Johann Gottfried Herder

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Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder 2.jpg
Herder by Anton Graff, 1785
Born25 August 1744
Died18 December 1803(1803-12-18) (aged 59)
Alma mater University of Königsberg
Era 18th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Enlightenment
Counter-Enlightenment [1]
Romantic nationalism [2] [3]
Anticolonialist cosmopolitanism [4] [5]
Sturm und Drang
Weimar Classicism
Historicism [6]
Romantic hermeneutics [7]
Classical liberalism [8]
Main interests
Philology, philosophy of language, cultural anthropology, philosophy of mind, aesthetics, philosophy of history, political philosophy, philosophy of religion
Notable ideas
Thought is essentially dependent on language [9]
Teleological conception of history [10] [11]
Cultural relativism [12]
Volksgeist
Empirical approach to the investigation of languages and cultures [13]

Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder ( /ˈhɜːrdər/ ; German: [ˈjoːhan ˈɡɔtfʁiːt ˈhɛɐ̯dɐ] ; [22] [23] [24] 25 August 1744 18 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang , and Weimar Classicism.

Age of Enlightenment European cultural movement of the 18th century

The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy".

Sturm und Drang was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s. Within the movement, individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements. The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, which was first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777.

Weimar Classicism German literary and cultural movement, whose practitioners established a new humanism

Weimar Classicism was a German literary and cultural movement, whose practitioners established a new humanism, from the synthesis of ideas from Romanticism, Classicism, and the Age of Enlightenment. It was presumably named after the city of Weimar, Germany, because the leading authors of Weimar Classicism lived there.

Contents

Biography

Born in Mohrungen (now Morąg, Poland) in Kingdom of Prussia (in former Ducal Prussia), Herder grew up in a poor household, educating himself from his father's Bible and songbook. In 1762, as a youth of 17, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, about 60 miles (100 km) north of Mohrungen, where he became a student of Immanuel Kant. At the same time, Herder became an intellectual protégé of Johann Georg Hamann, a Königsberg philosopher who disputed the claims of pure secular reason.

Morąg Place in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland

Morąg is a town in northern Poland in Ostróda County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.

Kingdom of Prussia Former German state (1701–1918)

The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.

University of Königsberg former university of Königsberg in Eastern Prussia (1544-1945)

The University of Königsberg was the university of Königsberg in East Prussia. It was founded in 1544 as the world's second Protestant academy by Duke Albert of Prussia, and was commonly known as the Albertina.

Hamann's influence led Herder to confess to his wife later in life that "I have too little reason and too much idiosyncrasy", [25] yet Herder can justly claim to have founded a new school of German political thought. Although himself an unsociable person, Herder influenced his contemporaries greatly. One friend wrote to him in 1785, hailing his works as "inspired by God." A varied field of theorists were later to find inspiration in Herder's tantalizingly incomplete ideas.

In 1764, now a clergyman, Herder went to Riga to teach. It was during this period that he produced his first major works, which were literary criticism. In 1769 Herder traveled by ship to the French port of Nantes and continued on to Paris. This resulted in both an account of his travels as well as a shift of his own self-conception as an author. By 1770 Herder went to Strasbourg, where he met the young Goethe. This event proved to be a key juncture in the history of German literature, as Goethe was inspired by Herder's literary criticism to develop his own style. This can be seen as the beginning of the "Sturm und Drang" movement. In 1771 Herder took a position as head pastor and court preacher at Bückeburg under William, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe.

Riga City in Latvia

Riga is the capital of Latvia and is home to 632,614 inhabitants (2019), which is a third of Latvia's population. Being significantly larger than other cities of Latvia, Riga is the country's primate city. It is also the largest city in the three Baltic states and is home to one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava river where it meets the Baltic Sea. Riga's territory covers 307.17 km2 (118.60 sq mi) and lies 1–10 m above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain.

Literary criticism Study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature

Literary criticism is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists.

Nantes Prefecture and commune in Pays de la Loire, France

Nantes is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, 50 km (31 mi) from the Atlantic coast. The city is the sixth-largest in France, with a population of 303,382 in Nantes and a metropolitan area of nearly 950,000 inhabitants. With Saint-Nazaire, a seaport on the Loire estuary, Nantes forms the main north-western French metropolis.

