Plantarum, and further abbreviated by botanists to Suppl. Pl., is a 1782 book by Carolus Linnaeus the Younger. Written entirely in Latin, it was intended as a supplement to the 1737 Genera Plantarum and the 1753 Species Plantarum, both written by the author's father, the "father of modern taxonomy", Carl Linnaeus.
The large-billed tern is a species of tern in the family Laridae. It is placed the monotypic genus Phaetusa. It is found in most of South America. It has occurred as a vagrant in Aruba, Bermuda, Cuba, Panama and the United States. Its natural habitats are rivers and freshwater lakes.
Johann Christian Wiegleb was a notable German apothecary and early innovator of chemistry as a science.
Christian Gottlieb Ludwig was a German physician and botanist born in Brieg, Silesia. He was the father of physician/naturalist Christian Friedrich Ludwig (1757–1823) and of Christian L. Ludwig (1749–1784), a physician/scientist known for his translation of Joseph Priestley's scientific experiments.
The bibliography of Carl Linnaeus includes academic works about botany, zoology, nomenclature and taxonomy written by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). Linnaeus laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature and is known as the father of modern taxonomy. His most famous works is Systema Naturae which is considered as the starting point for zoological nomenclature together with Species Plantarum which is internationally accepted as the beginning of modern botanical nomenclature.
Johan Andreas (Anders) Murray was a Swedish physician of German descent and botanist, who published a major work on plant-derived medicines.
Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger was a German physician.
Euphorbia abyssinica, commonly known as the desert candle or candelabra spurge, is a species of plant in the family Euphorbiaceae. E. abyssinica is endemic to Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan and Eritrea. It was first described in 1791, by the German botanist Johann Friedrich Gmelin. In its native habitat, it can grow up to 10 m (33 ft) tall. The woody stem is used for firewood and as timber in roofing, furniture and other items, and the sap is used in traditional medicine. It is also cultivated as an ornamental house plant.
Karl (Carl) Christian Gmelin was a German botanist. He was the brother of engraver Wilhelm Friedrich Gmelin (1760–1820).