By the mid-1770s, Goethe was a well-known author, and used his influence at the court of Weimar to secure Herder a position as General Superintendent. Herder moved there in 1776, where his outlook shifted again towards classicism.

Classicism art movement

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint and compression we are simply objecting to the classicism of classic art. A violent emphasis or a sudden acceleration of rhythmic movement would have destroyed those qualities of balance and completeness through which it retained until the present century its position of authority in the restricted repertoire of visual images." Classicism, as Clark noted, implies a canon of widely accepted ideal forms, whether in the Western canon that he was examining in The Nude (1956), or the literary Chinese classics or Chinese art, where the revival of classic styles is also a recurring feature.

Towards the end of his career, Herder endorsed the French Revolution, which earned him the enmity of many of his colleagues. At the same time, he and Goethe experienced a personal split. Another reason for his isolation in later years was due to his unpopular attacks on Kantian philosophy. [26]

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

In 1802 Herder was ennobled by the Elector-Prince of Bavaria, which added the prefix "von" to his last name. He died in Weimar in 1803 at age 59.

Works and ideas

In 1772 Herder published Treatise on the Origin of Language and went further in this promotion of language than his earlier injunction to "spew out the ugly slime of the Seine. Speak German, O You German". Herder now had established the foundations of comparative philology within the new currents of political outlook.

Throughout this period, he continued to elaborate his own unique theory of aesthetics in works such as the above, while Goethe produced works like The Sorrows of Young Werther  the Sturm und Drang movement was born.

Herder wrote an important essay on Shakespeare and Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel über Ossian und die Lieder alter Völker (Extract from a correspondence about Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples) published in 1773 in a manifesto along with contributions by Goethe and Justus Möser. Herder wrote that "A poet is the creator of the nation around him, he gives them a world to see and has their souls in his hand to lead them to that world." To him such poetry had its greatest purity and power in nations before they became civilised, as shown in the Old Testament, the Edda, and Homer, and he tried to find such virtues in ancient German folk songs and Norse poetry and mythology.

The Johann Gottfried Herder statue in Weimar in front of the church St. Peter und Paul Weimar Herder.jpg
The Johann Gottfried Herder statue in Weimar in front of the church St. Peter und Paul

After becoming General Superintendent in 1776, Herder's philosophy shifted again towards classicism, and he produced works such as his unfinished Outline of a Philosophical History of Humanity which largely originated the school of historical thought. Herder's philosophy was of a deeply subjective turn, stressing influence by physical and historical circumstance upon human development, stressing that "one must go into the age, into the region, into the whole history, and feel one's way into everything". The historian should be the "regenerated contemporary" of the past, and history a science as "instrument of the most genuine patriotic spirit".

Herder gave Germans new pride in their origins, modifying that dominance of regard allotted to Greek art ( Greek revival ) extolled among others by Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. He remarked that he would have wished to be born in the Middle Ages and mused whether "the times of the Swabian emperors" did not "deserve to be set forth in their true light in accordance with the German mode of thought?". Herder equated the German with the Gothic and favoured Dürer and everything Gothic. As with the sphere of art, equally he proclaimed a national message within the sphere of language. He topped the line of German authors emanating from Martin Opitz, who had written his Aristarchus, sive de contemptu linguae Teutonicae in Latin in 1617, urging Germans to glory in their hitherto despised language. Herder's extensive collections of folk-poetry began a great craze in Germany for that neglected topic.

Herder was one of the first to argue that language contributes to shaping the frameworks and the patterns with which each linguistic community thinks and feels. For Herder, language is 'the organ of thought'. This has often been misinterpreted, however. Neither Herder nor the great philosopher of language, Wilhelm von Humboldt, argue that language determines thought. Language is both the means and the expression of man's creative capacity to think together with others. And in this sense, when Humboldt argues that all thinking is thinking in language, he is perpetuating the Herder tradition. But for both thinkers, culture, language, thinking, feeling, and above all the literature of individuals and the people's folk traditions are expressions of free-spirited groups and individuals expressing themselves in space and time. Two centuries later, these ideas continue to stimulate thinkers, linguists and anthropologists, and they have often been considered central to the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, and the American linguistic anthropology tradition inspired by Boas, and more recently, Dell Hymes. Herder's focus upon language and cultural traditions as the ties that create a "nation" [27] extended to include folklore, dance, music and art, and inspired Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in their collection of German folk tales. Arguably, the greatest inheritor of Herder's linguistic philosophy was Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's great contribution lay in developing Herder's idea that language is "the organ of thought" into his own belief that languages were specific worldviews (Weltansichten), as Jürgen Trabant argues in the Wilhelm von Humboldt lectures on the Rouen Ethnolinguistics Project website.

Herder attached exceptional importance to the concept of nationality and of patriotism "he that has lost his patriotic spirit has lost himself and the whole worlds about himself", whilst teaching that "in a certain sense every human perfection is national". Herder carried folk theory to an extreme by maintaining that "there is only one class in the state, the Volk , (not the rabble), and the king belongs to this class as well as the peasant". Explanation that the Volk was not the rabble was a novel conception in this era, and with Herder can be seen the emergence of "the people" as the basis for the emergence of a classless but hierarchical national body.

The nation, however, was individual and separate, distinguished, to Herder, by climate, education, foreign intercourse, tradition and heredity. Providence he praised for having "wonderfully separated nationalities not only by woods and mountains, seas and deserts, rivers and climates, but more particularly by languages, inclinations and characters". Herder praised the tribal outlook writing that "the savage who loves himself, his wife and child with quiet joy and glows with limited activity of his tribe as for his own life is in my opinion a more real being than that cultivated shadow who is enraptured with the shadow of the whole species", isolated since "each nationality contains its centre of happiness within itself, as a bullet the centre of gravity". With no need for comparison since "every nation bears in itself the standard of its perfection, totally independent of all comparison with that of others" for "do not nationalities differ in everything, in poetry, in appearance, in tastes, in usages, customs and languages? Must not religion which partakes of these also differ among the nationalities?"

Following a trip to Ukraine, Herder wrote a prediction in his diary (Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769) that Slavic nations would one day be the real power in Europe, as the western Europeans would reject Christianity and rot away, while the eastern European nations would stick to their religion and their idealism, and would this way become the power in Europe. More specifically, he praised Ukraine's "beautiful skies, blithe temperament, musical talent, bountiful soil, etc. [...] someday will awaken there a cultured nation whose influence will spread [...] throughout the world." One of his related predictions was that the Hungarian nation would disappear and become assimilated by surrounding Slavic peoples; this prophecy caused considerable uproar in Hungary and is widely cited to this day. [28]

Germany and the Enlightenment

This question was further developed by Herder's lament that Martin Luther did not establish a national church, and his doubt whether Germany did not buy Christianity at too high a price, that of true nationality. Herder's patriotism bordered at times upon national pantheism, demanding of territorial unity as "He is deserving of glory and gratitude who seeks to promote the unity of the territories of Germany through writings, manufacture, and institutions" and sounding an even deeper call:

"But now! Again I cry, my German brethren! But now! The remains of all genuine folk-thought is rolling into the abyss of oblivion with a last and accelerated impetus. For the last century we have been ashamed of everything that concerns the fatherland."
Herder Johann Gottfried Herder.jpg
Herder

In his Ideas upon Philosophy and the History of Mankind he wrote: "Compare England with Germany: the English are Germans, and even in the latest times the Germans have led the way for the English in the greatest things."

Herder, who hated absolutism and Prussian nationalism, but who was imbued with the spirit of the whole German Volk, yet as a historical theorist turned away from the ideas of the eighteenth century. Seeking to reconcile his thought with this earlier age, Herder sought to harmonize his conception of sentiment with reasoning, whereby all knowledge is implicit in the soul; the most elementary stage is the sensuous and intuitive perception which by development can become self-conscious and rational. To Herder, this development is the harmonizing of primitive and derivative truth, of experience and intelligence, feeling and reasoning.

Herder is the first in a long line of Germans preoccupied with this harmony. This search is itself the key to the understanding of many German theories of the time; however Herder understood and feared the extremes to which his folk-theory could tend, and so issued specific warnings. He argued that Jews in Germany should enjoy the full rights and obligations of Germans, and that the non-Jews of the world owed a debt to Jews for centuries of abuse, and that this debt could be discharged only by actively assisting those Jews who wished to do so to regain political sovereignty in their ancient homeland of Israel. [29] Herder refused to adhere to a rigid racial theory, writing that "notwithstanding the varieties of the human form, there is but one and the same species of man throughout the whole earth".

He also announced that "national glory is a deceiving seducer. When it reaches a certain height, it clasps the head with an iron band. The enclosed sees nothing in the mist but his own picture; he is susceptible to no foreign impressions."

The passage of time was to demonstrate that while many Germans were to find influence in Herder's convictions and influence, fewer were to note his qualifying stipulations.

Herder had emphasised that his conception of the nation encouraged democracy and the free self-expression of a people's identity. He proclaimed support for the French Revolution, a position which did not endear him to royalty. He also differed with Kant's philosophy for not placing reasoning within the context of language. Herder did not think that reason itself could be criticized, as it did not exist except as the process of reasoning. This process was dependent on language. [30] He also turned away from the Sturm und Drang movement to go back to the poems of Shakespeare and Homer.

To promote his concept of the Volk, he published letters and collected folk songs. These latter were published in 1773 as Voices of the Peoples in Their Songs (Stimmen der Völker in ihren Liedern). The poets Achim von Arnim and Clemens von Brentano later used Stimmen der Völker as samples for The Boy's Magic Horn ( Des Knaben Wunderhorn ).

Herder also fostered the ideal of a person's individuality. Although he had from an early period championed the individuality of cultures – for example, in his This Too a Philosophy of History for the Formation of Humanity (1774), he also championed the individuality of persons within a culture; for example, in his On Thomas Abbt's Writings (1768) and On the Cognition and Sensation of the Human Soul (1778).

In On Thomas Abbt's Writings, Herder stated that "a human soul is an individual in the realm of minds: it senses in accordance with an individual formation, and thinks in accordance with the strength of its mental organs. ... My long allegory has succeeded if it achieves the representation of the mind of a human being as an individual phenomenon, as a rarity which deserves to occupy our eyes." [31]

Evolution

Herder has been described as a proto-evolutionary thinker by some science historians, although this has been disputed by others. [32] [33] [34] Concerning the history of life on earth, Herder proposed naturalistic and metaphysical (religious) ideas that are difficult to distinguish and interpret. [33] He was known for proposing a great chain of being. [34]

In his book From the Greeks to Darwin, Henry Fairfield Osborn wrote that "in a general way he upholds the doctrine of the transformation of the lower and higher forms of life, of a continuous transformation from lower to higher types, and of the law of Perfectibility." [35] However, biographer Wulf Köpke disagreed, noting that "biological evolution from animals to the human species was outside of his thinking, which was still influenced by the idea of divine creation." [36]

Bibliography

Works in English

See also

Notes

  1. Isaiah Berlin, Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder , London and Princeton, 2000.
  2. Kerrigan, William Thomas (1997), "Young America": Romantic Nationalism in Literature and Politics, 1843–1861, University of Michigan, 1997, p. 150.
  3. Royal J. Schmidt, "Cultural Nationalism in Herder," Journal of the History of Ideas17(3) (June 1956), pp. 407–417.
  4. Gregory Claeys (ed.), Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought, Routledge, 2004, "Herder, Johann Gottfried": "Herder is an anticolonialist cosmopolitan precisely because he is a nationalist".
  5. Forster 2010, p. 43.
  6. Frederick C. Beiser, The German Historicist Tradition, Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 98.
  7. Christopher John Murray (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760–1850, Routledge, 2013, p. 491: "Herder expressed a view fundamental to Romantic hermeneutics..."; Forster 2010, p. 9.
  8. Forster 2010, p. 42.
  9. Forster 2010, pp. 16 and 50 n. 6: "This thesis is already prominent in On Diligence in Several Learned Languages (1764)".
  10. This thesis is prominent in This Too a Philosophy of History for the Formation of Humanity (1774) and Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind (1784–91).
  11. Forster 2010, p. 36.
  12. Forster 2010, p. 41.
  13. Forster 2010, p. 25.
  14. Fernando Vidal, The Sciences of the Soul: The Early Modern Origins of Psychology, University of Chicago Press, 2011, p. 193 n. 31.
  15. H. B. Nisbet, German Aesthetic and Literary Criticism: Winckelmann, Lessing, Hamann, Herder, Schiller and Goethe, CUP Archive, 1985, p. 15.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Forster 2010, p. 9.
  17. Eugenio Coșeriu, "Zu Hegels Semantik," Kwartalnik neofilologiczny, 24 (1977), p. 185 n. 8.
  18. Jürgen Georg Backhaus (ed.), The University According to Humboldt: History, Policy, and Future Possibilities, Springer, 2015, p. 58.
  19. Douglas A. Kibbee (ed.), History of Linguistics 2005: Selected papers from the Tenth International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences (ICHOLS X), 15 September 2005, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, John Benjamins Publishing, 2007, p. 290.
  20. Michael Forster (27 September 2007). "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Johann Gottfried von Herder" . Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  21. McNab, John (1972). Towards a Theology of Social Concern: A Comparative Study of the Elements for Social Concern in the Writings of Frederick D. Maurice and Walter Rauschenbusch (PhD thesis). Montreal: McGill University. p. 201. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  22. "Duden | Johann | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition". Duden (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2018. Johann
  23. "Duden | Gottfried | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition". Duden (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2018. Gọttfried
  24. "Duden | Herder | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition". Duden (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2018. Hẹrder
  25. Columbia studies in the social sciences, Issue 341, 1966, p. 74.
  26. Copleston, Frederick Charles. The Enlightenment: Voltaire to Kant. 2003. p. 146.
  27. Votruba, Martin. "Herder on Language" (PDF). Slovak Studies Program. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
  28. "hungarian-history.hu". Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  29. Barnard, F. M., "The Hebrews and Herder's Political Creed," Modern Language Review," vol. 54, no. 4, October 1959, pp. 533–546.
  30. Copleston, Frederick Charles. The Enlightenment: Voltaire to Kant, 2003, p. 145.
  31. Herder: Philosophical Writings, ed. M. N. Forster. Cambridge: 2002, p. 167
  32. Headstrom, Birger R. (1929). Herder and the Theory of Evolution. The Open Court 10 (2): 596-601.
  33. 1 2 Nisbet, H. B. (1970). Herder and the Philosophy and History of Science. Modern Humanities Research Association. pp. 210-212. ISBN   978-0900547065
  34. 1 2 Zimmerli, W. Ch. Evolution or Development? Questions Concerning the Systematic and Historical Position of Herder. In Kurt Mueller-Vollmer. (1990). Herder Today: Contributions from the International Herder Conference: Nov. 5-8, 1987 Stanford, California. pp. 1-16. ISBN   0-89925-495-0
  35. Osborn, Henry Fairfield. (1908). From the Greeks to Darwin: An Outline of the Development of the Evolution Idea. New York: Macmillan. p. 103
  36. Köpke, Wulf. (1987). Johann Gottfried Herder. Twayne Publishers. p. 58. ISBN   978-0805766349
  37. Mueller-Vollmer, Kurt (30 January 1990). "Herder Today: Contributions from the International Herder Conference, Nov. 5-8, 1987, Stanford, California". Walter de Gruyter via Google Books.
  38. Menze, Ernest A.; Menges, Karl (1 November 2010). "Johann Gottfried Herder: Selected Early Works, 1764-1767: Addresses, Essays, and Drafts; Fragments on Recent German Literature". Penn State Press via Google Books.
  39. 1 2 Forster, Michael N.; Herder, Johann Gottfried von (30 September 2002). "Herder: Philosophical Writings". Cambridge Core.
  40. Herder, Johann Gottfried (30 January 1985). "Über die neuere deutsche Literatur: Fragmente". Aufbau-Verlag via Google Books.
  41. "Treatise on the Origin of Language by Johann Gottfried Herder 1772". www.marxists.org.
  42. "Universitätsbibliothek Bielefeld - digitale Medien". www.ub.uni-bielefeld.de.
  43. "Adrastea". -: Adrastea, -: - -.
  44. Clark, Robert Thomas (30 January 1955). "Herder: His Life and Thought". University of California Press via Google Books.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer and statesman. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him have survived.

Heinrich Doring, born Michael Johann Heinrich Döring was a German writer, theologian and mineralogist.

Andrew S. Bowie is Professor of Philosophy and German at Royal Holloway, University of London and Founding Director of the Humanities and Arts Research Centre (HARC).

Hans Aarsleff

Hans Christian Aarsleff is emeritus (1997) professor of English at Princeton University, and a renowned specialist in the history of linguistics, the history of ideas, and the history of philosophy of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

Michael Neil Forster is an American philosopher and the Alexander von Humboldt Professor, holder of the Chair in Theoretical Philosophy, and Co-director of the International Center for Philosophy at Bonn University. Previously he was Glen A. Lloyd Distinguished Service Professor in Philosophy and the College at the University of Chicago. Forster is known for his expertise on hermeneutics.

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